What’s the
conclusion?
Student Sheets
A skills development activity for GCSE
Contents
Sheet number
Title
Notes
SS1
Test results (reusable)
b is a version for higher ability students.
SS2
Program outline
(consumable)
SS3
Hazard perception (reusable)
SS4
Flow chart (reusable)
SS5
Flow chart (teacher guide)
SS6
Report from the Daily Post
(reusable)
SS7
Marking guide (reusable)
For teacher use but can be used by students for
self/peer assessment
SS8
Flow chart (reusable)
Optional extra for the explain task
SS9
Flow chart (teachers guide)
b is a version for higher ability students
SS1a
OCR SKILLUP : WHAT’S THE CONCLUSION?
mean reaction time (ms)
Test results
500
group 1
group 2
group 3
alcohol only
(same amount as Buzz)
alcohol plus 50 mg of caffeine
(half amount of Buzz)
alcohol plus 100 mg of caffeine
(same amount as Buzz)
450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
mean hand-eye
coordination score
before
after
before
after
before
after
before
after
before
after
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
before
© OCR 2012
after
SS1b
OCR SKILLUP : WHAT’S THE CONCLUSION?
Test results
increase in reaction
time (ms)
250
200
150
100
50
0
0
25
50
75
decrease in hand-eye
coordination test score
amount of caffeine (mg)
125
150
Buzz (100 mg)
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
25
50
amount of caffeine (mg)
© OCR 2012
100
75
100
Buzz (100 mg)
125
150
SS2
OCR SKILLUP : WHAT’S THE CONCLUSION?
Program outline
Intro: Abigail, our presenter,
introduces Buzz and discusses the
hypothesis we are testing.
Our prediction is that drinking both caffeine and
alcohol together will result in their effects being
cancelled out.
The tests: Reaction times and hand-eye coordination: Abigail explains the tests and discusses the
results. Write conclusions to describe what the evidence shows.
Do both pieces of evidence match our prediction? If so, describe our conclusion and the evidence that
we collected which supports it.
The controversy: Abigail explains that it seems that the makers are claiming that you can drink Buzz and drive.
We discuss the hazard perception results. Explain how confident we are in the hypothesis that the effects of alcohol
are cancelled out by caffeine. Do we think you can drink Buzz and drive?
Wrapping up: Abigail gives our final thoughts. How could we make our conclusion
more secure?
© OCR 2012
SS3a
OCR SKILLUP : WHAT’S THE CONCLUSION?
Hazard perception
The test
You take a driving
hazard perception test.
The higher your score
out of 50, the more
aware you are of
hazards when driving.
50
Method
120 people were split into 3 groups
and each person did the test.
The people in each group drank a
different drink.
They waited 20 minutes and did
the test again.
group 1
group 2
group 3
alcohol only
(same amount as Buzz)
alcohol plus 50 mg of caffeine
(half amount of Buzz)
alcohol plus 100 mg of caffeine
(same amount as Buzz)
mean score
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
© OCR 2012
before
after
before
after
before
after
SS3b
OCR SKILLUP : WHAT’S THE CONCLUSION?
Hazard perception
The test
You take a driving hazard perception
test. The higher your score out of 50,
the more aware you are of hazards
when driving.
Method
120 people were split into 7 groups.
20
●A fixed amount of alcohol
(same as Buzz)
●A different amount of caffeine
(between 0-150mg)
The people were not told what was in
their drink.
They waited 20 minutes and did the
test again.
decrease in score
Each person did the test and then was
given a drink that contained:
15
10
5
0
0
25
50
75
amount of caffeine taken (mg)
© OCR 2012
100
125
Buzz (100 mg)
150
SS4
OCR SKILLUP : WHAT’S THE CONCLUSION?
Look at all the evidence.
?
Does it all match your
predictions?
Yes
You can have a HIGH level of
confidence in the hypothesis.
Describe the
evidence that
supports it.
START HERE
No
?
No
Does most of the
evidence match your
predictions?
Yes
You can have a LOW level of
confidence in the hypothesis.
Your cannot draw a clear conclusion about
whether the hypothesis is correct.
Describe the
evidence that
opposes it.
Describe the evidence
that supports and
opposes it.
Look at the method used to collect each piece of evidence.
?
Are there errors
that could lead to
inconsistent results?
No
The hypothesis could be
wrong.
Yes
Describe how to improve the
method, to see if the
hypothesis is really correct.
© OCR 2012
Suggest other hypotheses
that would explain the results
you got.
SS5
OCR SKILLUP : WHAT’S THE CONCLUSION?
Look at all the evidence.
?
Teacher notes
START HERE
The reaction times tests and hand-eye coordination do but not the
hazard perception test.
Does it all match your
predictions?
Yes
You can have a HIGH level of
confidence in the hypothesis.
Describe this and
the evidence that
supports it.
No
?
No
Does most of the
evidence match your
predictions?
Yes
You can have a LOW level of
confidence in the hypothesis.
Your cannot draw a clear conclusion about
whether the hypothesis is correct.
Describe the
evidence that
opposes it.
Describe the evidence
that supports and
opposes it.
Discussion about the results from the tests.
Look at the method used to collect each piece of evidence.
Students could take both routes here to a certain
extent.
Good area for debate – the students may spot some
parts of the test that they feel were mistakes e.g.
not waiting long enough after drinking and before
taking the test.
?
Are there any mistakes
that could lead to
inconsistent results?
The hypothesis could be
wrong.
Yes
Describe how to improve the
method, to see if the
hypothesis is really correct.
© OCR 2012
No
The effects of
alcohol are not
cancelled out by
the affects of
caffeine (or it does
but at
concentrations not
tested)
Suggest other hypotheses
that would explain the results
you got.
SS6
OCR SKILLUP : WHAT’S THE CONCLUSION?
Report from The Daily Post
Research published last week found that a chemical found in broccoli
slows down the growth of cancer cells.
graph A
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
zero
low
high
concentration of chemical added
growth of normal cells
growth of cancer cells
Scientists grew cancer cells and normal healthy cells outside of the body. They
then added different concentrations of the chemical to each (higher than amounts
naturally found in broccoli) and measured the growth of the cells. These graphs
show the results:
graph B
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
Our conclusion from
this study is that
eating broccoli can prevent
the growth
of cancer.
0.2
0
zero
low
high
concentration of chemical added
1 Use the results on graph A to explain how The Daily Post came up with their conclusion.
2 Study graph B.
a Comment on how confident you are with their conclusion and explain why.
b What further data would help you to be more confident in the conclusion?
© OCR 2012
SS7
SS9
OCR
OCRSKILLUP
SKILLUP::WHAT’S
WHAT’STHE
THECONCLUSION?
CONCLUSION?
Report from The Daily Post : Marking Guide
Working critically with science
General criteria
Report from The Daily Post
Typical student response
Low
demand
Explain how a conclusion
is based on the scientific evidence
which has been collected.
● The Daily Post came up with their conclusion that eating broccoli can
prevent the growth of cancer.
● The results in graph A shows that as you increase the concentration
of the chemical found in broccoli, the growth of cancer cells slows
down.
(1-2 marks)
Standard
demand
Discuss the level of confidence in a
conclusion based on the
identification of a qualitative
relationship between variables and
the way further predictions can
lead to more evidence being
obtained.
As above plus:
● Graph B shows that the increasing the concentration of the chemical
found in broccoli also slows down the growth of normal, healthy cells. This
shows that the chemical could slow down the growth of all cells in
the body, not just cancer cells.
(3-4 marks)
As above plus:
High
demand
© OCR 2012
Identify and critically analyse
conflicting evidence, or weaknesses
in the data, which lead to different
interpretations, and give a detailed
explanation of what further data
would help to make the conclusion
more secure.
● Confidence in The Daily Post’s conclusion is low because the
concentrations of chemicals used in the experiments were much
higher than what is normally found in broccoli. This means that
eating broccoli will not provide the body with a high enough concentration
of the chemical to affect cancer cells.
● The tests were done on cells outside of the body so the effects of the
chemical inside the body may be totally different for example, the
chemical may be digested in the stomach and never enter the
bloodstream. Also, it might be more or less effective on different types of
cancer cell e.g. might be highly effective on (say) stomach cancer cells but
less effective on (say) brain cancer cells.
● Further data needs to be collected using the same concentration as
found in broccoli on cancer cells inside a human body.
(5-6 marks)
SS8
OCR SKILLUP : WHAT’S THE CONCLUSION?
START
HERE
Look at the 1st piece of
evidence (graph/chart/table)
Describe how you
think the problem
led to inconsistent
results.
Describe what it shows.
Yes
Look at the 2nd piece of
evidence (graph/chart/table)
?
Can you find any
problems?
Describe what it shows.
?
Do both pieces of
evidence match your
prediction?
No
Yes
You can draw a clear conclusion to
answer the original question.
© OCR 2012
Write the conclusion and
describe the evidence that
supports it.
Your cannot draw a
clear conclusion, as
the results are
inconsistent.
Describe the
evidence which
supports and
opposes the
hypothesis.
Look at the method
used to collect each
piece of evidence.
SS9
OCR SKILLUP : WHAT’S THE CONCLUSION?
START
HERE
Look at the 1st piece of
evidence (graph/chart/table)
Describe what it shows.
Look at the 2nd piece of
evidence (graph/chart/table)
Teacher notes
Drinking Buzz will result in no change to your
reaction times. They clearly show that as the
amount of caffeine increases the depressive
effects of the alcohol are cancelled out.
Yes
Drinking Buzz will very slightly decrease your handeye coordination (around one less ball caught in 30
seconds). They clearly show that as the amount of
caffeine increases the depressive effects of the
alcohol are cancelled out.
Describe what it shows.
The prediction
is that
drinking buzz
will result in
no change to
reaction times
No
Do both pieces of
and hand-eye
evidence match your
coordination
prediction?
and both
sets of results
Yes
show
that this
is true.
You can draw a clear conclusion to
answer the original question.
?
© OCR 2012
Write the conclusion and
describe the evidence that
supports it.
Describe how you
think the problem
led to inconsistent
results.
Your cannot draw a
clear conclusion, as
the results are
inconsistent.
Describe the
evidence which
supports and
opposes the
hypothesis.
?
Can you find any
problems?
Look at the method
used to collect each
piece of evidence.
You can debate here that this route should be taken in light of the hand-eye
coordination results. Do the students think that this result is enough proof that
the results are inconsistent?
The conclusion is that drinking Buzz has no effect
on reaction times and hand-eye coordination, and
this is supported by the data.
© OCR 2012
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Skill up lesson - What`s the conclusion - Student sheets (PPT