Present Perfect
(Presente Perfecto)
Form: have + past participle (3º columna de verbos irregulares o terminación –ed en los
verbos regulares) has (he/she/it/); contracciones: I’ve / you’ve / he’s / she’s / it’s / we’ve / they’ve
Affirmative
Interrogative
I have gone to London (He ido a Londres)
Have you ever been to China? Yes, I have
Has she ever seen Troy? No, she hasn’t
He has gone to Brazil (Ha ido a Brasil)
Negative:
I haven’t gone to London
He hasn’t gone to Brazil
Recuerda: gone to… (se usa cuando has ido algún sitio) He’s gone to Brazil (Ha ido a Brasil) (he’s in Brazil
now)
been to… (cuando has ido y has vuelto de ese sitio) I’ve been to Brazil (He estado en Brasil)
Activity:
Try this verbs in affirmative, negative or interrogative:
(I) eat Chinese food
(he) visit Morrocco
(you) eat snake
(she) work hard
(we) study French
(they) smoke
USES
• Uses: El presente perfecto tiene dos usos principlamente
1.
An action that has just finished (acción que acaba de terminar hace poco tiempo
o en un tiempo indeterminado. Con este uso, el verbo se traduce exactamente igual que en
español)
e.g. I have lived in London (He vivido en Londres) Como se puede ver, no se
indica cuándo he vivido allí, no se habla de fechas.
Expresiones de tiempo usadas con este tiempo en este uso podrían ser: this morning/today…
e.g. I have had a very big breakfast this morning (He tomado un gran desayuno esta mañana)
2.
An action started in the past and continues in present (una acción que
empieza en el pasado pero que continua en el presente)
e.g. I’m from England but I have lived in Chipiona for eight years.
(Si traducimos “Soy de Inglaterra pero he vivido en Chipiona durante 8 años” no sería lo correcto
puesto que en español eso quiere decir que ya no vivimos allí. Sin embargo cuando un inglés usa
este tiempo es para decir que todavía sigue viviendo allí, por lo tanto la traducción correcta sería
“Soy de Inglaterra pero vivo en Chipiona desde hace 8 años”) (Aquí no se podría usar un
presente simple puesto que dice desde cuándo esa acción se viene haciendo (recuerda que el
presente simple sólo se usa para una acción habitual y no expresa nada más)
Partículas usadas con este tiempo
• For and since
•
•
For: normalmente se traduce como “durante” (período de tiempo “for eight years”)
Since: normalmente se traduce como “desde” (punto de partida o punto exacto en el pasado
“since I was a child” “since last Christmas”)
• Ever or never
•
•
Ever: se traduce como “siempre” o “alguna vez”
Never: se traduce como “nunca”
• Already and yet
•
•
Already: se traduce como “ya”. Se usa sólo en afirmativasy se coloca en medio de las dos formas
verbales. “He has already come” (ya ha venido)
Yet: se traduce como “ya” o “aún o todavía”. Se usa para negativas o interrogativas y se coloca al
final de la oración. “Has he come yet?” (¿Ya ha venido?) “He hasn’t come yet” (No ha venido
aún/todavía)
• Just
•
Junto con el presente perfecto, la frase se traduciría como “acabar de…” y se coloca en medio de
las dos formas verbales: “He has just come” (Él acaba de venir)
• How long…? Para preguntar “¿Cuánto tiempo…?
ACTIVITIES ON THE FIRST USE
ACTIVIDADES DEL PRIMER USO
•
Vamos por parte:
Empezaremos por el uso 1
1.
Look at the picture. What has happened? (¿Qué ha pasado?)
(He/clean/his shoes)
He has cleaned his shoes
(She/close/the door)
(They/go to bed)
(It /stop/rain)
(The picture/fall down)
ACTIVITIES 1
•
Complete the sentences with the verb from the list. Use the present perfect (have/has + past
participle of the verb). (recuerda que antes de empezar a hacer el ejercicio debes asegurarte
de que conoces todo el vocabulario)
Break buy finish do go go lose paint read take
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
have finished
“Are they still having dinner?” “No, they _________________”
I ________________________ some new shoes. Do you want to see them?
“Is Tom here?” “No, he __________________ to work”
“_____________ you ____________ the shopping?” “No , I’m going to do it later”
“Where’s your key?” “I don’t know. I _______________it”
Look! Somebody ________________________ that window.
Your house looks different. _____________ you ______________ it?
I can’t find my umbrella. Somebody _____________________ it.
I’m looking for Sarah. Where _______________ she____________?
“Do you want the newspaper?” “No, thanks. I ___________________ it.”
•
A las oraciones anteriores: 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7 y 10, insértales las partículas vistas anteriormente
como: already, yet o just y tradúcelas.
Ever and Never
Lewis
Ann
Have you ever been to Rome?
Yes, I have. Many times
(¿Has ido alguna vez a Roma?)
Have you ever been to Japan?
No, I’ve never been to
Japan
Ann is asking questions to Lewis beginning have you ever…? Write the questions
1.
(Paris)
2.
(ride a motorbike)
3.
(drive a car)
4.
(play golf)
5.
(eat Japanese food)
6.
(sail)
7.
(break your arm)
8.
(visit a museum)
Have you ever been to Paris?
Have you ever riden a motorbike?
Write answers about yourself. I’ve never been to Paris, …
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
No, I’ve never been to Paris
Yes, many times
No, never
Yes, once
No, never
No, never
Yes, a few times
Yes, twice
SECOND USE
•
•
Uso 2 del Presente Perfecto
Estudia esto:
Friday
STUDY THIS
Margaret and Sue are on holiday in London. Sue arrived in London
on Monday. Today is Friday. They are in the British Museum.
How long have
you been in
London, dear?
I’ve been in London
since Monday
Si traducimos “¿Cuánto tiempo has estado en
Londres?” parece que la persona ya ha vuelto,
sin embargo no es eso lo que queremos decir con
este tiempo verbal. La traducción correcta sería
“¿Desde cuándo estás en Londres?”o “Cuánto
tiempo llevas en Londres?” para que digamos lo
que verdaderamente se quiere expresar con esta
pregunta.
La respuesta sería por lo tanto: “Estoy en Londres
desde el lunes” o “Llevo en Londres desde el
lunes”
• Compara:
Harry is in Canada
Present Perfect
He has been in Canada since April
(not “He is in Canada since April”)
Are you married?
x
How long have you been married?
(not “How long are you married?”)
Do you Know Sarah? How long have you known her?
x
Present Simple
I’ve known her for a long time
(not “How long do you know her?”
x
Linda lives in London How long has she lived in London? She has lived there all her life
We have a car
How long have you had your car?
We’ve had it for a year
•
Can you answer these questions:
1.
A man says: “I’ve been in France for six years”. Is he in France when he
says this?
2.
A woman says, “I was in Japan for three years”. Is she in Japan when
she says this?
3.
Some body says, “I’ve worked with Eric for 30 years, and I worked with
Sally for 25 years”. Which one does he still work with?
4.
Somebody says, “I did seven years’ French at school”. Is he or she still at
school?
5.
You are in America. Somebody asks, “How long are you here for?” Does
the person want to know when your visit started, or when it will end?
6.
What does “How long have you been here for?” mean?
ACTIVITIES ON THE SECOND USE
ACTIVIDADES DEL SEGUNDO USO
•
Complete these sentences. Use present perfect
1.
has been
Jill is in London. She ________________________
in London since Monday
2.
has known
I know George. I _________________________
him for a long time
3.
They are married. They ________________________ since 1983
4.
Brian is ill. He _________________________ ill for a week.
5.
We live in this house. We ___________________________ here for ten years
6.
I know Tom very well. I _____________________ him for a long time
7.
Alice works in a bank. She ________________________ there for three years.
8.
She has a headache. She ________________________ a headache since she got up.
• Make questions with How long…?
1. Jill is in London.
How long has Jill been in London?
2. I know George.
How long have you known George?
3. Mike and Judy are in Brazil. How long...
4. My brother lives in Germany
5. It is raining
6. Bill is a teacher
7. I have a motorbike
8. Linda and Frank are married
9. Alan works in London
FOR
For
four days
an hour
a week
a month
five years
ten minutes
two hours
three weeks
six months
a long time
SINCE
We use for + a period of time
We use since+ the start of the period
Since
Monday
9 o’clock
24 July
December
1985
Wednesday
12.30
10 October
Christmas
I got up
•Write for or since
1.
She’s been in London __________________ Monday
2.
She’s been in London __________________ four days
3.
Mike has been ill ___________ a long time. He’s been in hospital __________ October
4.
My aunt has been in Australia _________________ 15 years
5.
Nobody lives in those houses. They have been empty ________________many years
6.
Mrs Harris is in her office. She’s been there ________________ 7 o’clock
7.
India has been an independent country ________________1947
8.
The bus is late. We’ve been waiting ___________________20 minutes.
Write sentences. Use the present perfect simple tense and
for and since
1.
2.
She is in London now. She arrived there four days ago.
She has been there for four days.
Jack is here. He arrived here on Thursday
3.
I know Sue. I first met Sue two years ago.
4.
I have a camera. I bought it in 2001
5.
They are married. They got married six months ago.
PRESENT PERFECT vs PAST SIMPLE
Compara:
Present perfect
Past Simple
I have lost my key
(= I can’t find them now”)
but
I lost my key yesterday
Bill has gone home
(=He isn’t here now)
but
Bill went home ten minutes ago
Have you seen Ann?
(=Where is she now?)
but
When did you see Ann?
Time until now
past
Finished time
now
past
now
Have you ever been to Spain?
(=in your life until now)
but
Did you go to Spain last year?
My friend is a writer. He has written
many books
but
Shakespeare wrote many plays and poems
We’ve lived in Singapore for six years
(=We live there now)
but
We lived in Glasgow for six years but now
we live in Singapore
ACTIVITIES
PRESENT PERFECT vs SIMPLE PAST
•
Use the words in brackets ( ) to answer the questions
1.
Have you lost your key?
(yesterday) Yes, I lost it
yesterday
2.
Have you seen Alan?
(ten minutes ago)
3.
Have you painted the door? (last week)
4.
Has Sarah gone to France? (on Friday)
5.
Have they had dinner?
6.
Has he started his new job? (yesterday)
(at 7 o’clock)
•
In these sentences the verbs are underlined. Are they right or
wrong? Correct the verbs that are wrong.
1. Tom arrived last week
RIGHT
2. Have you seen Pam last week?
WRONG
3. I have finished my work
4. I have finished my work at 2 o’clock
5. When have you finished your work?
6. George has left school three years ago.
7. “Where’s Ann?” “She’s gone to the cinema
8. Napoleon Bonaparte has died in 1821
9. Have you ever been to Britain?
10. I haven’t seen you at the party on Saturday
11. The weather has been very bad last week
Did you see…?
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Present Perfect (Presente Perfecto)