[UQAC Logo] Undated. In Google.com. On line. <http://www.acu.edu/academics/cehs/programs/kinu/images/faculty/Hill_Dickie108x153.jpg> [retrieved 07/06/2012]. He was professor of philosophy in a layman college at the end of his career. In his two first books, he wrote on earth realities with a philosophical approach which is the Christian foundation of the postmodern era in leisure. Médéric, P. (1961-1965). Loisir et loisirs. Montréal : Ministère de l’éducation, Service des cours par correspondance 1961-1965, Vol. 1-2. Tremblay, J.-P. (1983). Chrétiens autrement : Témoignage et Pronostic. Montréal : Bellarmin. [Jean-Paul Tremblay] Undated. Archives de l’évêché de Chicoutimi-Jean-Paul Tremblay.jpg. [retrieved 18/05/2012]. INDIANA WELESLYAN UNIVERSITY 7-9 of June 2012 If I paraphrase Médéric: what exactly are we doing here, you, professors leading experts in kinesiology, physical education or leisure studies, giving three full days of your time at this annual conference of your society and myself, lecturer at a French University in Quebec, who occupies his spare time for years to juggle for practical solutions applied in leisure and sport in order to reduce the impact factor of the mental health issues. Question I ask like Médéric has already done around the sixties: Are we at work or are we at leisure? Spiritual Walk “If the issue under consideration is one that will determine where eternity is spent, then you must hold strongly to the teaching of Jesus. If it is not a salvation issue, you should be willing to listen to others and react in love. Sometimes the greatest love you can show for your brothers and sisters is to be flexible with your views and practices. Holding onto traditions can be a barrier to winning souls for Christ” (Hill, 2006, p. 111). Hill, D. (2006). Walking with God: Spiritually and Spiritually. Abelene: Coach Book Company. [Dickie Hill] Undated. In Google.com. On line. <http://www.acu.edu/academics/cehs/programs/kinu/images/faculty/Hill_Dickie108x153.jpg> [retrieved 31/05/2012]. One of the authors of the Quiet Revolution in the Province of Québec (Canada). In his famous work: Les insolences d’un Frère Untel (1960 ), he affirms firmly: My texts are action [Mes textes sont des actions], p. 30). “I think that it would be necessary to close the Public Instruction office during two years, at least, and move away all the personnel teaching at school. The crisis of all teaching, and specifically the Quebecer teaching system, it’s a teachers crisis. The teachers know nothing. And they know badly ” *** (my translation). Desbiens, J.-P. (1960 ). Les insolences du FRÈRE UNTEL. Montréal : De L’Homme. *** [Jean-Paul Desbiens] 2009. In Google.com. On line. <http://www.lexpress.to/archives/671/> [retrieved 18/05/2012]. “The relation of the worker to his own activity, as a foreign activity, does not belong to him. This activity is passiveness, the working force is powerlessness, procreation which is castration. This physical and intellectual energy of the worker, his personal life for what is life without activity? - which is transformed into activity directed against himself, independently from him, not belonging to him. It is the alienation of the self as, earlier mentioned, the alienation of the thing” (Marx, 1844 , p. 25, my translation). WHY? Because most workers do not realize deeply the telos of their action ! Marx, K./Gougeon, J.-P. trad. (1844 ). Manuscrits de 1884. Paris : Flammarion. [Karl Marx] 1882. In Google.com. On line. <http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a2/Marx_old.jpg/220px-Marx_old.jpg> [retrieved 27/05/2012]. “A strange delusion possesses the working classes of the nations where capitalist civilization prevails. This madness brings in its train the individual and social woes which for centuries tortured sad humanity. This madness is the love of work, the furious passion for work, pushed to exhaustion of the vital forces of the individual and his progeny. Instead of reacting against this mental aberration, the priests, economists, moralists have sacro-sanctified work. [...] In capitalist society, labor is the cause of all intellectual degeneracy, of all organic deformity” (Lafargue, 1883 , p. 11, my translation) Lafargue, P. (1883 ). Le droit à la paresse. Turin : Mille et une nuits. In Google. On line. http://static.decitre.fr/media/catalog/product/cache/1/image/165x250/9df78eab33525d08d6e5fb8d27136e95/9/7/8/2/9/1/0/ 2/9782910233303FS.gif [retrieved 31/05/2012]. [Paul and Laura Lafargue] Undated. In Google.com. On line. <http://www.dugarun.de/blog/wp-content/uploads/2009/01/paullaura.jpg> [retrieved 27/05/ 2012]. “We call sociology a science which proposes comprehension by an understanding (bedeutendes Verstehen) of social activity, and thereby explain the causality of its progress and effects” (In Ricoeur, 2000 , p. 156, my translation). Weber (1904-1905  ; 1917/1919 ) explains largely the nihilism concept of disenchantment and its consequences of the world caused by gods polytheists. There is an importance factor to resist in front of such nihilism started by atheism view points (In Ricoeur 1996 ). “Not to intervene, is still to intervene” (In Ricoeur, 2000 , p. 157, my translation). Weber, M./Chavy, J. trad. (1904-1905 ). L’éthique protestante et l’esprit du capitaliste. Paris : Plon. Weber, M./Freund, J. trad./Aron, R. intro. (1917-1919 ). Le savant et le politique. Paris : Plon. Ricoeur, P. (2000 ). Les catégories fondamentales de la sociologie de Max Weber. In Le Juste 2, Paris : Esprit. Ricoeur, P. (1996 ). Les Promesses du monde : philosophie de Max Weber de Pierre Bouretz/Préface. In Le Juste 2, Paris : Esprit. [Max Weber] Undated. In Google.com. On line. <http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQErCOoClJ616_doIm9BdJ_37-5mNYs-u0SdwTcS0iI6saoNQoy> [retrieved 27/05/2012]. Disclosing the Iron Cage “A transformation of production which would make possible a commitment to work by the bulk of producers may be the only means available of relieving leisure from the expectation that it too should be made socially productive. [...] Such a transformation of production would certainly provide the ruling classes of contemporary societies with more leisure time. Perhaps even the leisurists, who wish to assume executive and clerical responsibility in our civilization of leisure, might even experience what they are so busy writing about. Leisure, in short, would cease to be regarded as a problem”. - Andrew, 1981, p. 183. Andrew, E. (1981). Closing the Iron Cage: The Scientific Management of Work and Leisure. Montreal: Black Rose Books. The Tierce Paradigm “Anthropology of Giving” “donations should be seen as symbols” (Caillé, 2000 , p. 183, my translation) “[…] the symbol is a seal” (Caillé, 2000 , p. 204, my translation). “[…] it is surprising that most ethnologists were not inclined by theology discourses; because they would have found the Christlike symbol” (Caillé, 2000 , p. 84, my translation). “The symbols have sense, they give to think” (Caillé, 2000 , p. 209, my translation). “The symbols are signs of the signs, the relations of relations between signs” (Caillé, 2000 , p. 209, my translation). Caillé, A. (2000 ). Anthropologie du don : Le tiers paradigme. Paris : Desclée de Brouwer/La découverte. Godbout, J. T./Caillé, A. en coll. (1992). L’esprit du don. Montmagny : Boréal. [Alain Caillé] Undated. In Google.com. On line. <http://www.apeas.fr/IMG/png/alain_caille-2.png> [retrieved 27/05/2012]. Description of the Experience of the Sacred Among Primitive Peoples “[…] through the achievement of exalted state, the man does know himself. Feeling dominated, driven by a kind of power outside the fact that he is thinking and acting differently than normal time, he naturally has the impression of not being himself. He seems to have become a new being. [...] It is as if he was actually transported in a special world, entirely different from where he usually lives in an environment peopled by exceptionally intense forces that invade and transform” (Durkheim, translation). 1912 , p. 312, my Durkheim, É. (1912 ). Les formes élémentaires de la vie religieuse : le système totémique en Australie. Paris : PUF. [Émile Durkheim] Undated. In Google.com. On line. <http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRpgA1ClOmuxLxEvjf2RE0c_oEsgcH9JBtQuxXMwr72roBqnjBx> [retrieved 27/05/2012]. Mauss is considered by many of his peers as the Father of French Anthropology. He is, at the same time, both a famous and unknown scientist. “Prayer is a religious rite, oral, relating to sacred matters” (Mauss, 1909, p. 43, my translation). “So we adopt as a principle of our lives what has always been a principle and always will be, out of self, giving freely and compulsorily; we do not risk to be wrong (Mauss, 1923-1924, p. 95, my translation). Mauss, M. (1909 ). La prière. Paris : Félix Alcan/UQAC : Scanned document by J.-M. Tremblay. <http://classiques.uqac.ca//classiques/mauss_marcel/oeuvres_1/oeuvres_1_4/Mauss_la_priere.pdf>. Mauss, M. (1923-1924 ). Essai sur le don. Forme et raison de l’échange dans les sociétés archaïques (1902-1903). Paris : PUF/UQAC : Scanned document by J.-M. Tremblay. <http://classiques.uqac.ca//classiques/mauss_marcel/socio_et_anthropo/2_essai_sur_le_don/essai_sur_le_don.pdf>. Mauss, M. (1926 ). Manuel d’ethnographie. Paris : Sociales/UQAC : Scanned document by J.-M. Tremblay. <http://classiques.uqac.ca//classiques/mauss_marcel/manuel_ethnographie/manuel_ethnographie.pdf>. [Marcel Mauss] Undated. In Google.com. On line. <http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSwnH4OAVcEwy86vZwtCBF3rZGV4GcA7f0RVNoQlrlU3J-CaD4-A> [retrieved 29/05/2012]. “Humanity groans, half-crushed under the weight of the progress she has made. She does not know enough that the future depends on it. Humanity should see at first if she wants to continue to live. To wonder if she wants to live only, or provide an additional effort required for self-fulfillment, even in our refractory planet, the essential function of the universe, which is a clock to create gods” (Bergson, 1932, p. 338, my translation). “We emphasize humor … down lower and lower inside the evil that is” while irony is defined as “the image of well-being that should be; this is why irony may warm-up internally until becoming in sort of way, eloquence under pressure”(Bergson, 1940 , p. 97, my translation). Bergson, H. (1932 ). Les deux sources de la morale et de la religion. Paris : PUF. Bergson, H. (1940 ). Le rire : Essai sur la signification du comique. Paris : PUF. [Henri Bergson] Undated. In Google.com. On line. <http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSWHqfwlAy0oxq42P6ehE6FO6FCYu3MeIFPq9WYwiMR48G-xef> [retrieved 27/05/2012]. “The philosophy of no is not a will of negation. She does not proceed from a spirit of contradiction who contradicting evidence without proofs, which raises subtlety of evasive language. She does not run away any systematic rule. Quite the reverse, she is faithful to rules within a system of rules. She does not accept internal contradiction. She does not deny anything, anytime, anyhow. This is at welldefined joints that she brings alive the inductive movement that characterizes her well and determines therefore a reorganization of knowledge on a broader foundation” (Bachelard, 1940 , p. 135, my translation). Bachelard, G. (1934 ). Le nouvel esprit scientifique. Paris : PUF. Bachelard, G. (1938 ). La formation de l’esprit scientifique : Contribution à la psychanalyse de la connaissance. Paris : Vrin. Bachelard, G. (1940 ). La philosophie du non. : Essai d’une philosophie du Nouvel esprit scientifique. Paris : PUF. Bachelard, G. (1961 ). La flamme d’une chandelle. Paris : PUF. [Gaston Bachelard] Undated. In Google.com. On line. <http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRwI9468886ZcpcTz3FxUphs_LFYUYgjiSrnDCC8Jn1F5B63XJ2> [retrieved] 27/05/2012]. . “First, play is a luxury activity that implies leisure. Hungry men and women do not. Secondly, as there is no constraint, play is maintained only by the pleasure everyone takes on it, it remains subject for boredom, satiety or simple change of mood. [...] In short, play relies on pleasure by itself likely to overcome obstacles throughout its unfortunately agonistic nature, but an arbitrary barrier, almost ficticious made at the measure of players and accepted by them. Reality does not have delicacy. At this point is the main flaw of play, but it is its own nature and without it play would be also devoid of its fertility” (Caillois, 1967, p. xv, my translation). Caillois, R. (1950). L’homme et le sacré. Paris : Gallimard. Caillois, R. (1958). Les jeux et les hommes. Paris : Gallimard. Caillois, R. (1967). Jeux et sports. Paris : Gallimard. [Roger Caillois] Undated. In Google.com. On line. <http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSQCSvg41dqgD7j4Dzr6Kj1-f2tIXt8d5VGB-JqsG0kvjlbrBW1g> [retrieved 31/05/2012]. . “Mankind is constantly faced with two contradictory processes which seeks to maintain or restore diversification while the other seeks to establish unification” (LéviStrauss, 1952 , p. 84, my translation). “To progress, humans must work in collaboration, and during such collaboration, they see themselves gradually identifying to such contributions which the initial diversity was precisely what made their collaboration necessary and fruitful” (Lévi-Strauss, 1952 . p. 82-83, my translation). Lévi-Strauss, C. (1958). Anthropologie structurale. Paris : Plon. Lévi-Strauss, C. (1952 ). Race et histoire. Paris : Denoël. [Claude Lévi-Strauss] Undated, In Google.com. On line. <http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSuBSXZMJ8i4zvOdwva1Yimu3wDv9AbnQGN4DYk-O4_MEDiqz1H> [retrieved 30/05/2012]. “But, as we explained when dealing with the passions, the soul finds its repose in pleasure. Therefore, as a remedy, drawing the mind away for time from its absorption in thought. So we read in the Conferences of the Fathers that some were scandalized to find the Apostle John playing with his followers. John told one of them, who was carrying a bow, to draw an arrow: he did this several times and John then asked whether he could keep on doing it without interruption; the reply was that the bow would break in the end. John therefore argued that man’s mind would also break if the tension were never relaxed” (Rahner, 1964 , p. 102). Rahner, H. (1964 ). Man at Play. US/New York : Burns and Oates/Herder and Herder. ● Eranos circle member David L. Miller is the Watson-Ledden Professor of Religion, Emeritus, at Syracuse University. Play is the ‘Ultimate seriousness’ (Miller, 1970, p. 6). “Therapeia: Purposelessness is the Highest Purpose” (Miller, 1970, p. 150). “Therapy is all these things; and all these things are elements of play. Thus we may say that the psychological function of the emergent mythos of play may be referred to as therapeia” (Miller, 1970, p. 150). Miller, D. L. (1969). Gods and Games. USA/Canada: The World Publishing Company/Nelson, Foster & Scott Ltd. [David L. Miller] Undated. In Google.com. On line. < http://dlmiller.mysite.syr.edu/dlmcv.htm > [retrieved 27/05/2012]. “The intentionality of play is fun and joy. When this intentionality is actually realized, when play is a source of joy, the temporal structure of the universe of play is a special quality - it becomes eternity” (Berger, 1969 , p. 95). “Humor is a sign of transcendence - it takes the form of a quiet call to redemption. So we can see the humor, as in childhood and play, a call to the religious justification of ultimate joy” (Berger, 1969 , p. 112). Berger, P. L. (1971). La religion dans la conscience moderne. Paris : Centurion. Berger, P. L. (1969 ). La rumeur de Dieu : signes actuels du surnaturel [A Rumor of Angels, Modern Society and the Rediscovery ao the Supernatural]. Paris : Centurion. Berger, P. L. (c2001). Le réenchantement du monde. Paris : Bayard. [Peter L Berger] Undated. In Google.com. On line. <http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTsofFtZNHMoZ_qawivHASBiHlkXd3pgRVi-6RJ9gqb5RWhqZPnig> [retrieved 27/05/2012]. Morin develop the meta-theory of the complex mind. “Ethic faith is love. But it is an ethical duty to save the rationality at the heart of love. The love relationship/rationality must be ying yang, always related to one another and it still contains the other in the original state. This love teaches us to resist the cruelty of the world, it teaches us to accept/reject this world. Love is courage. It allows us to live with uncertainty and anxiety. There is a cure for anxiety, it is the answer to death, it is the consolation. […] Let’s say also and above all ‘all love is medicine.’ The love medicine says: love to live, live to love. Love the fragile and the vulnerable, because the most precious, the better, including consciousness, including beauty, including the soul, are fragile and vulnerable” (Morin, 2004, p. 259, my translation.). Morin, E. (1964). Préface, In Riesman, D. La foule solitaire : anatomie de la société moderne. Paris : Arthaud. Morin, E. (2004). La méthode (6) : Ethique. Paris : Seuil. [Edgar Morin] Undated. In Google.com. On line. <http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRy2Vf2vv6skesMq5Hh_OTDChy0o5QWuExVU8brxo-gaQYe9-1G> [retrieved 27/05/2012]. Some Characteristics of Homo Symbolicus ● Eranos Circle member The symbol is a call for freedom who created meaning of existence. The symbol: “is poetic of transcendence” (Durand, 1964, p. 39, my translation). “gives to dream and he suggests to think” (Durand, 1984, p. 84, my translation). “is worth only by himself/herself” (Durand, 1984, p. 96, my translation). “is a sense of perceptual sensation” (Durand,1964, p. 63, my translation). Durand, G. (1964 ). L’imagination symbolique. Paris : PUF. Durand, G. (1984). La foi du cordonnier. Paris : Denoël. Durand, G. (1969 ). Les structures anthropologiques de l’imaginaire. Paris : Dunod/Bordas. [Gilbert Durand] Undated. In Google.com. On line. <http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQGhXxKRAHDjg7lJ2bHcS6FkF8IA70z7Xv-5Z_bM_VzNs0ottHGXg> [retrieved 27/05/2012]. “God’s future is ‘already now’, but ‘at the same time’ it is not yet” (Moltmann, 1964 , p. 246, my translation). “The Christian eschatology deploys a vast horizon of hope for the transformative initiative of faith in the world. Through faith and its concrete tasks, ‘the renewal of the world is somehow to anticipate reality in the present time’ [Vatican II], since faith views the anticipation of the renewal of the world operate by God in Christ crucified” (Moltmann, 1964 , p. 278, my translation). Moltmann, J. (1964 ). Théologie de l’espérance. Paris : Cerf : Mame. Moltmann, J. (1971 ). Le Seigneur de la danse. Paris : Cerf-Mame. Moltmann, J. (1985 ). Dieu dans la Création. Paris : Cerf. Moltmann, J. (1989 ). Jésus, le Messie de Dieu. Paris : Cerf. [Jürgen Moltmann] Undated. In Google.com. On line. <http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcT04VWvS6irAweov3In4My8vxmHjtgGaCamTMiQzEXV_Xkmtn8D > [retrieved 27/05/2012]. “The wish to speak of God must be worried about the margin between the ‘Transcendence without name’ and the names that we give into our prayer, and in our life on Him who, near, must remain elusive” (Dumont, 1987, p. 208, my translation). Dumont, F. (1987). L’institution de la théologie – Essai sur la situation du théologien. Montréal : Fides. Dumont, F. (1995). Raisons communes. Montréal : Boréal. Open letter to Le Devoir-The Duty dated April 11, 2012 By Guy Rocher, Professor Emeritus, Sociology, University of Montreal Yvan Perrier, Professor, Political Science, College du Vieux Montréal “we could never achieve what is possible in the world if we had not always and constantly attacked the impossible” (Weber, 1917-1919 ), p. 200). • or not? The elimination of tuition fees at the university, is it realistic • many heard. During the work of the Parent Commission 46 years ago, voices in favor of free tuition at all levels of education were • Free university is not an utopia. It was the objective in ‘long term’ by members of the Parent Commission. This is a societal choice, a political choice to be more precise, which would cost around 1% of the government’s budget. • They believe that the elimination of tuition fees should be Rocher, F. (2010). Guy Rocher : Entretiens. Montréal : Boréal. considered as a measure to establish not in a long term Weber, M./Freund , J. trad./Aron, R. intro. (1917-1919 ). savant et le politique [ The Scientist and the Politics]. Paris : approach but rather in shortLeterm. Plon. [Guy Rocher, Le Devoir-The Duty] 2012. In Google.com. On line. <http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcR9WgdLmpZBd7ymhwe2mg0V3Ql6hw5nEYumzXzox0AYzbHvxxYZ> [retrieved 27/05/2012]. 200,000 fois ‘entendez-nous’ [200,000 times ‘listens to us’] Une image vaut mille mots [A picture is worth a thousand words] [Lisa-Marie Gervais, Le Devoir-The Duty] 2012. In Google.com. On line. <http://www.ledevoir.com/societe/education/345740/200-000-fois-entendez-nous> [Retrieved 8/06/2012]. [Marco Bélair-Cirino, Le Devoir-The Duty] 2012. In Google.com. On line. <http://www.ledevoir.com/societe/actualites-ensociete/351984/f1-depart-sur-fond-de-crise>. [Retrieved 08/06/2012]. In the work La part des Aînés (1995, p. 338 ; 355, my translation): Grand’Maison concluded A New Intergenerationnel Alliance saying : ● ● ‘If you are not part of the solution, you are part of the problem’ [Si vous ne faites pas partie de la solution, vous faites partie du problème]. ‘We are that we survive’ [Nous sommes ce qui nous survit]. GranD’Maison, J. (1992). Le drame spirituel des adolescents : Profils sociaux et religieux. Montréal : Fides, Cahiers d’Études pastorales, 10. Grand’Maison, J. (1993). Vers un nouveau conflits des générations : Profils sociaux et religieux des 20-35. Montréal : Fides, 11. Grand’Maison, J. et Lefebvre, S. dir. (1994). Une génération bouc émissaires : Enquête sur les baby-boomers. Fides, Cahier d’études pastorales, 12. Grand’Maison, J. et Lefebvre, S. dir. (1995). La part des aînés. Montréal : Fides, Cahier d’études pastorales, 13. [Jacques Grand’Maison] Undated. In Google.com. On line. < http://www.125.umontreal.ca/images/pionniers/Grand-Maison2.jpg> [retrieved 27/05/2012]. “Television images become an artificial eye that crosses the barriers of time and space, but also fears, pains and aches proper to an authentic life; inevitable if we were present at the ‘heart’ of the event. [...] Sacred images thus become some kind of fantasy as a liberation instrument of our prison body, projecting us into a sphere of representation in which we access in a panvision” (Wunenburger, 2003 , p. 118, 119, my translation). Wunenburger, J.-J. (2003 ). L’imaginaire. Paris : PUF, Que sais-je ? [Jean-Jacques Wunenburger] Undated. In Google.com. On line. <http://facdephilo.univ-lyon3.fr/medias/photo/jjwunenburger_1317891206076.jpg> [retrieved 27/05/2012]. He has covered and discussed several philosophical thematics • • • • • • • • • Cogito brisé Seconde naïveté Écritures bibliques Espérance Homme capable Juste Métaphore vive Phénoménologie Temps raconté Ricoeur, P./Amherdt, F.-X.,(2001). L’herméneutique biblique. Paris : Cerf. [Paul Ricoeur] Undated. In Google.com. On line. http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTklmb0pJ_aTwwFHn1sk2Hbw_Zee5aPvQql8FbN_0unC5ipQFD1 [retrieved 27/05/2012]. “I also remember the priest’s Provencher homilies. On the occasion of the carnival, and many meetings they were very animated. Card games that accompanied these meetings lasted late into the night. There was betting using barrels of apples as bargaining chips. They were sometimes abused of alcohol. The day after these holidays, Father Provencher appeared to be informed and fulminated from the top of the flesh against the abuse he had heard the story. The memory of these severe homilies in my child’s mind again illustrates the great influence which the clergy exercised at the time of the morals and mentalities” (Ryan, 1989, my translation). Ryan, C. (1989). Lettre sur les souvenirs à Dolbeau. Société d’histoire et de généalogie Maria-Chapdeleine. Action Catholique canadienne (1961). Voies nouvelles du loisir : Études en marge du programme d’action 1961-1962. Montréal : Action Catholique canadienne. [Claude Ryan] Undated. In Google.com. On line. <http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSLtasdAHBZ5Udj8t1RiRQNwuj35t7sezmdaY42qMUOJ62d3wtH3A> [retrieved 29/05/2012]. “It is often repeated, Max Weber’s words about the disenchantment of the world with massive regression of traditional religious beliefs, but are we assisting somehow to the development of festive leisure or intimacy, mythologies associated with celebrities and the major sports or musical celebrations of intense collective emotion to a new reenchantment of the world apparently compatible for a few with the traditional religious charm and enthusiasm of the politico-ideological activism?” (Dumazedier, 1993, p. 378, my translation). Dumazedier, J. (1962). Vers une civilisation du loisir ? Paris : Seuil. Dumazedier, J. (1993). Temps libre et Modernité : mélanges en l’honneur de Joffre Dumazedier. Paris : Harmattan. [Joffre Dumazedier] 2002. Le monde du loisir est en deuil. Agora Forum, 25(4). “By homo faber, we understand men and women whose essence of existence is determined by work function as production process. By homo ludens, we understand men and women whose essence of existence is determined by play as creative process. The whole life of homo faber takes place under the sign of struggle for existence and necessity. Life of homo ludens is marked by the gratuity and liberty. He is identified by joy and happiness” (Volant, 1976, p. 15, my translation). Volant, É. (1976). Le Jeu des Affranchis : Confrontation Marcuse-Moltmann. Montréal : Fides. Héritage et Projet, 18. [Éric Volant] Undated. In Google.com. On line. <http://profile.ak.fbcdn.net/hprofile-aksnc4/275461_654864951_7079250_n.jpg> [retrieved 27/05/2012]. “Leisure, which seems trivial at first glance, is an act that is lived 'religiously' since it is the wonderful time, wonderful, sacred” (Dufour, 1980, p. 22, my translation). “The world has become secularized, however it does not desecrate. The ancient myths are repressed, degraded but not destroyed. Contemporary men and women are not less religious than their ancestors, even if they are otherwise. They evacuated the institutionalized religions, but founded new ones with a hundred faces” (Dufour, 1980, last cover, my translation). Dufour, R. (1980). Mythologie du week-end. Paris : Cerf. [Rolland Dufour] Archives de l’évêché de Chicoutimi-RollandDufour.jpg. [retrieved 18/05/2012]. “[...] Leisure fits easily in life drives polarized by freedom and hedonism used wisely, brightly, and if necessary, critical judgment. At its best, it is as a seed and creative potential inserted into a life-project that everyone is responsible for creativity in its own way depending on the values that give meaning to his/her life, both individual and social, as long as it last” (Bellefleur, 2002, p. 188, my translation). Bellefleur, M. (1986). L’église et le loisir au Québec avant la Révolution tranquille. Québec : PUQ. Bellefleur, M. (1997). L’évolution du loisir au Québec : Essai sociohistorique. Sainte-Foy : PUQ. Bellefleur, M. (2002). Le loisir contemporain : essai de philosophie sociale. Sainte-Foy : PUQ. [Michel Bellefleur] Undated. In Google.com. On line. <http://www.complexefunerairefortin.ca/photos/MBELLEFLEUR.jpg> [retrieved 28/05/2012]. • • • Ph. D. Théologie (Université Laval, 2007) Ph. D. Leisure Studies (New York University, 1985 ) M. S. Leisure Services and Studies (Florida State University, 1979) Doctoral Thesis Regard bénédictin sur le bonheur, le vieillissement et le loisir contemplatif “The appearance of contemplative leisure is “unproductive, without any excessive competition. It is the capacity to play cards without wanting to win at all costs. It is holding a telephone conversation with a great sense of listening. In nature, it is to live the present moment and marvel at the greatness of Creation. In an associative movement, it is to make way to another in a spirit of brotherhood. It is also the spiritual writings in a meditative way. In short, it is to acquiesce to the dictates of holy leisure leaving room for rest, relaxation, celebration and contemplation” (Ouellette, Snyder et Carette, 2011, p. 40, my translation). Photograph by Dr Pierre Ouellette. Ouellette, P. ; Snyder, P. et Carette, R. (2011). L’application de la spiritualité bénédictine au loisir des personnes âgées : un modèle théorique du Bonheur spirituel. Studies in Religion/Sciences Religieuses, 40(1) 21–44. • M.A. and Ph. D. in Leisure and Gerontology (University of Southern California, 1970 ; 1972) Master’s Thesis The Needs of Seniors at Culver City Doctoral Thesis Factors influencing leisure among elderly people • Directeur du Département des sciences du loisir (1990-2001) “Daring to explore the spirituality of leisure at a time when a person is seen if it behaves as if the spiritual does not exist is a little to go against the movement” - Pageot (2007, Préface, my translation). Pageot, J.-C. (1989). Vieillesse et démence. Acte du huitième colloque de l’association québécoise de gérontologie dans le cadre du cinquantième congrès de l’ACFAS, mai 1987. Montréal : Méridien. Photograph by Dr Jean-Claude Pageot. Deschênes, G./Préface, Pageot, J. (2007). Le loisir : une quête de sens – Essai de théologie pratique. Québec : PUL. • Sociologie de l’éducation physique, Ph. D. (University of Southern California, 1974) Humanistic Development Viewpoint “If someone tells you that you are not good, you may believe it. The opposite is also true, because if you are told you are good, you might also like to believe. So why risk anything with youth. Tell them they are good. They might believe and become good” (Demers, 2010, p. 146, my translation). Demers, P. (2010). L’humanité : de l’obscurité à la lumière : l’éducation pour rendre le pouvoir à l’être humain. Sainte-Foy : PUQ. Demers, P. (2008). Élever la conscience humaine par l’éducation. Sainte-Foy : PUQ. Photograph by Dr Pierre Demers. “The fundamental aim of public recreation provisions for the acutely vulnerable is facilitation. It is not to provide for such people, deliver to them, or develop programs for them. It is to provide the opportunities for them to develop their own lives and leisure. It is to facilitate leisure with all the personal freedom and variety that is possible. This means that ‘enabling’ rather than ‘delivery’ is the central concept. Sometimes people can be assisted in gaining the skills to join in ongoing leisure that is attractive to them. Sometimes access to that ongoing leisure can be made more inclusive. Sometimes special provisions essence of enabling approach is in developing the autonomy of the individual whose real options are increased in the process” (Kelly, 1996, p. 401). Kelly, J. R. (1996). Leisure. Boston ; Toronto : Allyn and Bacon, 3rd Ed. Kelly, J. R. (1987). Freedom to be: A New Sociology of Leisure. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, p. 229. “Simone Weil retransmit to us this message with her experience’s authority: If we try with real attention in solving a geometry problem, and if, after one hour, we are not more advanced than beginning, it has nevertheless been advanced during each minute of that hour in an another more mysterious dimension. Without feelings, without knowing, that effort apparently sterile and fruitless put more light in the soul. The fruit will end one day, later, in prayer. It probably also find in any field of intelligence, perhaps quite foreign to mathematics ... An Eskimo tale explains thus the origin of light: “The raven that, in eternal night, could not find food, desired light and lit up the earth. “If there is really desire, if the object of desire is really the light, the desire of light will create light” (In Guitton, 1986, p. 177, my translation). “Given that, formula of geometry problems, which is also applicable to the problem of men and women and the use of time: What is given to you right now, accept it, improve it, deepened it. Then you will live” (Guitton, 1986, p. 178, my translation). Guitton, J. (1986). Le travail intellectuel : conseils à ceux qui étudient et à ceux qui écrivent. Paris: Aubier. [Jean Guitton] Undated. In Google.com. On line. <http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQ4hqKD2CinFeoExxv06cao2sZJ6BoqkRjWS7aIzkurjsj9LbF> [retrieved 27/05/2012].