Supernova Remnants and
ULX bubbles
Manfred Pakull,
Fabien Grisé, C. Motch, R. Soria
0bservatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg
Outline
-- Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs)
-- ULXs are (often) located in bubbles = ULXBs
-- many (large) SNRs are really ULXBs
-- Rosetta Stone S26 in NGC 7793
-- ULXBs = jet inflated « beambags » like SS433/W50
Ultraluminous X-Ray sources
• Bright (variable) non-nuclear X-ray sources in galaxies
(Long & van Speybroeck (1983)
i.e Lx ~ few 1040 erg/s:
more luminous in X than Local Group of Galaxies!!
• Isotropic luminosities > 1039.5 erg/s
i.e. Lx > Ledd (= 1.3 1038 erg/s M/M  )
for stellar-mass accretors ( M < 20 M )
‘superEddington’ sources
1 ULX per 3 star-forming galaxies
XMM/ EPIC view of NGC 4559
(Cropper et al 2004)
2 ULXs in NGC 4559 (Sc, d = 10 Mpc)
XMM Optical Monitor image
(near-UV band)
X-7
Cropper et al 2004, MNRAS; Soria et al 2004, MNRAS
XMM/ EPIC view of NGC 4559
(Cropper et al 2004)
Ultraluminous X-ray Sources
suggested nature
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SNe/very young SNR, but most are variable !
truly super-Eddington (Begelman 2002)
beamed into our l.o.s. (King 2002, Markoff 2002)
stellar pop III remnants (Madau & Rees 2001)
low-metallicity (Z = 0.1Z) binaries (Pakull & Mirioni 02)
intermediate mass black holes, IMBH; in between the
stellar and AGN variety
• We need information from other wavelengths !!
optical work: Pakull& Mirioni&Grisé, Roberts & Co; Abolmasov & Fabrika ...
A few examples of our optical
follow-up observatuions of ULXs
ULX IC 342 X-1
• "Tooth" nebula situated in
spiral arm has a diameter
of 220pc
(Pakull & Mirioni 2002; Roberts et
al. 2003; Grisé et al 2006)
CFHT, H
from Laurent Mirioni’s thesis
• SNR-like spectrum:
[SII]/H=1.2
[OI] 6300/H=0.4
• X-ray or shock ionization ?
• Detection of supersonic
expansion (see later)
ULX IC 342 X-1
• "Tooth" nebula situated in
spiral arm has a diameter of
220pc
Pakull & Mirioni 2002;
Roberts et al 2003; Grisé et
al 2006
• SNR-like spectrum:
[SII]/H=1.2
[OI]6300/ H=0.4
• X-ray or shock ionization ?
• Detection of supersonic
CFHT; from Laurent Mirioni’s thesis expansion (see later)
ULX NGC 1313 X-2
Lx ~ 1039-40 erg/s variable
*
H VLT
VLT, FORS
*
location far away (9kpc)
from nucleus of 4.7 Mpc distant
spiral NGC 1313
SNR-like optical spectrum
(e.g. Grise et al. 2008)
bubble diameter
~ 26’’ = 400 pc (!)
vexp.~ vshock ~ 100 km/s
: HeII 4686 emission
Are there unrecognized ULXB
(incl. from presently inactive, or from
ULXs possibly beamed away from us)
among large SNRs candidates ?
Optical [SII]/H > 0.4 selected surveys of
SNRs in large nearby galaxies (outside LG)
Matonick & Fesen 1997:
N2403
Blair & Long 1997:
N5204, N5585, N6946, M81, M101;
N300, N7793
H
[SII]
[SII]-H
some very large SNR candidates…
Log S - logD for SNR
Lozinskaya & Moiseev
2007
IC 10: Bubble around XRB
WR + 30 Mo BH (LM2007)
S1-N5585
NGC 5585 S1: new ULX
(Pakull et al 2008)
10
100
300 pc
very large ‘SNR’ in NGC 5585
300 pc
5.0
Matonick & Fesen (1997) noted huge
(200x300) pc ‘SNR’ in NGC 5585
very large ‘SNR’  ULXB !
300 pc
5.0
Matonick & Fesen (1997) noted huge
(200x300) pc ‘SNR’ in NGC 5585
Chandra: point source (~ 5 1039 erg/s)
as in many previously identified ‘SNRs’
Ho IX, NGC 6946X-1; M81X-6 …
The ‘SNR’ MH9-11 in HolmbergIX
Subaru
Ha [OIII] B
30 "
=
500 pc
SE
Holmberg IX X-1: Lx ~1040 erg/s
Miller (1995): X-ray superluminous SNR; but X-ray variable point source!
Note small cluster incl. ULX counterpart; SE: shock breakout (?)
Kinematics of ULX bubbles
Holm IX
NGC1313 X-2
H
[NII] 6584
IC 342 X-1
Vexp = 80 – 250 km/s
Holm II
Energetics of ULX Bubbles
• Typical bubble radii ~200 pc (ie. >> SNR)
• Expansion velocity ~ 80 km/s (up to 250 km/s)
• if due to SN explosion; Sedov /snowplow :
E0 ~ 2 1052 erg R1003 v1002 n
t ~ 1 106 yrs, E0 ~ 5 1053 erg n  “Hypernova” (GRB) Remnant
(shock H luminosity: I~ vexp2.3 n --> n = 0.1-1.0 cm-3)
- Explosion of several (>20) SNe (superbubble) excluded (no massive
cluster !)
- Hypernova remnants (very popular 10 years ago) excluded
NGC 6946 MF16
no HNR !
HST/ACS
- brightest ‘SNR’ (1039 erg/s)
- ‘colliding SNRs’ (Blair & Fesen 94,
BF & Schlegel 01)
ULX
30 pc
- X-ray variable  ULX (Roberts &
Colbert 03)
- vex=225 km/s; t ~3 104 yrs;
(Dunne et al. 00)
(Swartz, Soria, in prep)
The youth of the bubble excludes nature as a remnant
of SN explosion that created compact accreting star in ULX
[after SN explosion nuclear timescale expansion of donor star before
Roche lobe overflow mass transfer can take place]
Energetics of ULX Bubbles
• Bubble radii up to ~200 pc (ie. >> SNR)
• Expansion velocity ~ 80 km/s (up to 250 km/s)
• if due to SN explosion; Sedov /snowplow :
E0 ~ 2 1052 erg R1003 v1002 n
t ~ 1 106 yrs, E0 ~ 5 1053 erg n
(shock H luminosity: I~ vexp2.3 n --> n = 0.1-1.0 cm-3)
•
if wind/jet driven bubble (Castor 1975, Weaver et al 1977):
Lw ~ 5 1039 erg/s R1002 v1003 n
t ~ 1 106 yrs (3 104 for NGC6946X-1); Lw ~ 1040 erg/s for all ULXB
.
Lw = ½ Mdot vout2 ~ jet mechanical luminosity of SS433;
i.e. vout should be mildly relativistic (~ 0.3 c)
mQSO SS433 & W50
mechanically inflated
Bubble W50 with
‘ears’ due to
v=0.26c jets
(+SNR ?)
200 pc
radio-image
ASCA image
(Kotani 98)
Begelman’s ‘beambags’
i.e. linear triple
ss433film
VLBA; credit: NRAO/AUI/NSF
Problem: no large-scale jets seen in
ULXB (or other mQSO)
some very large SNR candidates…
Log S - logD for SNR
NGC 7793 S26
S1-N5585
10
100
300 pc
NGC 7793-S26: discovery of an extragalactic SS433/W50-type system
13’’ 250pc
H
X-ray Chandra (archive)
• very large optical ‘SNR’ S26 in NGC7793
dist=3.4 Mpc, dia~250pc; [SII]/Ha~0.5
.
Blair & Long 1997
• radio source (> CasA; Pannuti et al 02)
from Chandra archive:
S26 is coincident with linear X-ray triple
H contours
S26 Chandra
Lx ~ 1037 erg/s
hard source
= 23mag OB star
0.3-1.0 keV
1.0-2.0 keV
2.0-8.0 keV
Lx ~ 1037 erg/s
soft hot spot
What have we learned/open questions
 ULXs blow very energetic bubbles (ULXB)
 ULXB resemble large SNRs but they aren’t
 synchrotron/thermal bubble NGC7793-S26 is jet-inflated
 (SS433 and S26 do show Pmech >> Lx; both are not ULX)
 connection mQSO and ULX ? jet interaction with ISM
 all large SNR candidates are ULXBs (incl. inactive ULX)
Merci !
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Supernova Remnants and ULX Bubbles - Chandra X