RDA &
Moving Images
Kelley McGrath
University of Oregon
March 14, 2012
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Caveats
Instructions for non-textual media in RDA
less developed
 Need more clarity, testing, tweaking
 No best practices and community
standards yet
 OLAC (http://olacinc.org/) will be a good
resource
 RDA itself also in flux

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Caveats

My best interpretations at the moment

Even the experts disagree about some
things

Watch for future developments and
emerging best practices
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Definitions: Content Type
Two-Dimensional Moving Image

Content expressed through images intended
to be perceived as moving, in two
dimensions. Includes motion pictures (using
live action and/or animation), film and video
recordings of performances, events, etc.,
video games, etc., other than those intended
to be perceived in three dimensions.
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Definitions: Content Type
Three-Dimensional Moving Image
 Content expressed through images
intended to be perceived as moving, in
three dimensions. Includes 3-D motion
pictures (using live action and/or
animation), 3-D video games, etc.
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Definitions: Content Type
Cartographic Moving Image
 Cartographic content expressed through
images intended to be perceived as
moving, in two dimensions. Includes
satellite images of the Earth or other
celestial bodies in motion.
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Preferred Source of Info
2.2.2.3 Resources Consisting of
Moving Images
1.
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Title frame(s) or screen(s)
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Preferred Source of Info
2.2.2.3 Resources Consisting of
Moving Images
2.
a) label bearing a title that is permanently
printed on or affixed to the resource,
excluding accompanying textual material
or a container
Example: a label on a videodisc
-OR-
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Preferred Source of Info
2.2.2.3 Resources Consisting of
Moving Images
2.
-ORb) embedded metadata in textual form
that contains a title (e.g., metadata
embedded in an MPEG video file).
How does this apply to DVDs?
Where does the disc menu fit in?
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Preferred Source of Info
2.2.2.3 Resources Consisting of
Moving Images
3.
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Another source forming part of the
resource itself, giving preference to
sources in which the information is
formally presented (includes guides
and other accompanying material for
comprehensive descriptions and
publisher-supplied containers)
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Preferred Source of Info
2.2.2.3 Resources Consisting of
Moving Images
Alternative
Use an eye-readable label bearing a title that
is permanently printed on or affixed to the
resource (excluding accompanying textual
material or a container) in preference to the
title frame or frames, or title screen or
screens.
1.
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Preferred Source of Info
Some fallout for information not best taken
from the title frames
Source of information for publication
statement in order of preference
a)
b)
c)
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same source as the title proper
another source within the
resource itself (disc label if using
title frames, container, guide)
another source from 2.2.4
(external source)
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Preferred Source of Info
Some fallout for identifying where
statements of responsibility come from
AACR2


SOR prescribed source = chief source =
source of title proper
If SOR not from prescribed source =
brackets
RDA



SOR: Prefer source of title proper
IF SOR anywhere on resource = no
brackets
Can combine multiple sources in one SOR
with no indication of separate sources
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Note on Source of Title
2.20.2.3 Note on source of title
 Make
a note on the source from
which the title proper is taken if it is a
source other than the title frame or
title screen of a resource consisting of
moving images. [NOT CORE]
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Parallel Titles
2.3.3.2 Sources of Information
 Take
parallel titles proper from any
source within the resource.
 Could include optional subtitles on
DVDs
 No limits in RDA. What to do when
there are many parallel titles?
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Statements of Responsibility
AACR2 7.1F1 Statement of Responsibility
Persons or bodies credited in the chief
source of information with a major role in
creating a film (e.g., as producer,
director, animator). Give all other
statements of responsibility (including
those relating to performance) in notes.
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Statements of Responsibility
AACR2 7.7B6 SOR Notes

Cast: Featured players, performers,
narrators, and/or presenters

Credits: Persons (other than the cast)
who have contributed to the artistic and/or
technical production of a motion picture or
videorecording and who are not named in
the statements of responsibility. Do not
include the names of assistants,
associates, etc., or any other persons
making only a minor contribution.
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Statements of Responsibility
2.4.1.1 Scope
a statement relating to the identification
and/or function of any persons, families,
or corporate bodies responsible for the
creation of, or contributing to the
realization of, the intellectual or artistic
content of a resource
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Statements of Responsibility
2.4.1.1 Scope
Excludes:
performers of music whose
participation is confined to performance,
execution, or interpretation (511)
 performers, narrators, and/or
presenters in a motion picture or video
recording (511)

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Statements of Responsibility
2.4.1.1 Scope
Excludes:

persons who have contributed to the
artistic and/or technical production of a
resource (508)

persons, families, or corporate bodies
responsible for the production,
publication, distribution, or
manufacture of a resource (260)
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Statements of Responsibility
2.4.2.3 Recording Statements of
Responsibility Relating to Title Proper
If not all statements of responsibility
appearing on the source or sources of
information are being recorded, give
preference to those identifying creators
of the intellectual or artistic content.
 In case of doubt, record the first
statement.

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Performer, Narrator, Presenter
7.23 (511)
A
person, family, or corporate body
responsible for performing, narrating,
and/or presenting a work
 Record if considered important
 Record medium of performance for
musicians
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Artistic and/or Technical
Credit (current)
7.24 (508)

listing of persons, families, or corporate
bodies making contributions to the artistic
and/or technical production of a motion
picture or video recording other than as
performers, narrators, or presenters.
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Artistic and/or Technical
Credit (forthcoming)
7.24 (508)
 listing
of persons, families, or
corporate bodies making
contributions to the artistic and/or
technical production of a resource if
they are considered to be important.
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Artistic and/or Technical
Credit
7.24
Record the names ... who have
contributed to the artistic and/or technical
production of a resource...
 Do not include the names of assistants,
associates, etc., or any other persons
making only a minor contribution.
 Preface each name or group of names
with a statement of function

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Responsibility/Credits
 2.4:
an RKO Radio Picture ; a
Mercury production ; original screen
play, Herman J. Mankiewicz, Orson
Welles ; photography, Gregg Toland ;
direction-production, Orson Welles.
 7.23: Joseph Cotton, Dorothy
Comingore, Agnes Moorehead…
 7.24: Editor, Robert Wise ; music,
Bernard Herrmann
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Relationship Designators
(Relator Terms)
For Creators


Screenwriter An author of a screenplay,
script, or scene. [subcategory under author]
Filmmaker A person, family, or corporate
body responsible for creating an independent
or personal film. A filmmaker is individually
responsible for the conception and execution
of all aspects of the film.
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Relationship Designators
(Relator Terms)
For … Associated with a Work

Director responsible for the general
management and supervision of a filmed
performance, a radio or television program, etc.
film director
television director

Producer responsible for most of the business
aspects of a production for screen, sound
recording, television, webcast, etc. …
film producer
television producer
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Relationship Designators
(Relator Terms)
For … Associated with a Work

Director of photography captures
images, either electronically or on film or
video stock, and often selects and
arranges the lighting. Also used for chief
cinematographer or videographer.
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Relationship Designators
(Relator Terms)
For … Associated with an
Expression (selected)
Animator
 Composer (expression)
 Costume designer
 Editor of moving image work
 Musical director
 Production designer

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Relationship Designators
(Relator Terms)
For … Associated with an
Expression (selected)

Performer
 Actor
 Conductor
 Dancer
 Narrator
 Teacher
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Relationship Designators
(Relator Terms)
Corporate Bodies Associated
with a Work

Production company responsible for
financial, technical, and organizational
management of a production for stage,
screen, sound recording, television, webcast,
etc.
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Relationship Designators
(Relator Terms)
Corporate Bodies Associated with a
Manifestation
Publishers
 Broadcaster involved in broadcasting a
manifestation to an audience via radio, TV,
webcast, etc.
Distributors
 Film distributor involved in distributing a
moving image manifestation to theaters or other
distribution channels
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Relationship Designators
(Relator Terms)
Corporate Bodies Associated with Manifestation
No relationship designators for publisher,
distributors because they are elements in RDA
Should still be able to identify based on:
 RDA: “If none of the terms listed in this appendix
is appropriate or sufficiently specific, use a term
indicating the nature of the relationship as
concisely as possible”
 Or by using a term from a standard vocabulary
such as the MARC vocabulary at
http://www.loc.gov/marc/relators/. Either terms or
codes may be used
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Relationship Designators
(Relator Terms)
Corporate Bodies
OLAC RDA test group’s preliminary
recommendations for typical library cataloging
of moving image materials:
In most cases, use only:
 production company
 publisher/distributor (element-level
relationships)
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Content, Carrier, Media
DVD Video
 336
two-dimensional moving image
ǂ2 rdacontent
 337 video ǂ2 rdamedia
 338 videodisc ǂ2 rdacarrier
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Content, Carrier, Media
VHS Video
 336
two-dimensional moving image
ǂ2 rdacontent
 337 video ǂ2 rdamedia
 338 videocassette ǂ2 rdacarrier
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Content, Carrier, Media
Streaming Video or Online Video Game
 336
two-dimensional moving image
ǂ2 rdacontent
 337 computer ǂ2 rdamedia
 338 online resource ǂ2 rdacarrier
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Content, Carrier, Media
QuickTime Video Instruction
or Video Game on DVD-ROM
 336
two-dimensional moving image
ǂ2 rdacontent
 337 computer ǂ2 rdamedia
 338 computer disc ǂ2 rdacarrier
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Content, Carrier, Media
DualDisc (DVD video on one side;
DVD audio with music on the other)

336 two-dimensional moving image
ǂa performed music ǂ2 rdacontent

337 video ǂa audio ǂ2 rdamedia

338 videodisc ǂa audio disc
ǂ2 rdacarrier
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Content, Carrier, Media
Playaway View
337 computer ǂ2 rdamedia ???
 338 other ǂ2 rdacarrier

-OR-
337 video ǂ2 rdamedia ???
 338 other ǂ2 rdacarrier

-OR-
337 unmediated ǂ2 rdamedia?
 338 objectǂ2 rdacarrier

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New Technical Elements
3.18.2.1 Video Format
Video format is a standard, etc., used to
encode the analog video content of a resource.



Beta
U-matic
VHS
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New Technical Elements
3.18.3.1 Broadcast Standard
Broadcast standard is a system used to format
a video resource for television broadcast.




HDTV
NTSC
PAL
SECAM
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New Technical Elements
3.19.3.1 Encoding Format
Encoding format is a schema, standard, etc.,
used to encode the digital content of a
resource.
Video encoding formats:
•
•
•
•
Blu-Ray
DVD-R
DVD video
HD-DVD
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•
•
•
•
MPEG-4
Quicktime
RealVideo
SVCD
• VCD
• Windows
media
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New Technical Elements
3.19.6.1 Regional Encoding
Regional encoding is a code identifying the
region of the world for which a DVD videodisc
has been encoded and preventing the disc from
being played on a player sold in a different
region.


region 4
all regions
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New Technical Elements
7.19.1 Aspect Ratio
Aspect ratio is the ratio of the width to the
height of a moving image.
Record the aspect ratio of the resource, using
one or more terms from the list below, as
appropriate:
 full screen (less than 1.5:1)
 wide screen (1.5:1 or greater)
 mixed (multiple aspect ratios in same work)
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New Technical Elements
7.19.1 Aspect Ratio
In addition, record the numerical ratio in
standard format with a denominator of 1, if
known.

wide screen (2.35:1)

full screen (1.33:1)

wide screen (1.85:1)
full screen (1.33:1) [resource includes both]

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New Technical Elements
7.19.1.4 Details of Aspect Ratio
If a video has been modified from its original
aspect ratio, can bring out original

full screen (1.33:1); original aspect ratio:
1.85:1
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Technical Details
1. Similar to AACR2
Using the controlled list for carriers
300 1 videodisc (120 min.) : $b sound,
color ; $c 4 3/4 in.
538 DVD; NTSC; Dolby digital 5.1.
500 Wide screen (1.78:1).
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Technical Details
2. Similar to AACR2
Using conventional terminology for carriers
300 1 DVD video (120 min.) : $b sound,
color ; $c 4 3/4 in.
538 NTSC; Dolby digital 5.1.
500 Wide screen (1.78:1).
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Technical Details
3. Some technical information in 300
Using the controlled list for carriers
300 1 videodisc (NTSC, 120 min.) :
$b DVD video, sound, color ; $c 4 3/4
in.
538 Dolby digital 5.1.
500 Wide screen (1.78:1).
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Technical Details
4. New MARC fields
Using the controlled list for carriers
300 1 videodisc (120 min.) : $b sound, color ;
$c 4 3/4 in.
344 $h Dolby digital 5.1
346 $b NTSC
347 $b DVD video
500 Wide screen (1.78:1).
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Carrier Desc. Example
Streaming Video
300 1 online resource (1 video file, 17 min.) :
$b Flash Video, sound, color.
Videocassette
300 1 videocassette (120 min.) : $b sound,
black and white (tinted) ; $c 1/2 in. [or 2
cm]
[VHS in 346$a, 538 or parentheses in 300 $a]
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Carrier Desc. Examples
DualDisc
300 1 DualDisc (65, 120 min.) : $b CD
audio, DVD video ; $c 4 3/4 in.
Blu-ray
300 1 videodisc (75 min.) : $b sound, color ;
$c 4 3/4 in.
[Blu-Ray in 347$b, 300$b or 538]
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Carrier Desc. Examples
Video Instruction on Computer Discs
300 1 DVD-ROM (120 min.) : $b QuickTime,
sound, color with black and white
sequences ; $c 4 3/4 in.
300 1 computer disc (5 video files, 30 min.) :
$b RealVideo, sound, color ; $c 4 3/4 in.
[CD-ROM drive mentioned in 538]
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Carrier Desc. Examples
Video Game
300 1 computer disc : $b Blu-Ray, sound, color
; $c 4 3/4 in. + $e 1 booklet
[System requirements: PlayStation 3; 143 MB
hard disk space] [Blu-Ray could go in 347$b
or 538]
300 1 DVD-ROM : $b sound, color ; $c 4 3/4 in.
[System requirements: Xbox 360 with NTSC
designation; 4 MB memory; HDTV
720p/1080i/1080p]
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Other Content Elements
7.14 Accessibility Content (546)

Assists those with a sensory impairment in the
greater understanding of content which their
impairment prevents them fully seeing or
hearing

Includes accessible labels, audio description,
captioning, image description, sign language,
and subtitles in the same language as the
spoken content
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Other Content Elements
7.14 Accessibility Content (546)
546 Closed-captioned.
 546 English or Spanish soundtracks;
optional English subtitles for the deaf or
hard of hearing (SDH).
 546 Closed-captioned; optional audiodescribed soundtrack for the visually
impaired.

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Other Content Elements
25.1.1.3 Structured Description
of the Related Work (505)

Contains: 'Til death do us plots / by Julianne
Bernstein — Class act / by Michael Elkin

No definition; minimal examples
Probably best to continue current practice
Current practice includes some elements that
RDA maps to expressions


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Other Content Elements
25.1.1.3 Structured Description of
the Related Work (505)

505 0- Jump start cardio (approximately 41
min.) -- Fat burn accelerator (approximately 52
min.)

505 0- Qu'est-ce qu'une tête? = What is a
head? / Arte France ; Les Films d'Ici ; a film by
Michel Van Zele (64 min. : color) -- Un homme
parmi les hommes = A man among men :
Alberto Giacometti / script, Madeleine Lagneau ;
[a film by] Jean-Marie Drot (52 min. : black and
white).
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Other Content Elements
Chapter 7: Describing Content of
Works and Expressions
7.7 Intended Audience (521)
 7.10 Summarization of the Content (520)
 7.11 Place and Date of Capture (518)
 7.12 Language of the Content (546)

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Other Content Elements
Chapter 7: Describing Content of
Works and Expressions
7.17.3 Color of Moving Image (300$b)
 7.18 Sound Content (300$b)
 7.22 Duration (300$a)
 7.28 Award (586) [not explicit in AACR2]

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Language Expressions
RDA 6.11.1.3
Record the language or languages of the
expression using an appropriate term or terms
in the language preferred by the agency
creating the data. Select terms from a standard
list of names of languages, if available.
RDA 6.11.1.4
If a single expression of a work involves more
than one language, record each of the
languages.
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Language Expressions
RDA 0.6.3
When recording data identifying an expression,
include as a minimum the elements listed
below that are applicable to that expression.
 Identifier for the expression
 Content type
 Language of expression
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Language Expressions
RDA 0.6.3
Record the elements either as additions to
the access point representing the
expression, as separate elements, or as
both.
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Language Expressions
LCPS 0.6.3
LC practice: When … recording an element
to differentiate one work or expression from
another work or expression or from a name
for a person, family, or corporate body,
always add the element to the access point.
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Language Expressions
RDA’s Intent?




Only spoken or sung languages in access
points?
Include subtitle languages? Intertitles?
Distinguish soundtracks vs. subtitles?
Distinguish plain English subtitles vs.
captions and subtitles for the deaf and hardof-hearing (SDH)?
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Language Expressions
Typical DVD
English soundtrack
 French soundtrack
 English SDH
 Spanish subtitles

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Language Expressions
Possibilities we considered: #1
Only give soundtrack languages; consider each
language option to be a separate expression
Dracula. $l English
Dracula. $l French
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Language Expressions
Possibilities we considered: #2
(incorrect)
Only give soundtrack languages; consider the
DVD as a whole to be a separate expression
Dracula. $l English & French
Per RDA this is not a correct interpretation and
the different soundtracks are different
expressions
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Language Expressions
Possibilities we considered: #3
Give both soundtrack and subtitle languages
without distinction; consider each language
option to be a separate expression
Dracula. $l English
Dracula. $l French
Dracula. $l Spanish
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Language Expressions
Possibilities we considered: # 4
Give both soundtrack and subtitle languages
with some sort of distinction (not explicit in
RDA, but perhaps could be considered other
distinguishing information); consider each
language option to be a separate expression
Dracula. $l English (soundtrack)
Dracula. $l English (subtitles)
Dracula. $l French (soundtrack)
Dracula. $l Spanish (subtitles)
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Language Expressions
Possibilities we considered: #5
(incorrect)
Give both soundtrack and subtitle options
languages without distinction; consider the
DVD as a whole to be a separate expression.
Note that this is indistinguishable from a film,
such as Babel, that was made with a mixed
language soundtrack and is incorrect per RDA
6.11.1.4.
Dracula. $l English, French & Spanish
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Language Expressions
Possibilities we considered: #6
All combinations explicit
Dracula. $l English (soundtrack)
Dracula. $l English (soundtrack) & English (subtitles)
Dracula. $l English (soundtrack) & Spanish
(subtitles)
Dracula. $l French (soundtrack)
Dracula. $l French (soundtrack) & English (subtitles)
Dracula. $l French (soundtrack) & Spanish (subtitles)
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Language Expressions
RDA 17.3
If there is more than one expression of the
work, record the expression manifested.
 If more than one expression is embodied
in the manifestation, only the predominant
or first-named expression manifested is
required.

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Language Expressions
RDA 17.3



Option to identify only the predominant or
first‐named expression (which in the case of
DVDs would be largely arbitrary)
Undermines the usefulness of these
expression access points; not predictable for
users
Users have no way to know why some
language options get expression access
points qualified by language and others don’t.
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Language Expressions
Imagine an outlier with multiple
soundtracks and ten or fifteen subtitle
tracks
 Do people browse titles this way for
movies and expect a list by language?
 Or do 008/lang and 041 limiters potentially
work better?

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Language Expressions

Might be better for users if we stick
primarily to work access points for moving
images and record distinguishing elements
like language in another element
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Language Expressions
More Background
MLA/OLAC RDA test group discussion
summary:
Major Issues with Access Points
http://www.olacinc.org/drupal/capc_files/ML
A-OLAC_RDAtest1.pdf
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Language Expressions
In the meantime…
A plug for structured data and more authority
records for the future:






041$h for original language
041 $a/$j for all languages on manifestation
046$k for original date
130 uniform title even when no conflict
257 country of production
$4/$e for 1xx/7xx names
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Questions?
???
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RDA & Moving Images - American Library Association