INTERIOR ARCHITECTURE
INTERIOR ACCESSORIES
Group 8
B02/53525/2012: Shiraz Shareen Aziz Din.
B02/0903/2012: Wambua Sarah Mwende.
INTRODUCTION


Accessories are added elements that have various effects to the original
element.
Once the layout, furniture, lighting, artwork, electronics, accessories,
paint and other elements have been established, accessories are then
used to finalize the design.
These accessories include:
-Ceramics (Vases)
-Mirrors
-Art and Pictures
-Sculptures
-Clocks and Candles
-Indoor Plants
1. CERAMICS
 Ceramics
are inorganic, non-metallic
solids prepared by the action of heat
and subsequent cooling
TYPES OF CERAMIC PRODUCTS
Structural- eg bricks, floor and roof tiles
 Refractories- eg kiln lining, gas fire radiants,
steel and glass making crucibles.
 White wares- eg tableware, cookware, wall tiles,
pottery products and sanitary ware.

POTTERY TYPES
1.Earthenware – often made
from clay, quartz and
feldspar It is, or can be,
fired at relatively low
temperatures
and vitrification does not
take place, leaving the
body slightly porous(if
not glazed) .

After firing the body is porous
and opaque, and depending on
the raw materials used will be
colored from white to buff to
red. Earthenware is also less
strong, less tough and more
porous than stoneware, but is
less expensive and easier to
work.
2. Stoneware- a vitreous or
semi-vitreous ceramic ware
made primarily from nonrefractory fire Stoneware,
which, though dense,
impermeable and hard
enough to resist scratching
by a steel point.
 differs
from porcelain because it is
more opaque, and normally
only partially vitrified. It is
usually coloured grey or
brownish because of
impurities in the clay used
for its manufacture, and is
normally glazed."
3. Porcelain- (also known
as China or Fine China) is
a ceramic material made
by heating materials,
generally including clay in
the form of kaolin, in
a kiln to temperatures
between
1,200 °C (2,192 °F) and
1,400 °C (2,552 °F).
 The toughness, strength,
and translucence of
porcelain arise mainly
from the formation
of glass and the
mineral mullite within the
fired body at these high
temperatures.
HOW ARE CERAMIC PRODUCTS MADE?
SHAPING AND FORMING METHODS
1. HAND BUILDING


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This is the earliest forming
method.
Wares can be constructed by
hand from coils of clay,
combining flat slabs of clay,
or pinching solid balls of
clay or some combination of
these. Parts of hand-built
vessels are often joined
together with the aid of slip,
an aqueous suspension of
clay body and water.
Some studio potters find
hand-building more
conducive to create one-of-akind works of art.
2.THE POTTERS WHEEL

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In a process called
"throwing“, a ball of clay is
placed in the centre of a
turntable, called the wheelhead, which the potter
rotates with a stick, with foot
power or with a variablespeed electric motor.
During the process of
throwing, the wheel rotates
while the solid ball of soft
clay is pressed, squeezed and
pulled gently upwards and
outwards into a hollow shape.
Wares produced by this
method have high artistic
merit though reproducibility
is poor
3.ROLLER HEAD MACHINE



This machine is for
shaping wares on a
rotating mould, as in with
a rotary shaping tool.
The rotary shaping tool is
a shallow cone having the
same diameter as the ware
being formed and shaped
to the desired form of the
back of the article being
made.
Roller head machines
remain the dominant
method for producing
flatware.
4. SLIPCASTING


A figurine made by slipcasting

This is ideally suited to the
making of wares that cannot be
formed by other methods of
shaping.
A slip, made by mixing clay body
with water, is poured into a highly
absorbent plaster mould. Water
from the slip is absorbed into the
mould leaving a layer of clay body
covering its internal surfaces and
taking its internal shape. Excess
slip is poured out of the mould,
which is then split open and the
moulded object removed.
Slipcasting is widely used in the
production of sanitary wares and is
also used for making smaller
articles, such as intricately
detailed figurines.
POTTERY DECORATION TECHNIQUES
1. Impressed surface details

Making impressions in the damp
clay surface can be used to create
any number of freehand
impressions and marks, limited
only by your own imagination
and patience.
2.Use of slips
A slip is a suspension in water of
clay and/or other materials used in
the production of ceramic ware.
Decoratively its placed onto a wet or
leather-hard clay body surface by
dipping, painting or splashing.
Slipware may be carved or burnished
to change the surface appearance of
the ware. Colored slips can be used to
create pieces of ceramic art by
techniques similar to paint in other
media.
3. Glazing



Glaze is a layer or coating of a vitreous substance which has been fused
to a ceramic object through firing.
Glaze can serve to color, increase gloss, decorate, strengthen or
waterproof an item.
Ceramic glaze raw materials generally include silica, which will be the
main glass former. Colorants, such as iron oxide, copper
carbonate or cobalt carbonate, and sometimes opacifiers such as tin
oxide or zirconium oxide, are used to modify the visual appearance of the
fired glaze.
CERAMISTS
ABOUT ODUNDO’S POTTERY
•Odundo's best-known ceramics are hand built, using
a coiling technique.
•She mostly uses terracotta to make her pieces
•Each piece is burnished, covered with slip, and then
burnished again.
•The pieces are fired in an oxidizing atmosphere,
which turns them a red-orange.
•A second firing in an oxygen-poor (reducing)
atmosphere causes the clay to turn black; this is
known as reduction-firing.
•Many of the vessels she creates are reminiscent of
the human form, often following the curves of the
spine, stomach, or hair.
•Her work may be found in museum and private
collections worldwide.
WHERE CAN I BUY POTTERY PIECES?
Kazuri beads and pottery center in karen
 Earthworks pottery in westlands
 Kenya clay products limited
 Llesi pottery group

2. MIRRORS
A mirror is flat or curved surface usually produced of glass that
has a reflective coating applied to it.

Brief History
o
o
Man first got reflections from rivers, ponds and
other natural entities
The earliest man made mirrors from polished
stone and mirrors made from black volcanic
glass obsidian - Found in Turkey dating back
to at least 6000 years.
o Also found in Ancient Egypt - polished
copper with the round face of the
mirror embellished with
ornamentation, Mesopotamia polished metal, Central and Southern
America - polished stone,
o China - made from metal alloys, a mixture of
tin and copper called speculum metal that
could be highly polished to made a reflective
surface as well as mirrors made of polished
bronze.
o Metal alloys or precious metals mirrors were
very valuable items in ancient times only
affordable to the very wealthy.
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
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During the period of the Renaissance in Europe, mirrors were made by
a method of coating glass with a tin and mercury amalgam. In the
sixteenth century, Venice became the centre of manufacture for such
mirrors. A factory for manufacturing mirrors called Saint-Gobain was
established in France.
Mirrors were still expensive luxuries and only the very rich owned it.
In 1835 Justus von Liebig, a German chemist, developed the silveredglass mirror where a thin layer of metallic silver put onto glass by the
chemical reduction of silver nitrate.
This enabled mirrors to be manufactured on a much larger scale, and
that is when ordinary people could buy a mirror.
TYPES OF MIRRORS

There are two main types:
- Silvered and Non-Silvered
Silvered Mirrors

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Concave Mirror: Glass is curved inward, and then
coated, creating enlarged reflections. Useful as a
grooming aide.
Convex Mirror: The glass curves outward, creating
reduced reflections. It can be either decorative or a
useful tool in parking garages or busy corridors to
help people see around the corner
Silvered tinted Mirrors: Tinted mirrors are
produced using the methods described above.
The silver coating is applied to one of the
various tinted glass substrates available on
the market. Tinted mirrors are generally used
in decorative applications where color and
diminished light reflection are desirable.
Non-Silvered Mirrors

- Pyrolytic Mirrors: These are highly
reflective coated glass mirrors with
performance characteristics like
that of silvered mirrors. They are
used in shower doors and other
areas where moisture can affect the
substrate of silvered mirrors.

Transparent/Two-way Mirrors:
They are designed to permit vision
through one direction while giving
the appearance of a standard mirror
from the opposite side. Their major
application is to permit undetected
observation for study or surveillance
in interior conditions such as
learning centers in schools and
universities, medical and psychiatric
clinics, and security stations in
casinos or high-traffic retail stores.
HOW A SILVERED MIRROR IS MADE

All mirrors for interior use are manufactured by the conveyor, wet
deposition method:
1.
Glass Cleaning: Annealed or fully tempered glass is thoroughly cleaned
by the application of cleaners and passing contact with oscillating scrub
brush units and then rinsed.
2.
Surface Treatment: The surface of the glass is sensitized with a diluted
solution of tin chloride. This allows for the deposition of silver. Silver
nitrate is sprayed onto the sensitized surface of the glass along with other
chemical configurations; this forms a uniform silver layer on the glass.
3.
Protection of Silver Layer: A layer of copper is deposited directly onto the
silver. It can be applied in two ways: chemically or galvanically. Recent
technological advances have lead to the development of copper free
protective films, which also prevent silver oxidation.
4.
Protective mirror Application: Once the metal layers are attached to the
glass, they are covered by a protective mirror backing paint. They protect
the metal layers from corrosion and from mechanical scratching. The
paint can be applied either by passing the glass through a curtain of paint
or by passing glass in contact with a roller paint coater. They can be
applied as a single coat or double coat which are both effective.
APPLICATIONS OF MIRRORS IN
INTERIOR DESIGN
1. To reflect light

Mirrors brighten a room,
and therefore are placed
near
lamps
or
light
fixtures or in places where
they’ll reflect natural light.
They also improve the inside lighting
of a room. For instance, a room that’s
painted in a dark color may seem
smaller as well as feel oppressive.
Adding mirrors to a number of walls
can counteract the darkness and
boost the color of wall space.

The best method to improve a room’s
lighting without needing more
electricity would be to place mirrors
reverse windows. The mirrors may
reflect natural sunlight streaming
with the windows and brighten the
entire room. Some homeowners
actually report a cost savings in
energy costs simply by reflecting the
free light in the sun.
Use a large, full-length
mirror in entrance ways to
instantly give a person a
sense of increased space
when they enter.
2. To Increase space
A wall of a mirror or mirrors in a small space, such as a bedroom or
dining room or hallway that is really squashed opens it up and creates a
sense of flow and increased area.
3. To create warmth

Placing a mirror on a mantle can make the fireplace area, which can often
feel cramped and dark, more inviting.
A mirror can also be placed next to
a fireplace to reflect the glow and
flames of the fire
4. For an artistic effect

This can be achieved by hanging a
series of mirrors on a wall. They
can be the same or vary in size and
shape. They can be arranged in
symmetrical or asymmetrical
patterns depending on the tone of
the room.
Many mirrored surfaces will reflect the
beauty of whatever room it is mounted in,
and the jumbled style will add its own
personality.
Each of the separate mirrors reflects a slightly different perspective, so
there is experience of a burst of color and shapes wherever the mirrors
are placed.
5. Accessorize using decorative mirrors.

You can use
simple frames,
add mosaic
tiles to the
border, or use
other materials
to make a
mirror fit the
room’s theme.
6. Vanity Mirrors In Bathrooms

Since full-length vanity mirrors are standard, embellishments and
thoughtful staging can be applied to make the bathrooms stand out.
6. In designing
 Group small mirrors together in different shapes
and sizes to create an interesting feature on a
wall but also bring light to the room.
 Glue mirrored tiles to your kitchen cabinet doors
so reflect the whole room to create a mosaic look
in your kitchen.
 Fit a mirror behind your stove, this is
traditionally a rather dark area in your kitchen
so add a mirror to bounce any available light
around the room. This will also give you more
light for when you’re cooking a meal.
 Place a big mirror beside your dining room table,
this adds to the mood of a dining room and keeps
it light and bright.
Suppliers In Kenya

Milways Interiors and Households - Along Argwings Khodhek
Road, Hurlingam Next to Malik Motors.

Furniture Palace International – Mombasa Rd.

Antarc – Mombasa Rd, Opposite Airtel Ltd.

Essajee Amijee – Lusaka Rd.

Impala Glass

Husseini Glass

MPPS

Tripple M

Kidoz Kenya
3. SCULPTURES

Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in
three dimensions and one of the plastic arts.

Durable sculptural processes originally
used carving (the removal of material) and
modelling (the addition of material, as clay) but
since modernism, shifts in sculptural process led
to an almost complete freedom of materials and
process.
MATERIALS USED
Metals especially bronze
 Stone
 Wood
 Bone
 Precious materials such as gold, silver, jade, and
ivory are often used for small luxury works
 terracotta and other ceramics
 Wax
 Stained glass

TYPES OF SCULPTURE

sculpture in the round- free-standing
sculpture that is meant to be viewed on all sides,
and is surrounded entirely by space

free-standing sculpture, such as statues, not
attached (except possibly at the base) to any
other surface
•
Relief- at least partly attached to a
background surface. Relief is often classified by
the degree of projection from the wall into low
or bas-relief, high relief, and sometimes an
intermediate mid-relief.

Apart from their
obvious decorative
qualities, sculptures
are used as
expressive pieces.
They may be used to
express one’s culture,
religion, beliefs,
ambitions and likes.
SCULPTERS IN KENYA;
Akamba handicrafts
They have their showroom in Mombasa and deal
with a wide range of handcrafted products.
4. PAINTINGS, ART AND PICTURES
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Paintings or any artwork makes a living space more pleasant and
intriguing.
They often well with other colors, shapes and textures you choose to put in
a certain area. They are included in an interior precisely because they
are complementary to almost any room.
Inside a house, in particular, the
normal entryways and hallways often
are the new display location for
paintings, photos or any artwork like
sculptures.
A beautiful large abstract
painting can spark some interesting
conversation with your guests in your
office or living area.
Heart display of
photos on wall
Canvas Printing on wall in
Arabic
Paintings high
up on the living
room wall


In the bathroom, attention to the
naturally high humidity is
important.
A well-protected piece of abstract
wall art or whimsy and color that
will make the room come alive
can therefore be used.

Displaying a lot of small, framed art
can be a fun way to add interest to a
bathroom, especially in small spaces.
Frame works on paper behind acrylic
or plexiglass (a transparent acrylic
plastic often used in place of glass),
which can hinder condensation build
up.
Bathroom doors hand-painted with
Italian-style frescos (a painting that
is done on wet plaster) in a bathroom
inside the Castello di Amorosa
Winery in Calistoga, California,
Thick mats can make artwork look
nicer and add an extra layer of
protection by keeping it further
away from the plexiglass
In Bedrooms
Painting behind a bed
inspired by nature.
Painting on a dark
wall.

Photos can be used to fill up
empty corners, hallways and
walls for a lively feel.
INDOOR PLANTS
WHY USE INDOOR PLANTS?
They are a quick decorating tool
 They have an air-purifying quality that can
absorb and strip toxins like formaldehyde from
materials in the home like carpets.
 Some like the aloe have medicinal value

NOTE;

Different plants require different care and
lighting conditions. Enough research should
therefore be made before purchasing any new
plant.
5. CLOCKS AND CANDLES


Clocks are used on walls for time as well as to accessorize the
walls.
Candles on the other hand provide more lighting, enhance the
mood and can produce a good scent in the atmosphere of a room.
Clocks on
shelf with
indoor plants,
pictures and
candles.
Clock on wall
above
fireplace
Candle,
painting
and
indoor
plant on
a
fireplace
Large
clock on
wall
from
floor.
Candle stands
Candles in a
fireplace
THANK YOU
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5. Interior Accessories