Present Perfect (Presente Perfecto) Form: have + past participle (3º columna de verbos irregulares o terminación –ed en los verbos regulares) has (he/she/it/); contracciones: I’ve / you’ve / he’s / she’s / it’s / we’ve / they’ve Affirmative Interrogative I have gone to London (He ido a Londres) Have you ever been to China? Yes, I have Has she ever seen Troy? No, she hasn’t He has gone to Brazil (Ha ido a Brasil) Negative: I haven’t gone to London He hasn’t gone to Brazil Recuerda: gone to… (se usa cuando has ido algún sitio) He’s gone to Brazil (Ha ido a Brasil) (he’s in Brazil now) been to… (cuando has ido y has vuelto de ese sitio) I’ve been to Brazil (He estado en Brasil) Activity: Try this verbs in affirmative, negative or interrogative: (I) eat Chinese food (he) visit Morrocco (you) eat snake (she) work hard (we) study French (they) smoke USES • Uses: El presente perfecto tiene dos usos principlamente 1. An action that has just finished (acción que acaba de terminar hace poco tiempo o en un tiempo indeterminado. Con este uso, el verbo se traduce exactamente igual que en español) e.g. I have lived in London (He vivido en Londres) Como se puede ver, no se indica cuándo he vivido allí, no se habla de fechas. Expresiones de tiempo usadas con este tiempo en este uso podrían ser: this morning/today… e.g. I have had a very big breakfast this morning (He tomado un gran desayuno esta mañana) 2. An action started in the past and continues in present (una acción que empieza en el pasado pero que continua en el presente) e.g. I’m from England but I have lived in Chipiona for eight years. (Si traducimos “Soy de Inglaterra pero he vivido en Chipiona durante 8 años” no sería lo correcto puesto que en español eso quiere decir que ya no vivimos allí. Sin embargo cuando un inglés usa este tiempo es para decir que todavía sigue viviendo allí, por lo tanto la traducción correcta sería “Soy de Inglaterra pero vivo en Chipiona desde hace 8 años”) (Aquí no se podría usar un presente simple puesto que dice desde cuándo esa acción se viene haciendo (recuerda que el presente simple sólo se usa para una acción habitual y no expresa nada más) Partículas usadas con este tiempo • For and since • • For: normalmente se traduce como “durante” (período de tiempo “for eight years”) Since: normalmente se traduce como “desde” (punto de partida o punto exacto en el pasado “since I was a child” “since last Christmas”) • Ever or never • • Ever: se traduce como “siempre” o “alguna vez” Never: se traduce como “nunca” • Already and yet • • Already: se traduce como “ya”. Se usa sólo en afirmativasy se coloca en medio de las dos formas verbales. “He has already come” (ya ha venido) Yet: se traduce como “ya” o “aún o todavía”. Se usa para negativas o interrogativas y se coloca al final de la oración. “Has he come yet?” (¿Ya ha venido?) “He hasn’t come yet” (No ha venido aún/todavía) • Just • Junto con el presente perfecto, la frase se traduciría como “acabar de…” y se coloca en medio de las dos formas verbales: “He has just come” (Él acaba de venir) • How long…? Para preguntar “¿Cuánto tiempo…? ACTIVITIES ON THE FIRST USE ACTIVIDADES DEL PRIMER USO • Vamos por parte: Empezaremos por el uso 1 1. Look at the picture. What has happened? (¿Qué ha pasado?) (He/clean/his shoes) He has cleaned his shoes (She/close/the door) (They/go to bed) (It /stop/rain) (The picture/fall down) ACTIVITIES 1 • Complete the sentences with the verb from the list. Use the present perfect (have/has + past participle of the verb). (recuerda que antes de empezar a hacer el ejercicio debes asegurarte de que conoces todo el vocabulario) Break buy finish do go go lose paint read take 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. have finished “Are they still having dinner?” “No, they _________________” I ________________________ some new shoes. Do you want to see them? “Is Tom here?” “No, he __________________ to work” “_____________ you ____________ the shopping?” “No , I’m going to do it later” “Where’s your key?” “I don’t know. I _______________it” Look! Somebody ________________________ that window. Your house looks different. _____________ you ______________ it? I can’t find my umbrella. Somebody _____________________ it. I’m looking for Sarah. Where _______________ she____________? “Do you want the newspaper?” “No, thanks. I ___________________ it.” • A las oraciones anteriores: 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7 y 10, insértales las partículas vistas anteriormente como: already, yet o just y tradúcelas. Ever and Never Lewis Ann Have you ever been to Rome? Yes, I have. Many times (¿Has ido alguna vez a Roma?) Have you ever been to Japan? No, I’ve never been to Japan Ann is asking questions to Lewis beginning have you ever…? Write the questions 1. (Paris) 2. (ride a motorbike) 3. (drive a car) 4. (play golf) 5. (eat Japanese food) 6. (sail) 7. (break your arm) 8. (visit a museum) Have you ever been to Paris? Have you ever riden a motorbike? Write answers about yourself. I’ve never been to Paris, … 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. No, I’ve never been to Paris Yes, many times No, never Yes, once No, never No, never Yes, a few times Yes, twice SECOND USE • • Uso 2 del Presente Perfecto Estudia esto: Friday STUDY THIS Margaret and Sue are on holiday in London. Sue arrived in London on Monday. Today is Friday. They are in the British Museum. How long have you been in London, dear? I’ve been in London since Monday Si traducimos “¿Cuánto tiempo has estado en Londres?” parece que la persona ya ha vuelto, sin embargo no es eso lo que queremos decir con este tiempo verbal. La traducción correcta sería “¿Desde cuándo estás en Londres?”o “Cuánto tiempo llevas en Londres?” para que digamos lo que verdaderamente se quiere expresar con esta pregunta. La respuesta sería por lo tanto: “Estoy en Londres desde el lunes” o “Llevo en Londres desde el lunes” • Compara: Harry is in Canada Present Perfect He has been in Canada since April (not “He is in Canada since April”) Are you married? x How long have you been married? (not “How long are you married?”) Do you Know Sarah? How long have you known her? x Present Simple I’ve known her for a long time (not “How long do you know her?” x Linda lives in London How long has she lived in London? She has lived there all her life We have a car How long have you had your car? We’ve had it for a year • Can you answer these questions: 1. A man says: “I’ve been in France for six years”. Is he in France when he says this? 2. A woman says, “I was in Japan for three years”. Is she in Japan when she says this? 3. Some body says, “I’ve worked with Eric for 30 years, and I worked with Sally for 25 years”. Which one does he still work with? 4. Somebody says, “I did seven years’ French at school”. Is he or she still at school? 5. You are in America. Somebody asks, “How long are you here for?” Does the person want to know when your visit started, or when it will end? 6. What does “How long have you been here for?” mean? ACTIVITIES ON THE SECOND USE ACTIVIDADES DEL SEGUNDO USO • Complete these sentences. Use present perfect 1. has been Jill is in London. She ________________________ in London since Monday 2. has known I know George. I _________________________ him for a long time 3. They are married. They ________________________ since 1983 4. Brian is ill. He _________________________ ill for a week. 5. We live in this house. We ___________________________ here for ten years 6. I know Tom very well. I _____________________ him for a long time 7. Alice works in a bank. She ________________________ there for three years. 8. She has a headache. She ________________________ a headache since she got up. • Make questions with How long…? 1. Jill is in London. How long has Jill been in London? 2. I know George. How long have you known George? 3. Mike and Judy are in Brazil. How long... 4. My brother lives in Germany 5. It is raining 6. Bill is a teacher 7. I have a motorbike 8. Linda and Frank are married 9. Alan works in London FOR For four days an hour a week a month five years ten minutes two hours three weeks six months a long time SINCE We use for + a period of time We use since+ the start of the period Since Monday 9 o’clock 24 July December 1985 Wednesday 12.30 10 October Christmas I got up •Write for or since 1. She’s been in London __________________ Monday 2. She’s been in London __________________ four days 3. Mike has been ill ___________ a long time. He’s been in hospital __________ October 4. My aunt has been in Australia _________________ 15 years 5. Nobody lives in those houses. They have been empty ________________many years 6. Mrs Harris is in her office. She’s been there ________________ 7 o’clock 7. India has been an independent country ________________1947 8. The bus is late. We’ve been waiting ___________________20 minutes. Write sentences. Use the present perfect simple tense and for and since 1. 2. She is in London now. She arrived there four days ago. She has been there for four days. Jack is here. He arrived here on Thursday 3. I know Sue. I first met Sue two years ago. 4. I have a camera. I bought it in 2001 5. They are married. They got married six months ago. PRESENT PERFECT vs PAST SIMPLE Compara: Present perfect Past Simple I have lost my key (= I can’t find them now”) but I lost my key yesterday Bill has gone home (=He isn’t here now) but Bill went home ten minutes ago Have you seen Ann? (=Where is she now?) but When did you see Ann? Time until now past Finished time now past now Have you ever been to Spain? (=in your life until now) but Did you go to Spain last year? My friend is a writer. He has written many books but Shakespeare wrote many plays and poems We’ve lived in Singapore for six years (=We live there now) but We lived in Glasgow for six years but now we live in Singapore ACTIVITIES PRESENT PERFECT vs SIMPLE PAST • Use the words in brackets ( ) to answer the questions 1. Have you lost your key? (yesterday) Yes, I lost it yesterday 2. Have you seen Alan? (ten minutes ago) 3. Have you painted the door? (last week) 4. Has Sarah gone to France? (on Friday) 5. Have they had dinner? 6. Has he started his new job? (yesterday) (at 7 o’clock) • In these sentences the verbs are underlined. Are they right or wrong? Correct the verbs that are wrong. 1. Tom arrived last week RIGHT 2. Have you seen Pam last week? WRONG 3. I have finished my work 4. I have finished my work at 2 o’clock 5. When have you finished your work? 6. George has left school three years ago. 7. “Where’s Ann?” “She’s gone to the cinema 8. Napoleon Bonaparte has died in 1821 9. Have you ever been to Britain? 10. I haven’t seen you at the party on Saturday 11. The weather has been very bad last week Did you see…?