[UQAC Logo] Undated. In Google.com. On line.
<http://www.acu.edu/academics/cehs/programs/kinu/images/faculty/Hill_Dickie108x153.jpg> [retrieved
He was professor of philosophy in a
layman college at the end of his career.
In his two first books, he wrote on earth
realities with a philosophical approach
which is the Christian foundation of the
postmodern era in leisure.
Médéric, P. (1961-1965). Loisir et loisirs. Montréal : Ministère de l’éducation, Service des cours par correspondance
1961-1965, Vol. 1-2.
Tremblay, J.-P. (1983). Chrétiens autrement : Témoignage et Pronostic. Montréal : Bellarmin.
[Jean-Paul Tremblay] Undated. Archives de l’évêché de Chicoutimi-Jean-Paul Tremblay.jpg. [retrieved
7-9 of June 2012
If I paraphrase Médéric:
what exactly are we doing here,
you, professors leading experts in kinesiology, physical
education or leisure studies, giving three full days of your
time at this annual conference of your society and
myself, lecturer at a French University in Quebec,
who occupies his spare time for years to juggle for practical
solutions applied in leisure and sport in order to reduce the
impact factor of the mental health issues. Question I ask
like Médéric has already done around the sixties:
Are we at work or are we at leisure?
Spiritual Walk
“If the issue under consideration is one that will
determine where eternity is spent, then you must
hold strongly to the teaching of Jesus. If it is not a
salvation issue, you should be willing to listen to
others and react in love. Sometimes the greatest
love you can show for your brothers and sisters is to
be flexible with your views and practices. Holding
onto traditions can be a barrier to winning souls for
Christ” (Hill, 2006, p. 111).
Hill, D. (2006). Walking with God: Spiritually and Spiritually. Abelene: Coach Book Company.
[Dickie Hill] Undated. In Google.com. On line.
<http://www.acu.edu/academics/cehs/programs/kinu/images/faculty/Hill_Dickie108x153.jpg> [retrieved
One of the authors of the Quiet
Revolution in the Province of Québec
In his famous work: Les insolences d’un
Frère Untel (1960 [1988]), he affirms
firmly: My texts are action [Mes textes sont
des actions], p. 30).
“I think that it would be necessary to close the Public
Instruction office during two years, at least, and move away
all the personnel teaching at school. The crisis of all teaching,
and specifically the Quebecer teaching system, it’s a teachers
crisis. The teachers know nothing. And they know badly ”
*** (my translation).
Desbiens, J.-P. (1960 [1988]). Les insolences du FRÈRE UNTEL. Montréal : De L’Homme.
*** [Jean-Paul Desbiens] 2009. In Google.com. On line. <http://www.lexpress.to/archives/671/> [retrieved
“The relation of the worker to his own activity, as a
foreign activity, does not belong to him. This activity
is passiveness, the working force is powerlessness,
procreation which is castration. This physical and
intellectual energy of the worker, his personal life for what is life without activity? - which is
transformed into activity directed against himself,
independently from him, not belonging to him. It is
the alienation of the self as, earlier mentioned, the
alienation of the thing” (Marx, 1844 [1996], p. 25,
my translation).
Because most workers do not realize
deeply the telos of their action !
Marx, K./Gougeon, J.-P. trad. (1844 [1996]). Manuscrits de 1884. Paris : Flammarion.
[Karl Marx] 1882. In Google.com. On line.
<http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a2/Marx_old.jpg/220px-Marx_old.jpg> [retrieved 27/05/2012].
“A strange delusion possesses the working
classes of the nations where capitalist
civilization prevails. This madness brings in
its train the individual and social woes which
for centuries tortured sad humanity. This
madness is the love of work, the furious
passion for work, pushed to exhaustion of the
vital forces of the individual and his progeny.
Instead of reacting against this mental
aberration, the priests, economists, moralists
have sacro-sanctified work. [...] In capitalist
society, labor is the cause of all intellectual
degeneracy, of all organic deformity”
(Lafargue, 1883 [1994], p. 11, my translation)
Lafargue, P. (1883 [1994]). Le droit à la paresse. Turin : Mille et une nuits. In Google. On line.
2/9782910233303FS.gif [retrieved 31/05/2012].
[Paul and Laura Lafargue] Undated. In Google.com. On line. <http://www.dugarun.de/blog/wp-content/uploads/2009/01/paullaura.jpg> [retrieved 27/05/ 2012].
“We call sociology a science which proposes
comprehension by an understanding (bedeutendes
Verstehen) of social activity, and thereby explain the
causality of its progress and effects” (In Ricoeur,
2000 [2001], p. 156, my translation).
Weber (1904-1905 [1964] ; 1917/1919 [1959])
explains largely
disenchantment and
its consequences of the
world caused by gods polytheists.
There is an importance factor to resist in front of
such nihilism started by atheism view points (In
Ricoeur 1996 [2001]).
“Not to intervene, is still to intervene” (In Ricoeur,
2000 [2001], p. 157, my translation).
Weber, M./Chavy, J. trad. (1904-1905 [1964]). L’éthique protestante et l’esprit du capitaliste. Paris : Plon.
Weber, M./Freund, J. trad./Aron, R. intro. (1917-1919 [1959]). Le savant et le politique. Paris : Plon.
Ricoeur, P. (2000 [2001]). Les catégories fondamentales de la sociologie de Max Weber. In Le Juste 2, Paris : Esprit.
Ricoeur, P. (1996 [2001]). Les Promesses du monde : philosophie de Max Weber de Pierre Bouretz/Préface. In Le Juste 2,
Paris : Esprit.
[Max Weber] Undated. In Google.com. On line.
[retrieved 27/05/2012].
Disclosing the Iron Cage
“A transformation of production which would
make possible a commitment to work by the bulk
of producers may be the only means available of
relieving leisure from the expectation that it too
should be made socially productive. [...] Such a
transformation of production would certainly
provide the ruling classes of contemporary
societies with more leisure time. Perhaps even
the leisurists, who wish to assume executive and
clerical responsibility in our civilization of leisure,
might even experience what they are so busy
writing about. Leisure, in short, would cease to be
regarded as a problem”.
- Andrew, 1981, p. 183.
Andrew, E. (1981). Closing the Iron Cage: The Scientific Management of Work and Leisure. Montreal: Black Rose Books.
The Tierce Paradigm “Anthropology of Giving”
“donations should be seen as symbols” (Caillé, 2000 [2007], p. 183, my translation)
“[…] the symbol is a seal” (Caillé, 2000 [2007], p. 204, my translation).
“[…] it is surprising that most ethnologists were not inclined by theology
discourses; because they would have found the Christlike symbol”
(Caillé, 2000 [2007], p. 84, my translation).
“The symbols have sense, they give to think”
(Caillé, 2000 [2007], p. 209, my translation).
“The symbols are signs of the signs, the relations of relations between signs”
(Caillé, 2000 [2007], p. 209, my translation).
Caillé, A. (2000 [2007]). Anthropologie du don : Le tiers paradigme. Paris : Desclée de Brouwer/La découverte.
Godbout, J. T./Caillé, A. en coll. (1992). L’esprit du don. Montmagny : Boréal.
[Alain Caillé] Undated. In Google.com. On line. <http://www.apeas.fr/IMG/png/alain_caille-2.png> [retrieved
Description of the Experience of the
Sacred Among Primitive Peoples
“[…] through the achievement of exalted
state, the man does know himself. Feeling
dominated, driven by a kind of power
outside the fact that he is thinking and
acting differently than normal time, he
naturally has the impression of not being
himself. He seems to have become a new
being. [...] It is as if he was actually
transported in a special world, entirely
different from where he usually lives in an
environment peopled by exceptionally
intense forces that invade and transform”
Durkheim, É. (1912 [1968]). Les formes élémentaires de la vie religieuse : le système totémique en Australie. Paris : PUF.
[Émile Durkheim] Undated. In Google.com. On line.
<http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRpgA1ClOmuxLxEvjf2RE0c_oEsgcH9JBtQuxXMwr72roBqnjBx> [retrieved
Mauss is considered by many of his peers as the Father of French Anthropology.
He is, at the same time, both a famous and unknown scientist.
“Prayer is a religious rite, oral, relating to sacred matters” (Mauss, 1909, p. 43,
my translation).
“So we adopt as a principle of our lives what has always been a principle and
always will be, out of self, giving freely and compulsorily; we do not risk to be
wrong (Mauss, 1923-1924, p. 95, my translation).
Mauss, M. (1909 [2002]). La prière. Paris : Félix Alcan/UQAC : Scanned document by J.-M. Tremblay.
Mauss, M. (1923-1924 [2002]). Essai sur le don. Forme et raison de l’échange dans les sociétés archaïques (1902-1903). Paris : PUF/UQAC : Scanned
document by J.-M. Tremblay.
Mauss, M. (1926 [2002]). Manuel d’ethnographie. Paris : Sociales/UQAC : Scanned document by J.-M. Tremblay.
[Marcel Mauss] Undated. In Google.com. On line. <http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSwnH4OAVcEwy86vZwtCBF3rZGV4GcA7f0RVNoQlrlU3J-CaD4-A> [retrieved 29/05/2012].
“Humanity groans, half-crushed under the weight
of the progress she has made. She does not know
enough that the future depends on it. Humanity
should see at first if she wants to continue to live.
To wonder if she wants to live only, or provide an
additional effort required for self-fulfillment, even
in our refractory planet, the essential function of the
universe, which is a clock to create gods” (Bergson,
1932, p. 338, my translation).
“We emphasize humor … down lower and lower
inside the evil that is” while irony is defined as “the
image of well-being that should be; this is why
irony may warm-up internally until becoming in
sort of way, eloquence under pressure”(Bergson,
1940 [1989], p. 97, my translation).
Bergson, H. (1932 [1988]). Les deux sources de la morale et de la religion. Paris : PUF.
Bergson, H. (1940 [1989]). Le rire : Essai sur la signification du comique. Paris : PUF.
[Henri Bergson] Undated. In Google.com. On line. <http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSWHqfwlAy0oxq42P6ehE6FO6FCYu3MeIFPq9WYwiMR48G-xef> [retrieved 27/05/2012].
“The philosophy of no is not a will of
negation. She does not proceed from a
spirit of contradiction who contradicting
evidence without proofs, which raises
subtlety of evasive language. She does not
run away any systematic rule. Quite the
reverse, she is faithful to rules within a
system of rules. She does not accept
internal contradiction. She does not deny
anything, anytime, anyhow. This is at welldefined joints that she brings alive the
inductive movement that characterizes her
reorganization of knowledge on a broader
foundation” (Bachelard, 1940 [2008], p. 135,
my translation).
Bachelard, G. (1934 [2006]). Le nouvel esprit scientifique. Paris : PUF.
Bachelard, G. (1938 [2004]). La formation de l’esprit scientifique : Contribution à la psychanalyse de la connaissance. Paris : Vrin.
Bachelard, G. (1940 [2008]). La philosophie du non. : Essai d’une philosophie du Nouvel esprit scientifique. Paris : PUF.
Bachelard, G. (1961 [1984]). La flamme d’une chandelle. Paris : PUF.
[Gaston Bachelard] Undated. In Google.com. On line.
<http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRwI9468886ZcpcTz3FxUphs_LFYUYgjiSrnDCC8Jn1F5B63XJ2> [retrieved] 27/05/2012].
“First, play is a luxury activity that implies
leisure. Hungry men and women do not.
Secondly, as there is no constraint, play is
maintained only by the pleasure everyone
takes on it, it remains subject for boredom,
satiety or simple change of mood. [...] In
short, play relies on pleasure by itself likely
to overcome obstacles throughout its
unfortunately agonistic nature, but an
arbitrary barrier, almost ficticious made at
the measure of players and accepted by
them. Reality does not have delicacy. At this
point is the main flaw of play, but it is its own
nature and without it play would be also
devoid of its fertility” (Caillois, 1967, p. xv,
my translation).
Caillois, R. (1950). L’homme et le sacré. Paris : Gallimard.
Caillois, R. (1958). Les jeux et les hommes. Paris : Gallimard.
Caillois, R. (1967). Jeux et sports. Paris : Gallimard.
[Roger Caillois] Undated. In Google.com. On line. <http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSQCSvg41dqgD7j4Dzr6Kj1-f2tIXt8d5VGB-JqsG0kvjlbrBW1g> [retrieved 31/05/2012].
“Mankind is constantly faced with two
contradictory processes which seeks to
maintain or restore diversification while the
other seeks to establish unification” (LéviStrauss, 1952 [1987], p. 84, my translation).
“To progress, humans must work in
collaboration, and during such collaboration,
they see themselves gradually identifying to
such contributions which the initial diversity
was precisely what made their collaboration
necessary and fruitful” (Lévi-Strauss, 1952
[1987]. p. 82-83, my translation).
Lévi-Strauss, C. (1958). Anthropologie structurale. Paris : Plon.
Lévi-Strauss, C. (1952 [1987]). Race et histoire. Paris : Denoël.
[Claude Lévi-Strauss] Undated, In Google.com. On line.
<http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSuBSXZMJ8i4zvOdwva1Yimu3wDv9AbnQGN4DYk-O4_MEDiqz1H> [retrieved 30/05/2012].
“But, as we explained when dealing with the passions,
the soul finds its repose in pleasure. Therefore, as a
remedy, drawing the mind away for time from its
absorption in thought. So we read in the Conferences of
the Fathers that some were scandalized to find the
Apostle John playing with his followers. John told one of
them, who was carrying a bow, to draw an arrow: he did
this several times and John then asked whether he
could keep on doing it without interruption; the reply was
that the bow would break in the end. John therefore
argued that man’s mind would also break if the tension
were never relaxed” (Rahner, 1964 [1967], p. 102).
Rahner, H. (1964 [1967]). Man at Play. US/New York : Burns and Oates/Herder and Herder.
Eranos circle member
David L. Miller is the Watson-Ledden Professor of Religion,
Emeritus, at Syracuse University.
Play is the ‘Ultimate seriousness’ (Miller, 1970, p. 6).
“Therapeia: Purposelessness is the Highest Purpose”
(Miller, 1970, p. 150).
“Therapy is all these things; and all these things are
elements of play. Thus we may say that the psychological
function of the emergent mythos of play may be referred to
as therapeia” (Miller, 1970, p. 150).
Miller, D. L. (1969). Gods and Games. USA/Canada: The World Publishing Company/Nelson, Foster & Scott Ltd.
[David L. Miller] Undated. In Google.com. On line. < http://dlmiller.mysite.syr.edu/dlmcv.htm > [retrieved 27/05/2012].
“The intentionality of play is fun and joy. When this intentionality is actually
realized, when play is a source of joy, the temporal structure of the
universe of play is a special quality - it becomes eternity” (Berger, 1969
[1971], p. 95).
“Humor is a sign of transcendence - it takes the form of a quiet call to
redemption. So we can see the humor, as in childhood and play, a call to
the religious justification of ultimate joy” (Berger, 1969 [1971], p. 112).
Berger, P. L. (1971). La religion dans la conscience moderne. Paris : Centurion.
Berger, P. L. (1969 [1972]). La rumeur de Dieu : signes actuels du surnaturel [A Rumor of Angels, Modern Society and the Rediscovery ao
the Supernatural]. Paris : Centurion.
Berger, P. L. (c2001). Le réenchantement du monde. Paris : Bayard.
[Peter L Berger] Undated. In Google.com. On line.
<http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTsofFtZNHMoZ_qawivHASBiHlkXd3pgRVi-6RJ9gqb5RWhqZPnig> [retrieved
Morin develop the meta-theory of the complex mind.
“Ethic faith is love. But it is an ethical duty to save the rationality at the heart of love. The
love relationship/rationality must be ying yang, always related to one another and it still
contains the other in the original state. This love teaches us to resist the cruelty of the
world, it teaches us to accept/reject this world. Love is courage. It allows us to live with
uncertainty and anxiety. There is a cure for anxiety, it is the answer to death, it is the
consolation. […] Let’s say also and above all ‘all love is medicine.’ The love medicine says:
love to live, live to love. Love the fragile and the vulnerable, because the most precious, the
better, including consciousness, including beauty, including the soul, are fragile and
vulnerable” (Morin, 2004, p. 259, my translation.).
Morin, E. (1964). Préface, In Riesman, D. La foule solitaire : anatomie de la société moderne. Paris : Arthaud.
Morin, E. (2004). La méthode (6) : Ethique. Paris : Seuil.
[Edgar Morin] Undated. In Google.com. On line.
[retrieved 27/05/2012].
Some Characteristics of Homo Symbolicus
Eranos Circle member
The symbol is a call for freedom who
created meaning of existence. The symbol:
“is poetic of transcendence” (Durand, 1964, p. 39, my
“gives to dream and he suggests to think” (Durand, 1984, p.
84, my translation).
“is worth only by himself/herself” (Durand, 1984, p. 96, my
“is a sense of perceptual sensation” (Durand,1964, p. 63,
my translation).
Durand, G. (1964 [2008]). L’imagination symbolique. Paris : PUF.
Durand, G. (1984). La foi du cordonnier. Paris : Denoël.
Durand, G. (1969 [1992]). Les structures anthropologiques de l’imaginaire. Paris : Dunod/Bordas.
[Gilbert Durand] Undated. In Google.com. On line.
[retrieved 27/05/2012].
“God’s future is ‘already now’, but ‘at
the same time’ it is not yet”
(Moltmann, 1964 [1970], p. 246, my
“The Christian eschatology deploys a
vast horizon of hope for the
transformative initiative of faith in the
world. Through faith and its concrete
tasks, ‘the renewal of the world is
somehow to anticipate reality in the
present time’ [Vatican II], since faith
views the anticipation of the renewal
of the world operate by God in Christ
crucified” (Moltmann, 1964 [1970], p.
278, my translation).
Moltmann, J. (1964 [1970]). Théologie de l’espérance. Paris : Cerf : Mame.
Moltmann, J. (1971 [1977]). Le Seigneur de la danse. Paris : Cerf-Mame.
Moltmann, J. (1985 [1988]). Dieu dans la Création. Paris : Cerf.
Moltmann, J. (1989 [1993]). Jésus, le Messie de Dieu. Paris : Cerf.
[Jürgen Moltmann] Undated. In Google.com. On line.
<http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcT04VWvS6irAweov3In4My8vxmHjtgGaCamTMiQzEXV_Xkmtn8D > [retrieved 27/05/2012].
“The wish to speak of God must be worried about the margin
between the ‘Transcendence without name’ and the names that
we give into our prayer, and in our life on Him who, near, must
remain elusive” (Dumont, 1987, p. 208, my translation).
Dumont, F. (1987). L’institution de la théologie – Essai sur la situation du théologien. Montréal : Fides.
Dumont, F. (1995). Raisons communes. Montréal : Boréal.
Open letter to Le Devoir-The Duty dated April 11, 2012
By Guy Rocher, Professor Emeritus, Sociology, University of Montreal
Yvan Perrier, Professor, Political Science, College du Vieux Montréal
“we could never achieve what is possible in the world if we
had not always and constantly attacked the impossible”
(Weber, 1917-1919 [1959]), p. 200).
or not?
The elimination of tuition fees at the university, is it realistic
During the work of the Parent Commission 46 years ago,
voices in favor of free tuition at all levels of education were
Free university is not an utopia. It was the objective in ‘long
term’ by members of the Parent Commission. This is a societal
choice, a political choice to be more precise, which would cost
around 1% of
the government’s budget.
They believe that the elimination of tuition fees should be
Rocher, F. (2010). Guy Rocher : Entretiens.
Montréal : Boréal.
as a measure to establish not in a long term
Weber, M./Freund , J. trad./Aron,
savant et le politique [ The Scientist and the Politics]. Paris :
approach but rather in shortLeterm.
[Guy Rocher, Le Devoir-The Duty] 2012. In Google.com. On line.
[retrieved 27/05/2012].
200,000 fois ‘entendez-nous’
[200,000 times ‘listens to us’]
Une image vaut mille mots
[A picture is worth a thousand words]
[Lisa-Marie Gervais, Le Devoir-The Duty] 2012. In Google.com. On line.
<http://www.ledevoir.com/societe/education/345740/200-000-fois-entendez-nous> [Retrieved 8/06/2012].
[Marco Bélair-Cirino, Le Devoir-The Duty] 2012. In Google.com. On line. <http://www.ledevoir.com/societe/actualites-ensociete/351984/f1-depart-sur-fond-de-crise>. [Retrieved 08/06/2012].
In the work La part des Aînés (1995, p. 338 ; 355, my translation):
Grand’Maison concluded A New Intergenerationnel Alliance saying :
‘If you are not part of the solution, you are part of the problem’
[Si vous ne faites pas partie de la solution, vous faites partie du
‘We are that we survive’ [Nous sommes ce qui nous survit].
GranD’Maison, J. (1992). Le drame spirituel des adolescents : Profils sociaux et religieux. Montréal : Fides, Cahiers d’Études pastorales, 10.
Grand’Maison, J. (1993). Vers un nouveau conflits des générations : Profils sociaux et religieux des 20-35. Montréal : Fides, 11.
Grand’Maison, J. et Lefebvre, S. dir. (1994). Une génération bouc émissaires : Enquête sur les baby-boomers. Fides, Cahier d’études pastorales, 12.
Grand’Maison, J. et Lefebvre, S. dir. (1995). La part des aînés. Montréal : Fides, Cahier d’études pastorales, 13.
[Jacques Grand’Maison] Undated. In Google.com. On line. < http://www.125.umontreal.ca/images/pionniers/Grand-Maison2.jpg> [retrieved
“Television images become an
artificial eye that crosses the
barriers of time and space, but also
fears, pains and aches proper to an
authentic life; inevitable if we were
present at the ‘heart’ of the event.
[...] Sacred images thus become
some kind of fantasy as a liberation
instrument of our prison body,
projecting us into a sphere of
representation in which we access
in a panvision” (Wunenburger, 2003
[2006], p. 118, 119, my translation).
Wunenburger, J.-J. (2003 [2006]). L’imaginaire. Paris : PUF, Que sais-je ?
[Jean-Jacques Wunenburger] Undated. In Google.com. On line. <http://facdephilo.univ-lyon3.fr/medias/photo/jjwunenburger_1317891206076.jpg> [retrieved 27/05/2012].
He has covered and discussed
several philosophical thematics
Cogito brisé
Seconde naïveté
Écritures bibliques
Homme capable
Métaphore vive
Temps raconté
Ricoeur, P./Amherdt, F.-X.,(2001). L’herméneutique biblique. Paris : Cerf.
[Paul Ricoeur] Undated. In Google.com. On line.
[retrieved 27/05/2012].
“I also remember the priest’s Provencher
homilies. On the occasion of the carnival, and
many meetings they were very animated. Card
games that accompanied these meetings
lasted late into the night. There was betting
using barrels of apples as bargaining chips.
They were sometimes abused of alcohol. The
day after these holidays, Father Provencher
appeared to be informed and fulminated from
the top of the flesh against the abuse he had
heard the story. The memory of these severe
homilies in my child’s mind again illustrates the
great influence which the clergy exercised at
the time of the morals and mentalities” (Ryan,
1989, my translation).
Ryan, C. (1989). Lettre sur les souvenirs à Dolbeau. Société d’histoire et de généalogie Maria-Chapdeleine.
Action Catholique canadienne (1961). Voies nouvelles du loisir : Études en marge du programme d’action 1961-1962. Montréal :
Action Catholique canadienne.
[Claude Ryan] Undated. In Google.com. On line.
[retrieved 29/05/2012].
“It is often repeated, Max Weber’s words
about the disenchantment of the world with
massive regression of traditional religious
beliefs, but are we assisting somehow to the
development of festive leisure or intimacy,
mythologies associated with celebrities and
the major sports or musical celebrations of
intense collective emotion to a new reenchantment of the world apparently
compatible for a few with the traditional
religious charm and enthusiasm of the
politico-ideological activism?”
(Dumazedier, 1993, p. 378, my translation).
Dumazedier, J. (1962). Vers une civilisation du loisir ? Paris : Seuil.
Dumazedier, J. (1993). Temps libre et Modernité : mélanges en l’honneur de Joffre Dumazedier. Paris : Harmattan.
[Joffre Dumazedier] 2002. Le monde du loisir est en deuil. Agora Forum, 25(4).
“By homo faber, we understand men and
women whose essence of existence is
determined by work function as
production process. By homo ludens, we
understand men and women whose
essence of existence is determined by
play as creative process. The whole life
of homo faber takes place under the sign
of struggle for existence and necessity.
Life of homo ludens is marked by the
gratuity and liberty. He is identified by
joy and happiness” (Volant, 1976, p. 15,
my translation).
Volant, É. (1976). Le Jeu des Affranchis : Confrontation Marcuse-Moltmann. Montréal : Fides. Héritage et Projet, 18.
[Éric Volant] Undated. In Google.com. On line. <http://profile.ak.fbcdn.net/hprofile-aksnc4/275461_654864951_7079250_n.jpg> [retrieved 27/05/2012].
“Leisure, which seems trivial
at first glance, is an act that is
lived 'religiously' since it is the
wonderful time, wonderful,
sacred” (Dufour, 1980, p. 22,
my translation).
“The world has become secularized, however it does not desecrate.
The ancient myths are repressed, degraded but not destroyed.
Contemporary men and women are not less religious than their
ancestors, even if they are otherwise. They evacuated the
institutionalized religions, but founded new ones with a hundred faces”
(Dufour, 1980, last cover, my translation).
Dufour, R. (1980). Mythologie du week-end. Paris : Cerf.
[Rolland Dufour] Archives de l’évêché de Chicoutimi-RollandDufour.jpg. [retrieved 18/05/2012].
“[...] Leisure fits easily in life drives
hedonism used wisely, brightly, and
if necessary, critical judgment. At its
best, it is as a seed and creative
potential inserted into a life-project
that everyone is responsible for
creativity in its own way depending
on the values ​that give meaning to
his/her life, both individual and
social, as long as it last” (Bellefleur,
2002, p. 188, my translation).
Bellefleur, M. (1986). L’église et le loisir au Québec avant la Révolution tranquille. Québec : PUQ.
Bellefleur, M. (1997). L’évolution du loisir au Québec : Essai sociohistorique. Sainte-Foy : PUQ.
Bellefleur, M. (2002). Le loisir contemporain : essai de philosophie sociale. Sainte-Foy : PUQ.
[Michel Bellefleur] Undated. In Google.com. On line.
<http://www.complexefunerairefortin.ca/photos/MBELLEFLEUR.jpg> [retrieved 28/05/2012].
Ph. D. Théologie (Université Laval, 2007)
Ph. D. Leisure Studies (New York University, 1985 )
M. S. Leisure Services and Studies (Florida State
University, 1979)
Doctoral Thesis
Regard bénédictin sur le bonheur, le
vieillissement et le loisir contemplatif
“The appearance of contemplative leisure is “unproductive, without any
excessive competition. It is the capacity to play cards without wanting to win at
all costs. It is holding a telephone conversation with a great sense of listening.
In nature, it is to live the present moment and marvel at the greatness of
Creation. In an associative movement, it is to make way to another in a spirit
of brotherhood. It is also the spiritual writings in a meditative way. In short, it is
to acquiesce to the dictates of holy leisure leaving room for rest, relaxation,
celebration and contemplation” (Ouellette, Snyder et Carette, 2011, p. 40, my
Photograph by Dr Pierre Ouellette.
Ouellette, P. ; Snyder, P. et Carette, R. (2011). L’application de la spiritualité bénédictine au loisir des personnes âgées :
un modèle théorique du Bonheur spirituel. Studies in Religion/Sciences Religieuses, 40(1) 21–44.
M.A. and Ph. D. in Leisure and Gerontology
(University of Southern California, 1970 ; 1972)
Master’s Thesis
The Needs of Seniors at Culver City
Doctoral Thesis
Factors influencing leisure among elderly
Directeur du Département des sciences du loisir
“Daring to explore the spirituality of
leisure at a time when a person is seen if
it behaves as if the spiritual does not exist is a
little to go against the movement”
- Pageot (2007, Préface, my translation).
Pageot, J.-C. (1989). Vieillesse et démence. Acte du huitième colloque de l’association québécoise de gérontologie dans le
cadre du cinquantième congrès de l’ACFAS, mai 1987. Montréal : Méridien.
Photograph by Dr Jean-Claude Pageot.
Deschênes, G./Préface, Pageot, J. (2007). Le loisir : une quête de sens – Essai de théologie pratique. Québec : PUL.
• Sociologie de l’éducation physique, Ph. D.
(University of Southern California, 1974)
Humanistic Development Viewpoint
“If someone tells you that you are not good, you may believe it. The
opposite is also true, because if you are told you are good, you might
also like to believe. So why risk anything with youth. Tell them they
are good. They might believe and become good” (Demers, 2010, p. 146,
my translation).
Demers, P. (2010). L’humanité : de l’obscurité à la lumière : l’éducation pour rendre le pouvoir à l’être humain. Sainte-Foy :
Demers, P. (2008). Élever la conscience humaine par l’éducation. Sainte-Foy : PUQ.
Photograph by Dr Pierre Demers.
“The fundamental aim of public recreation provisions for
the acutely vulnerable is facilitation. It is not to provide
for such people, deliver to them, or develop programs
for them. It is to provide the opportunities for them to
develop their own lives and leisure. It is to facilitate
leisure with all the personal freedom and variety that is
possible. This means that ‘enabling’ rather than ‘delivery’
is the central concept. Sometimes people can be
assisted in gaining the skills to join in ongoing leisure
that is attractive to them. Sometimes access to that
ongoing leisure can be made more inclusive.
Sometimes special provisions essence of enabling
approach is in developing the autonomy of the individual
whose real options are increased in the process” (Kelly,
1996, p. 401).
Kelly, J. R. (1996). Leisure. Boston ; Toronto : Allyn and Bacon, 3rd Ed.
Kelly, J. R. (1987). Freedom to be: A New Sociology of Leisure. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, p. 229.
“Simone Weil retransmit to us this message with her
experience’s authority: If we try with real attention in solving a
geometry problem, and if, after one hour, we are not more
advanced than beginning, it has nevertheless been advanced
during each minute of that hour in an another more mysterious
dimension. Without feelings, without knowing, that effort
apparently sterile and fruitless put more light in the soul. The
fruit will end one day, later, in prayer. It probably also find in any
field of intelligence, perhaps quite foreign to mathematics ... An
Eskimo tale explains thus the origin of light: “The raven that, in
eternal night, could not find food, desired light and lit up the
earth. “If there is really desire, if the object of desire is really the
light, the desire of light will create light” (In Guitton, 1986, p.
177, my translation).
“Given that, formula of geometry problems, which is also
applicable to the problem of men and women and the
use of time: What is given to you right now, accept it,
improve it, deepened it. Then you will live” (Guitton,
1986, p. 178, my translation).
Guitton, J. (1986). Le travail intellectuel : conseils à ceux qui étudient et à ceux qui écrivent. Paris: Aubier.
[Jean Guitton] Undated. In Google.com. On line. <http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQ4hqKD2CinFeoExxv06cao2sZJ6BoqkRjWS7aIzkurjsj9LbF> [retrieved 27/05/2012].

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