DESIGNING BLOODHOUND SSC—
The 1000mph Car*
Dr Ben Evans
College of Engineering
Swansea University
IMA Mathematics 2011, 24th March 2011
*supported by EPSRC Platform Grant EP/D074258;
EPSRC Research Grant EP/F032617
OUTLINE
BLOODHOUND SSC Project
World Land Speed Record
Importance of aerodynamic design
Process of computational fluid dynamics (CFD)
Validation of the process and THRUST SSC
CFD applied to the design of BLOODHOUND SSC
Conclusions
THE BLOODHOUND SSC PROJECT
LAND SPEED RECORD
1898
1904
1927
1935
1964
1964
1965
1983
1997
Gaston Ch-Laubat
Louis Rigolly
Sir Henry Segrave
Sir Malcolm Campbell
Donald Campbell
Craig Breedlove
Craig Breedlove
Richard Noble
Andy Green
France
France
UK
UK
UK
USA
USA
UK
UK
39mph
103mph
203mph
301mph
403mph
526mph
600mph
633mph
763mph
(Mach 1.016)
SUBSONIC TO SUPERSONIC
THRUST2
BABS
(at Pendine)
BLUEBIRD
171 MPH
(at Pendine)
633 mph
THRUST SSC
174 MPH
763 mph
BLOODHOUND SSC
1000 mph
SUBSONIC
M=0.0
TRANSONIC
M=0.5
M=1.0
SUPERSONIC
M=1.5
HYPERSONIC
BLOODHOUND SSC: DESIGN CHALLENGES
propulsion
structural performance
control of the dynamic stability
confirmed braking system strategy
aerodynamics
ANALYSING AERODYNAMIC DESIGNS: WIND TUNNEL TESTING
ANALYSING ENGINEERING DESIGNS: COMPUTER SIMULATION
Olek Zienkiewicz
1921––2009
Simulation using computers
(a) mathematical model
(b) approximation
(c) computer solution
(d) analysis of the results
aerodynamic modelling→computational fluid dynamics (CFD)
MATHEMATICAL MODEL: AIR FLOW
Basic laws of physics: conservation of mass, momentum and energy
APPROXIMATION: 1D
non–uniform subdivision
approximation gets better as the
element size decreases or as the
number of nodes increases
the subdivision: mesh
creating the subdivision: mesh generation
sub–regions: elements
nodes:
uniform subdivision
APPROXIMATION: 2D
CFD PROCESS: 2D
actual wing
mathematical description
of the aerofoil section
define the region
mesh generation
analyse solution
approximate equations
and solve
AUTOMATIC MESH GENERATION: 2D REGION
CFD PROCESS: 3D
actual aircraft
mathematical description
of the aircraft surface
define the region
analyse solution
approximate equations
and solve
mesh generation
COMPUTER PERFORMANCE/COST
1990s: CRAY C90 supercomputer
several million pounds 103MFlops
national supercomputer centres
2010: PC cluster
£130K
430 cpus
9x106MFlops
university departments
CFD: FLITE3D
THRUST SSC PROJECT
Ron Ayres
THRUST SSC 1997
THRUST SSC: CFD VALIDATION
Mach
0.71
1.08
0.96
1.05
CFD
Experiment
μ=0
1 million elements
24 hours CRAY C90
CFD: VARIATION IN LIFT
axis of vehicle
ground surface
axis of vehicle
ground surface
THRUST SSC
World Land Speed Record 763 mph
Black Rock Desert, Nevada
October 15th 1997
BLOODHOUND SSC: DESIGN EVOLUTION
project launch October 2008
initial concept 2007
current design
WHEEL DESIGN
single keel
single keel
triple keel
pressure coefficient on the surface
triple keel
Lift Profile for W1 and W2 Wheels
Drag Profile for W1 and W2 Wheels
0.1
0.2
0.18
0.05
0.16
0
0.14
0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 1.10 1.20 1.30 1.40 1.50
-0.05
W2 (triple keel)
0.08
0.06
Lift/q
W1 (single keel)
0.1
-0.1
W1 (single keel)
W2 (triple keel)
-0.15
-0.2
0.04
-0.25
0.02
-0.3
0
0.
50
0.
60
0.
70
0.
80
0.
90
1.
00
1.
10
1.
20
1.
30
1.
40
1.
50
Drag/q
0.12
Mach Num ber
-0.35
Mach num ber
ENGINE INTAKE DESIGN
CFD for the twin intake
CFD for the modified single intake design
total pressure at
the engine face
FRONT WHEEL PLACEMENT
Original design
yaw angle = -2º
yaw angle = 5º
Modified design
REAR SUPERSONIC LIFT
dark blue: low pressure → red: high pressure
PARAMETRIC OPTIMISATION
Study parameters
- delta leading edge sweep angle
- base area
- rear wheel track
- fairing spike length
- fairing spike height
- boat-tail angle
- body-delta angle
- ride height
- delta angle of attack
- delta strut camber
- rear shape
- diffuser
- suspension ‘blister’
- delta leading edge ‘crank’
- delta – body blend
- fairing radius
- fairing cone diameter
- delta AoA
PARAMETRIC OPTIMISATION
dark blue: low pressure → red: high pressure
FULL VEHICLE
100 million elements
24 hours
128 AMD Opteron processors
CONFIGURATIONS ANALYSED
• Config evolution
ACCELERATING CAR
red: low pressure → purple: high pressure
CFD: FINAL DESIGN
CAR BUILD: AUTUMN 2010―CHRISTMAS 2011
RECORD ATTEMPT
Hakskeen Pan in the north eastern
corner of South Africa
clay surface
10 miles of track & 1 mile overrun
very hard and very flat
good access & ideal weather
clearance of 9 square miles by
300 workers in 128 days
RUN PROFILE
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Dr Jason Jones, Professor Oubay Hassan, Dr Clare Wood, KM, Dr Ben Evans
Inset (left) Dr Lakhdar Remaki
Inset (right) Professor Nigel Weatherill
Thank you for listening…
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