Open Philosophies for Associative Autopoietic
Digital Ecosystems
Paolo Dini
LSE
Digital Ecosystems Cluster Concertation Workshop
Bruxelles, 21 May 2007
Map
OPAALS
Partners
Timeline
WPs
Outcomes
Associative & Autopoietic Digital Ecosystems
Disciplines
Process
Disciplinary
integration
Instantiated
Methodology
Topics
Social
Science
Computer
Science
Natural
Science
Spaces of
Debate
Beyond
Turing
Machines
Gene
Expression
Computing
Language
OPAALS Website
Use cases &
Component
Architecture
of DBE
OKS Repository
OKS Architecture
DBE in 2003
and Now
Social
Science
Language
Critical Theory of Technology
Social Constructivism
Paradigms
Empirical &
Action Research
Computing
Open Source
Implementation
Memory
Science
Evolution
Testing
Digital
Business
Ecosystem
Language
Adoption
Legend
Networks
Business
Theoretical
Applied
Process View of
Digital Ecosystems Research
Time
“Reflexivity”:
Before we can preach
about the role of social science
in socio-economic development
catalysed by ICTs, we need to learn
how to communicate and work together
across disciplinary boundaries
2.5-A-NC-SA
Strands of Research
Open Source 2.0
Creative Commons
Regulatory framework,
identity, accountability
& trust
Evolutionary
distributed service-oriented
architecture
Regional Catalysts
& SMEs
ExE & EvE
Digital
Ecosystems
Formalisation
of knowledge
(BML)
Distributed
transaction model
Evolutionary
computation
Sustainable
socio-economic
development
Metabolic
computation
Scale-free,
P2P networks
DBE Studio
Interactive
computation
(Biocomputing strand was requested by the EC)
Definitions I
Social Sci e nc e
 A com munity of users
 A sha red se t of langua g es
 A set o f regulatory no rms
and guidelines to foster
trust
 A population of se rvices
 An open -sou rce s ervice oriented infrastructure
Table 1 .1 A Digital Ecosyst
em isÉ
Com p uter S cie n ce
 Se v eral categorie s of us ers
 A set o f fo rm al languages
 A se curity and identity infrastructu re
 A se rvi ce -oriente d a rchitecture
 A se rvice d evelopment environment
 A distributed P2 P run -ti m e enviro n ment
 A distributed persistent storage l ayer
Natural Sci e nce
 A population of
interacting agents/ apps
 A distributed
evolutionary
environment
 A dyn a mic , adaptive ,
learni ng, an d scal e -fr e e
networ k infrastructure
Coexistence
Software Use
Software Engineering
Digital media
Service migration
Communications
Social Science
Selection pressure
Autocatalytic
cycles
Fitness
Evolution
Natural Science
Computer Science
Software Synthesis
…what about
software Design??
An Interesting Theoretical Result of DBE Research
The lack of theory that is often lamented in software engineering
is actually not a lack at all:
There is plenty of theory underpinning software engineering,
it just does not happen to be all Mathematics and Logic
A good part of the theory comes from Social Science and Language
Software Engineering is a social process!
Digital Business Ecosystem Methodology
O ExE
S DBE Studio
S EvE
Mathematics,
Biology, Physics
Evolution
Computer Science
NLP
P2P
Code Generation
Consumers
Providers
Language
Business modelling,
Software Design &
Development Process
Software
Services
Testing
Market, Business Domain, Regional Catalysts
Contextual Feedbacks of Digital Ecosystems Methodology
Policy
Linguistics
Web 2.0
Socio-Economic Impact
Normative & Regulatory
Framework
Definitions II
Loc a l view
SM E
DB E Stu d io
1
ServEN T
Hab itat
Tab le 1 .1 Sys tem and co m ponen t vi ew of DB E
Dist ribu ted v iew
Busi n es s E cosys tem
Servi ce Fa ctory (SF)
Exec u tion Environme n t (ExE)
Evolu tionary En v ironmen t
(EvE)
Digita l Ecosyst em
(Run -tim e ÒAr ti ficia l
L ife Ó sys tem)
ServENT = SERVer + cliENT
Digita l Bu sine ss
Eco sys tem (A ll th e
infra stru ctur e,
models , & s ervices)
Digita l
Bu sin ess
Ecosys tem
Distributed
View
SME Ecosystem
SME 1
SME 3
SME 2
Create
Consume
H
2
H
1
H
3
Service Factory
Environment
OPAALS will integrate the 3 environments
Network Services
SME 1...3
H 1...3
Small and Medium Enterprises
Habitats
Based on figure by Thomas Kurz, SUAS
Evolutionary
Environment
Execution
Environment
Local View
Habitat Network
FADA Network
DBE Service
DBE Studio
Habitat
model
EvE
interface
EvEService
ServENT
Local context
Service Creation and Deployment - Today
1- Create BML/SSL Model
in DBE Studio (CIM)
2- Specify SDL interface (PIM)
BML Editor
Model
Repository
SDL Editor
3- Transformation to PSM
SM Editor
4- Create Service Manifest
Composer
5- Implement code
6- Test
7- Publish in
Semantic Registry
Semantic
Registry
Testing tool
DBE Studio
8- Deploy service in local
or remote ServENT
Habitat
Service
9- EvEService is created
automatically and deployed
in Local Service Pool
LSP
Local context
ServENT
FADA
10- EvEService is
sent to other Habitats
Service Look-Up and Consumption Today - Web - Pull
1- Invoke Portal
DBE Portal Service
2a- Browse Semantic Registry
2b- Issue service request
2c- Pick service from ranked list
Query Tool
Local
ServENT
Recommender
Service
Semantic
Registry
3- Point to
SM in
Servent
7- Pop GUI
Existing
Service
Consumer
6- Retrieve
proxy
8- Consume service
4- Create
context
5- Search for
proxy type
LSP
FADA
DIS
LSP
Local context
DBE
Service
9- Store usage
data
DD
SM
S
D
L
10- Migrate
service,
Clustering
DIS
Remote
ServENT
A
D
A
P
T
E
R
Service Look-Up and Consumption Today - DBE Studio - Pull
Local context
1a- Browse Semantic Registry
1b- Issue service request
1c- Pick service from ranked list
Query Tool
Habitat
Query Tool
1d- Browse Local Service Pool
Recommender
Service
Consumer
2- Point to
SM in
Servent
Semantic
Registry
DBE
Studio
Existing
Service
6- Pop GUI
5- Retrieve
proxy
7- Consume service
3- Create
context
4- Search for
proxy type
DBE
Service
8- Store usage
data
DD
LSP
FADA
SM
S
D
L
DIS
LSP
9- Migrate
service,
Clustering
Local
ServENT
DIS
Remote
ServENT
A
D
A
P
T
E
R
Service Request and Evolution (not realised) - Push
Local context
1a- Browse Semantic Registry
1b- Issue service request
1c- Pick service from ranked list
SBVR Query Tool
Semantic
Registry
Habitat
Query Tool
7- Browse Local Service Pool
DBE Studio
8- Point to
SM in
Servent
11- Retrieve
proxy
2- Population
object
12- Consume
service
13- Store
usage
data
Fitness Function
3- Request feeds
Fitness Function
9- Create
context
10- Search
for proxy type
DD
FADA
SM
Local
ServENT
5- Evolve population
6- Store
solution
4- Seed
LSP
DIS
Habitat Service
14- Migrate
service,
Clustering
Map
OPAALS
Partners
Timeline
WPs
Outcomes
Associative & Autopoietic Digital Ecosystems
Disciplines
Process
Disciplinary
integration
Instantiated
Methodology
Topics
Social
Science
Computer
Science
Natural
Science
Spaces of
Debate
Beyond
Turing
Machines
Gene
Expression
Computing
Language
OPAALS Website
Use cases &
Component
Architecture
of DBE
OKS Repository
OKS Architecture
OPAALS Partner Composition
Social Science
UK
Italy
LSE
UCE
T6
Computer Science
Natural Science
UNIS
UNIVDUN
CN
Austria
SUAS
Germany
UNIK
Spain
TI
Ireland
UL
Finland
WIT
TUT
India
IITK
Brazil
IPTI
Rwanda
KIST
2
6
5
1
1
OPAALS Timeline
Phase I
June 06
Y1
Phase II
Phase III
Y2
Y3
Y4
Discovering
each other
Building the
collaboration tools
Building the Open Knowledge Space
WP10
Researcher exchange
Scaling the community
Internal communications
and project website
Dissemination and online publications
Research threads
WP9
WP1-8
OPAALS Workpackages
WP10 (LSE)
Sustainable Community Building
WP1 (LSE)
Automata Theory
& Autopoiesis
WP2 (STU)
Automatic
Code Generation
from Models
WP3 (UniS)
Autopoietic
P2P Networks
WP4 (WIT)
Distributed
Accountability
Identity and Trust
WP6 (Kassel)
Socio-Economic
Constructivism
& Language
WP5 (Techideas)
Integration with Digital Ecosystems Infrastructure
WP8 (Limerick)
Open Source &
Open Knowledge
WP7 (Create-Net)
Community Networks
& Digital Ecosystems
WP9 (T6)
Communication & Dissemination
WP0 (LSE)
Management & Coordination
Natural Science
Computer science
Social Science
Areas of Impact of Project Outcomes
WP9-Communication and dissemination
WP8
Language
Models
Autopoiesis
WP1
WP6
WP7
WP2
Value
systems
WP4
WP3
Networks
WP5
SourceForge
Software
Engineering
Cell and
evolutionary biology
Regional development
policies
WP10-Community building & Open Knowledge Space
Map
OPAALS
Partners
Timeline
WPs
Outcomes
Associative & Autopoietic Digital Ecosystems
Disciplines
Process
Disciplinary
integration
Instantiated
Methodology
Topics
Social
Science
Computer
Science
Natural
Science
Spaces of
Debate
Beyond
Turing
Machines
Gene
Expression
Computing
Language
OPAALS Website
Use cases &
Component
Architecture
of DBE
OKS Repository
OKS Architecture
Associative
Autopoietic
Autopoietic
Based on association
Conducive to association
Capable of generating itself with the ability to reproduce itself recursively
Dependent on association
Enabling association
Capable of generating itself with the ability to reproduce itself
Self-generating
Self-producing
Self-organising
Recursive, reflexive,
Capable of generating itself
self-reinforcing community building process
Socio-economic systems
2.5-A-NC-SA
DEs
Software?
Social Science
“Translating the processes of knowledge generation and exchange
into improvements in economic performance and employment
is a complex social process”
Ed Steinmueller (2004)
2.5-A-NC-SA
2.5-A-NC-SA
Methodology
Analysis
Postulate
systems and processes
Bibliography
Develop policy
recommendations
Empirical research
Analytic
Synthetic
Reflexive
A Mechanical Engineer’s View of Social Science
But we are trying to develop
a SUSTAINABLE process
of socio-economic
development
catalysed by ICTs…
We can’t
ignore conflict
2.5-A-NC-SA
Hence we can’t help
aiming for a view
informed by the
sociology of regulation
Adapted from Hollis (1994) and Burrell & Morgan (1979)
3D Map of Social Science
2.5-A-NC-SA
Adapted from Hollis (1994) and Burrell & Morgan (1979)
Spaces of Debate
2.5-A-NC-SA
Naturalist philosophy: “Explanation”
Realist, objectivist tradition
Systems
(Marx, Durkheim)
Holism,
Collectivism,
Structure,
“Top-down”
Individualism,
Action,
“Bottom-up”
Meaning of action: “Understanding”
Hermeneutic, subjectivist tradition
Social systems as autopoietic
systems of communications
(Maturana, Luhmann, Flores)
(Wittgenstein
Weber)
Games & Rules
Recursive rule
formation through
agency
Intersubjectivity
Structuration theory (Giddens)
Macroeconomics
Critical Theory of Technology
(Feenberg)
Emergence
Digital
Ecosystems
Game theory
Microeconomics
Empiricism, Positivism,
Classical & Neoclassical economics
Social networks
of SMEs
(Granovetter)
Agents
(JS Mill, A Smith, M Friedman)
Actor Network Theory
Communities of practice
(Latour, Lave, Wenger)
Social roles
(Elster)
Actors
Adapted from Hollis (1994)
Third Concertation Meeting of the FP6 cluster on Technologies for Digital Ecosystems
Social Science and Language(s)
SSL in Digital Ecosystems:
The Name of the Game
Dr Frauke Zeller
University of Kassel
Third Concertation Meeting of the FP6 cluster on Technologies for Digital Ecosystems
Social Science and Language(s)
The name of the game/pun …
SSL = Social Science and Language(s)
SSL = Secure Socket Layer
}
secure/reliable
communication
across a network
Third Concertation Meeting of the FP6 cluster on Technologies for Digital Ecosystems
Social Science and Language(s)
Software Engineering as a Social Process
The social processes underpinning and influencing software development:
E.g. Open Source Communities, Communities of Practice, Organisation
Science and Management Studies
->Intra-organisational point of view: Which stakeholders are involved in
software development?
Not 'only' software engineers, but also business analysts, managers, etc.
-> External organisational point of view: Which stakeholders are involved in
software development?
Software development communities (= harvesting external expertise,
experience, and knowledge), clients (software users, other businesses)
Third Concertation Meeting of the FP6 cluster on Technologies for Digital Ecosystems
Social Science and Language(s)
Software Engineering as a Social Process
Practical approach:
(a) Social science regarding community building and organisation science
-> Leverages: Knowledge transfer, production, and management
(a) Linguistics regarding the connection between natural and formal
languages
-> Leverages: Software and service development by integrating all
stakeholders and their requirements into the design process and
improving Human-Computer Interaction
Third Concertation Meeting of the FP6 cluster on Technologies for Digital Ecosystems
Social Science and Language(s)
Language as important focus within DE research, because:
DE integrates multiple domain-specific languages of multiple stakeholders.
 There is the need to 'translate' all these languages into the software
engineering process.
 However, 'translation' is not a strictly formalised process of concepts but
highly context-dependent (e.g. the slow development of machine translation
where after decades of funding and research only highly restricted domain
applications work acceptably and where there are still huge accuracy
differences between the word and sentence level).
 'Translation' = Understand domain specific languages, decode domain
specific content and concepts, translate these concepts into the DE
framework.
Third Concertation Meeting of the FP6 cluster on Technologies for Digital Ecosystems
Social Science and Language(s)
Connectivity: Language as a tool for construction
Computational linguistics as integrative framework
-> Computational Semiotics: Deals with computable sign systems.
It builds upon semiotics (study of signs [letters, words, sounds, etc.] and
meaning) and therefore provides approaches to integrate the contextual
dimension.
- Context-aware software services as competitive edge for SMEs.
Third Concertation Meeting of the FP6 cluster on Technologies for Digital Ecosystems
Social Science and Language(s)
Connectivity: Language as a tool for construction
Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques provide an interface between
natural and formal language systems
-> NLP captures the requirements of the different stakeholders
-> Ontology development
-> Towards un-restricted formal language systems, i.e. leveraging current
offers like SBVR. SBVR claims to use linguistic analyses with linguistics being
outside the scope of SBVR = it uses a very simplistic and restricted notion of
"meaning processing"
-> Formalised strategies of the 'Translation' process
Third Concertation Meeting of the FP6 cluster on Technologies for Digital Ecosystems
Social Science and Language(s)
Connectivity: Language as a tool for construction
Natural language production and trans-disciplinary integration:
-> To Improve collaboration and trans-disciplinary communication within
Digital Ecosystems by using existing communication patterns (discourse
studies, pragmatics) and processes (discourse organisation) to leverage
cooperation between different stakeholders
http://oks.opaals.org/website
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