PHYSICAL HAZARDS OF GLACIERS AND
PREVENTION PROPOSALS
Deglaciation is an ongoing process that
has been increasing since the end of the
Little Ice Age, about the year 1860.
As important consequences of
deglaciation, we have the decrease in
glacier surfaces and the formation of
hanging glaciers and lakes, many with high
levels of physical vulnerability.
Type of Glacier Hazards
1 Ice Avalanches
2 Alluvion of Glacier Lakes
3 Glacier Mass Reduction
PERU
HISTORY OF GLACIER TYPE DISASTERS IN THE CORDILLERA BLANCA
En 1702
En 1725
En 1725
En 1869
En 1883
En 1917
En 1938
En 1941
En 1941
En 1945
En 1950
En 1951
En 1951
En 1952
1953-1959
En 1962
En 1965
En 1970
En 2001
En 2002
En 2003
En 2003
En 2006
En 2008
En 2009
En 2010
En 2012
Inundación de la ciudad de Huarás
Aluvión que desapareció el pueblo de Ancash
Avalanchas y aluviones en Huarás- 1500 pérdidas de vidas
Aluvión en Monterrey - Huarás
Aluvión en Macashca cerca a Huarás
Aluvión del Nevado Huascarán sobre Ranrahirca
Aluvión en la quebrada Ulta - Carhuaz
Aluvión en la cuenca del Río Pativilca
Aluvión de laguna Palcacocha- Huarás - 4 a 5 mil pérdidas de vidas
Aluvión sobre las ruinas de Chavín de Huantar
Aluvión en la laguna Jancarurish destruyendo hidroeléctrica
Primer aluvión en la laguna Artesoncocha – Laguna Parón
Segundo aluvión en la laguna Artesoncocha - Laguna Parón
Aluvión en la Laguna Millhuacocha – Quebrada Ishinca
Rebalse de la Laguna Tullparaju – Huarás
Avalancha del Nevado Huascarán N, destrucción de Ranrahirca –4000 pérdidas de vidas
Aluvión en la Laguna Tumarina – Carhuascancha
Aluvión en Yungay y Ranrahirca – 18,000 pérdidas de vidas
Avalancha sobre la laguna Mullaca, produciendo su desborde
Derrumbe sobre la laguna Safuna Alta, produciendo oleajes de 77m de altura
Derrumbe sobre la laguna Palcacocha, produciendo su desborde y
desabastecimiento de agua potable en la ciudad de Huarás por 6 días.
Avalancha del Nevado Huandoy, produciendo 9 pérdidas de vidas
Desborde de la laguna Matara (Huari), produciendo daños en infraestructura
Desborde de una laguna en formación en la cabecera de la quebrada Cojup
Deslizamiento en Rampac Grande (Carhuaz), 9 pérdidas de vidas
Avalancha sobre la laguna 513; daños a la infraestructura.
Aluvión de laguna Artesa, quebrada Santa Cruz
PALCACOCHA LAKE IN THE HIGHEST LEVEL
1940
ALLUVION THAT DEVASTATED HUARAS CITY
DECEMBER 13th, 1941
ICE AVALANCHE FROM HUALCAN MOUNTAIN ABOVE
513 LAKE, ABRIL 2010
Formación de la Lag. 513 (2)
Aluvión de la Lag. 513 (1)
ALLUVION PATH BETWEN 513 LAKE AND THE SANTA
RIVER CROSSING CARHUAZ CITY – APRIL 2010
AVALANCHE OF
NORTH
HUASCARAN
MAYO 31st, 1970
CHILE
ESTERO DEL APAREJO GLACIER BASIN
REMAINS OF THE GLACIER AT THE END OF THE VALLEY
UNDER THE ROCK MATERIAL
COLOMBIA
ARMEO CITY DESTROYED BY THE LAHAR OF MOUNT
RUIZ
SWITZERLAND
ALLALIN GLACIER
MATMARK DAM IN
CONSTRUCTION
ALLALIN AVALANCHE
ABOVE THE MATMARK
DAM
HIMALAYAS
SAFETY PREVENTION
WORKS
IN ORDER TO AVOID GLACIER
CATHASTOPHIES, SEVERAL SAFETY
PREVENTION WORKS WERE BUILT SPECIALLY
IN THE CORDILLERA BLANCA - PERU
SAFETY PREVENTION WORKS
• REDUCE THE WATER LEVEL
• BUILT DAMS OR TUNELS
34 SAFETY
PREVENTION WORKS
WERE BUILT IN THE
CORDILLERA BLANCA
Towns / Cities
Safety Prevention Works
INSTITUTIONAL POLICIES
Peruvian Case
From the mid-40 can distinguish the shared management of the
Glaciology and Lakes Security Program of in 3 principal stages:
1. 1945-1950: Instituto Geológico del Perú (IGP)
2. 1951-1970: Comisión de Lagunas de la Cordillera Blanca
(CLCB)
3.
4.
5.
6.
1966-1973: Corporación Peruana del Santa (CPS)
1973-1977 : Electroperú (EP1)
1977-1978: Instituto de Geología y Minería (IMIN)
1978-1980: Instituto de Geología Minería y Metalurgia
(IMET)
7. 1981-1991: Empresa de Electricidad Norte Medio
HIDRANDINA (HIDRA)
8. 1991-1999: Electroperú (EP2)
9. 1999-2010: Instituto Nacional de Recursos Naturales
(INRENA)
10. 2010-2012: Autoridad Nacional del Agua (ANA)
Ministry of
Development and
Public Works
Ministry of Mining
and Energy
Ministry of
Agriculture
PROPOSAL
To create an Organism of
Glaciology and Safety Lake
Program for the Andean Region
with base in Huaras City –
Cordillera Blanca
GROUNDS OF THE PROPOSAL
1. The objective of the studies of glaciers has two aspects, one
oriented towards the assessment and monitoring of glaciers
for mitigation and reduction of surface water. The second
aspect is related to the hazards and the development of
actions for safety matters.
2. Related to the glacier research, there is a lack of
management policies, for being oriented basically only
towards the reaserch and monitoring of glaciers with hydric
resources matter, not taking in consideration the
complementary portion of hazards and prevention works
against the glacier disasters.
3. Need for specialists in the public sector in multidisciplinary
specialties for glacier research, hazards and safety works.
4. Need particularly in the Latin American region to have a
Permanent Agency specializing in Glacier Research, Hazard
Management and Implementation of safety prevention
works.
Descargar

Diapositiva 1