Laura Lindsey, Greg LaBarge,
Harold Watters, Steve Prochaska,
Libby Dayton
• Funded in 2013 by Ohio Soybean Council
• Co-PIs- Laura Lindsey, Greg LaBarge, Harold
Watters, Steve Prochaska, Libby Dayton
• Other key personnel- John McCormick, graduate
student, Extension Educators
Extend information to
Ohio soybean growers
1. Omission Trials
• On-farm (large plot) research
2. Statewide survey of yield-limiting factors
• Help identify cooperators
• Help collect soil/plant samples and yield
information
Ohio Soybean Yield from 1924-2012
Soybean yield (bu/ac)
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1920
1940
1960
1980
Year
2000
2020
NASS
Ohio Soybean Yield from 1924-2012
Soybean yield (bu/ac)
60
50
40
30
Ohio soybean yield increased 0.37 bu/ac per
year from 1924-2012
20
10
0
1920
1940
1960
1980
Year
2000
2020
NASS
Ohio Soybean Yield from 1924-2012
Soybean yield (bu/ac)
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1920
Ohio soybean yield increased 0.37 bu/ac per
year from 1924-2012
U.S. soybean yield increased 0.34 bu/ac per
year from 1924-2012
1940
1960
1980
Year
2000
2020
NASS
• Theoretical maximum soybean yield = ??? bu/ac
• Assumes maximum photosynthetic efficiency
• Assumes minimum respiratory losses
• Assumes perfect weather, no pest
pressure….no yield-limiting factors
de Wit 1967
• Theoretical maximum soybean yield = 335 bu/ac
• Assumes maximum photosynthetic efficiency
• Assumes minimum respiratory losses
• Assumes perfect weather, no pest pressure….no
yield-limiting factors
de Wit 1967
• If trend for Ohio continues….we’ll see an 11.1 bu/ac
yield increase by 2042.
• Increase state average to ~56 bu/ac
• If trend increases by 0.5 bu/ac per year….we’ll see a 26.1
bu/ac yield increase by 2042.
• Increase state average to ~71.1 bu/ac
• To reach a state average of 100 bu/ac by 2042…we’ll
need an increase of 3.3 bu/ac per year.
• Limitations to increasing soybean yield
compared to corn:
• Symbiotic relationship between soybean
and rhizobia bacteria
• Protein and oil = a lot of energy to
produce
• Soybean yield gains are occurring in Ohio.
• Why?
• Genetic improvement
• Estimated 0.14 to 0.28 bu/ac per year yield
increase
• Agronomic improvement
• Estimated 0.9 to 0.23 bu/acre per year
Specht et al. 1999
• Soybean yield gains are occurring in Ohio.
• Why?
• Genetic improvement
• Estimated 0.14 to 0.28 bu/ac per year yield
increase
• Agronomic improvement
• Estimated 0.9 to 0.23 bu/acre per year
Specht et al. 1999
• Genetic technology- Adopted by producers as soon
as it becomes available
• Agronomic technologies
• Lengthy learning curves
• Implementation requires capital expenditures (e.g.,
combine yield monitors, global positioning system
software, etc)
• Different every year/every location
Specht et al. 1999
1. Determine which management practices lead to
higher soybean quality traits and yield using a new
type of experimental design called an “omission trial”
2. Determine yield-limiting factors through a statewide
survey of soil quality, pests, and management
practices using multivariate statistics
3. Inform and train Ohio soybean growers to identify
yield-limiting factors on a field-by-field basis through
soybean workshops and use of digital media.
Determine which
management practices
lead to higher soybean
quality traits and yield
using a new type of
experimental design
called an “omission
trial”
• Study factors:
These study factors have been
• Rhizobia inoculant
evaluated….
• Fungicide
but not in a single, comprehensive
• Insecticide
study
• Manganese foliar fertilizer
• Omission trials
• Relatively new type of experimental design
and analysis
• Overcome limitations of traditional statistical
approaches
• We will use omission trials to assist growers in
evaluating the cost of agronomic practices
against their yield increasing potential
• Dr. Fred Below used
omission trials to help
determine which
factors influence corn
yield on his quest for
300 bushel corn.
• Dr. Robert Mullen and
graduate student used
omission trials for
Ohio corn production.
• Some soybean omission trials have been conducted in other
states
• None have been conducted in Ohio
• We propose conducting trials at nine locations in Ohio
for two years
• Limitations…
• Cannot study interactions
• No information about application timing or rate
• Visual disease and insect ratings
• Dr. Anne Dorrance, Dr. Andy Michel, and Dr. Ron
Hammond
• Plant tissue manganese
• Chlorophyll, gas exchange, fluorescence
• Pending funding from OARDC SEEDS grant
• Soybean yield components
• Protein and oil content
• Inputs will be evaluated using large-plot research
• Ohio Soybean Council has already funded 10 on-farms
trials for 2013
• Trials will evaluate 1-3 treatments of omission trial
Determine yield-limiting
factors through a
statewide survey of soil
quality, pests, and
management practices
using multivariate
statistics and principle
component analysis
.
• We can use statistics to identify factors that are limiting
yield in Ohio.
• Similar procedure to Dr. Libby Dayton’s Phosphorus Risk Index
study
•
•
•
•
•
Management practices (paper survey)
Soil quality (sample collection)
Plant nutrition (sample collection)
Pest pressure (visual ratings and sample collection)
Yield (from yield monitors)
Management Practices
• Crop rotation/cover crops
• Tillage
• Manure/fertilizer
application
• Drainage
• Variety selection/seeding
rate/row spacing
• Etc….
Soil Quality
• Texture, bulk density,
compaction
• Nutrients, pH, carbon
• Organic matter
Plant Nutrition
Pests
• Macronutrients
• Micronutrients
•
•
•
•
Potassium-deficient soybean, 2012
Soybean cyst nematode
Diseases
Insects
Weeds
• Collect samples from 60-70 soybean fields in 2013,
2014, and 2015
• Soybean fields will include:
• Fields where OSU on-farm research is currently being
conducted (Soybean Performance Trials, Extension
research, Phosphorus Risk Index Study, etc.)
• Fields as identified by Extension educators/field
specialists
• Volunteers at winter Extension meetings
Appendix C: Protocol for plant tissue samples
Plant tissue samples are to be collected at the R1 (flowering) growth stage. Samples will be
analyzed for macro- and micronutrient concentration.
• “Kits” will be given to
cooperators (faculty, graduate
students, Extension educators,
field specialists, etc)
Procedure for collecting plant tissue samples
1. Collect 10-15 plant samples from each area following a zigzag pattern (see diagram
below).
2. Collect the uppermost fully developed trifoliate. Remove the petiole (see picture below).
• Kits will contain sampling
protocols and sampling
materials
• Kits will include postage and
be mailed to Columbus for
analysis
3. Place plant tissue samples into paper bags and label as “normal area 1,” “normal area 2,”
or “low-yielding area.”
4. Mail all samples to Ohio State University, Columbus using the provided pre-paid mailing
box.
10-15 fields in
District 10, 20, 40,
and 50
5-10 fields in
District 30 and 70
2-6 fields in
District 60, 80,
and 90
% of Soybean Acres
• A very robust dataset will be collected and analyzed with
assistance from the Ohio State Statistical Consulting Service
• What kind of information will be generated from this
type of dataset??????????
Univariate Statistics
Multivariate Statistics
• Tests one factor at a time
• Examines many factors
• Traditional experimental
design
• More of a “systems”
approach
• What are the yield limiting factors for Ohio soybean
fields? (By growing region)
• How do yield limiting factors interact?
• How does soil quality influence yield?
• How does pest pressure influence yield?
• How do management practices influence yield?
• What are the yield limiting factors for Ohio soybean
fields? (By growing region)
• How do yield limiting factors interact?
• How does soil quality influence yield?
• How does pest pressure influence yield?
• How do management practices influence yield?
yield = soil nutrient * pH * bulk density * drainage * organic matter
• Soil fertility/plant nutrition information will also
generated
• Identify emerging soil fertility/plant nutrition problems
• Identify areas with a problem for further studies
• Soil fertility/plant nutrition information will also
generated
• Identify emerging soil fertility/plant nutrition problems
SULFUR
SO2
Soil Solution
SO4-2
SO4-2
Soil Organic Matter
SO4-2
S0
S-2
SO2
Soil Solution
SO4-2
SO4-2
Soil Organic Matter
SO4-2
S0
S-2
• 60 bu/acre soybeans remove approximately 11 lb S/acre
• 1994 atmospheric deposition ~ 7 lb S/acre
• 2010 atmospheric deposition ~ 4 lb S/acre
Atmospheric sulfur deposition is less than crop removal.
Will sulfur applications be needed in the future?
A STATE SURVEY OF PLANT TISSUE FOR MACRO- AND
MICRONUTRIENTS WILL HELP IDENTIFY POTENTIAL
PROBLEMS.
Inform and train Ohio
soybean growers to
identify yield-limiting
factors on a field-byfield basis through
soybean workshops and
use of digital media.
Extend information to
Ohio soybean growers
Soybean Website
Mobile Apps
• Feature digital media
library of pictures/videos
• Possible apps:
• FactSheets
• Online decision making
tools
• Insect ID
• Disease ID
• Variety selection
• Does inoculant, fungicide,
insecticide, manganese
foliar fertilizer, and nitrogen
fertilizer increase soybean
quality and yield?
• What factors influence Ohio
soybean production?
• Publish results in a “yieldlimiting guide”
• Criteria:
• Soybean grower
• Calibrated yield monitor and willing to share yield information
• Willing to let us collect soil/plant samples (three times during
growing season)
• Willing to do an interview (~1 hr)
• $200 compensation for farmers
• Farmers also receive soil test and plant analysis info
• District 10 (Williams, Fulton, Lucas, Defiance, Henry,
Wood, Paulding, Putnam, Hancock, Van Wert, Allen)
10-13
• District 20 (Ottawa, Erie, Sandusky, Lorain, Seneca,
Huron, Wyandot, Crawford, Richland, Ashland)
10-14
• District 30 (Ashtabula, Lake, Cuyahoga, Geauga,
Trumbull, Portage, Summit, Medina, Wayne, Summit,
Mahoning, Wayne, Stark, Columbiana)
5-10
• District 40 (Mercer, Auglaize, Hardin, Shelby, Logan,
Darke, Miami, Champaign, Clark)
10-13
• District 50 (Marion, Morrow, Knox, Union, Delaware,
Licking, Franklin, Madison, Fairfield, Pickaway, Fayette,
Ross)
10-13
• District 60 (Holmes, Coshocton, Tuscarawas, Carroll,
Harrison, Jefferson, Belmont)
2-6
• District 70 (Preble, Montgomery, Greene, Butler,
Warren, Clinton, Hamilton, Clermont)
5-8
• District 80 (Highland, Pike, Jackson, Brown, Adams,
Scioto, Lawrence, Gallia)
2-6
• District 90 (Muskingum, Guernsey, Noble, Monroe,
Perry, Morgan, Washington, Hocking, Athens, Vinton,
Meigs)
2-6
• Can pay mileage for Extension personnel
• If willing to help collect soil/plant samples and yield info,
we will provide protocols, sampling tools, and postage to
mail samples to Columbus for analysis
1.) Prior to or just after planting- Soil sample for quality
2.) R1- Plant tissue sample/pest rating
3.) R3- Pest rating/SCN
4.) Harvest- Yield data/grain sample
Thank you for your time!
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