Old Imperialism
Age of Discovery 1340-1600
What is an Empire? Imperialism?
New Technology

In the early 1400s, new technology enabled
exploration
 Better maps (cartography) from Marco
Polo’s and Arab geographers’ information had
lines of latitude
 New ships (caravel) had many masts so had
more sail and could go farther with more
cargo space
 Lateen (triangular) sail and
stern rudder enabled ships to
sail into the wind
Astrolabe



Astronomical tool for
solving problems relating
to time and the position
of the Sun and stars in
the sky
Done by drawing the sky
on the face of the
astrolabe and marking it,
so positions in the sky
are easy to find
Was made of brass and
was about 6 inches in
diameter
Motives



- European Monarchs sponsored voyage in hopes of
increased trade (thanks to crusades) and profitable
empire
- Portuguese hoped to reach Asia
bypassing Italian and Muslim traders in
Mediterranean Sea
- Spanish were jealous of Portuguese success and
wanted to spread Catholicism (since Protestant
Reformation lost many Catholics)
Practice Questions
1. In the 14th and 15th centuries, Western
Europeans sought an all-water route to Asia
in order to
a) break the Italian trade monopoly.
b) stimulate progress in agriculture
c) add new territory to their empires.
d) transport surplus population to colonies
in Asia.
e) engage in slave trade.
Practice Regents
2. Which technological development
enabled European navigators to determine
their location during the Age of Exploration?
a) lateen sail
b) astrolabe
c) cross bow
d) caravel
What factors were pushing
Europeans to explore?
► Decline
of Mongol
Empire in 1400s made
goods from the east
harder to get, more
expensive
► Fall of Constantinople
to the Ottoman Turks
in 1453 was a major
block to trade
Ottoman Empire in 1500
Motives
-
Later, England, France , and Dutch
explorers searched for a NW passage
to Asia
 - Some looked for gold or the Fountain
of Youth
Practice Regents
3. In the late 1400s and early 1500s, what
was a major reason for the European
voyages of exploration?
a) introduction of Enlightenment ideas
b) desire to control Constantinople
c) rapid industrialization
d) need for alternate trade routes
Practice Regents
4. The Crusades indirectly contributed to
the discovery of the New World by
a) forcing the religious conversion of the
Muslim population
b) forcing the Turks to flee from
Constantinople
c) stimulating European demand for goods
from the East
d) increasing the power of feudal lords
Zheng He
China Does It First !!!!
1402
Reason For Exploration
Ming Dynasty had just taken over and
kicked out the Mongols – needed to
assert themselves and prove their
prominence
 Wanted to increase trade over Indian
Ocean and extend their tribute states
 Hired a Chinese Muslim eunich – ZhengHe to do it.

Why is this unusual for Chinese
to do? What precidence?
Zheng He’s Travels
Zheng He’s ship compared to
Columbus’s St. Maria
And he had 300
of these!!!!
The Boats - Junks




well over 400 feet by 150 feet –
largest wooden vessels ever
built
several decks below the main
deck and several decks above at
the stern of the ship
crew of any where between
450-700 members
able to handle deep ocean
weather due to their very deep,
sharp keel which gave them
more stability
As He Traveled
While exploring, demanded native people to
submit to the Emperor’s authority
~ if natives refused, force was used
~accepting, rulers were rewarded with
gold or silk
 Brought back trade goods and gifts from
visited lands

Know This Map !!!
Results
Later rulers thought ocean voyages to be
too costly
 As a result China decided to focus its
funds on its military
 Chinese rulers found exploration did not
benefit them personally so it was
eventually halted
 After this emperors discouraged trade
with foreign countries – became isolated

This ties into Chinese belief of superiority known as….
What country also went into isolation around this time
period?
Let’s Think…. Up until 1450
China had better technology than West.
 China had more unity than West.
 China had greater natural resources
including population than West.
 China had larger cities than West.


What if China did not give up its
exploration after Zheng He? How would
the world be different today
Practice
Regents
5. Which conclusion about Zheng He’s voyages is valid based
on the information on this map?
a)
His fleet traveled only as far as the Bay of Bengal.
b)
His expeditions sailed to ports in Asia and Africa.
c)
His fleet conquered and controlled Luzon.
d)
His expeditions traded directly with the interior of Africa.
European Exploration
What are their motives?
Motives - What is the easiest way to
remember it all?
► The
Three G’s:
 Gold
 Glory
 God
► Although
a little
simplistic, this
mnemonic is a great
way to remember the
main motivations of
the European
explorers.
The First G: Gold
► Gold
was a hot item that explorers were looking
for, but remember that it is really wealth, not just
literal gold that explorers were after.
► Europe needed gold (and silver) to fuel the rising
banking system (think Medici) – eventually too
much gold will be found leading to inflation
► Europeans also desired spices (Da Gama’s voyage
to India made him a 3000% profit!)
► Other natural resources would come to be sold for
profit as well (timber, sugar, tobacco, ivory, etc.)
► This competition will be enhanced by the idea of
mercantilism that emerges.
Practice Regents
6. Prices in Spain rose as colonies supplied
large amounts of gold and silver. This
suggests that Spanish imports of gold and
silver led to
a) food shortages
b) unemployment
c) inflation
d) self-sufficiency
Mercantalism
Didn’t we cover this before – yep it is this
important.
► Countries (Motherlands) wanted colonies for
raw materials and markets for manufactured
goods.
► Benefits go to Motherland only
► Desired to have a “favorable balance of
trade” – where export (sell) more valuable
manufactured goods (guns) and import
(buy) cheaper raw materials.
Practice Regents
7.
Which idea is most closely associated with the economic
concept of mercantilism?
a) Colonies exist to provide raw materials and markets for a
colonial power.
b) Wealth and power are based on land exchanged between
nobles.
c) Goods and services are traded without government
interference.
d) Property is owned collectively and administered by the
state.
The second G: Glory
Glory was a relatively new
idea in Europe
► Came out of the
Renaissance ideal of
Humanism, and the focus
on individual achievement
► With the rise of the
printing press, the idea of
gaining fame for one’s
actions was more possible
► Also, individual kings
wanted glory for their
kingdoms, competition
spreads
►
The Triumph of Fame, a Flemish
tapestry from 1502.
The third G: God
► As
members of a universalizing religion, Europeans
had always seen spreading Christianity as a good
thing
► Especially after the Reformation, competition will
spring up
► Colonization will become a race to convert native
peoples to a particular brand of Christianity
► Jesuits (Catholics) are some of the most active
► Spain under Queen Isabella will send out priests
on every ship.
How did these explorations begin?
The first to encourage new
ship explorations was
Prince Henry of Portugal,
known as “Prince Henry
the Navigator”
► Started an institute for
seafaring and exploring
► Combined ship technology
learned from Islam with
new European innovations
►
Spain vs. Portugal


Portugal had Disadvantage in
Asian trade – faced Atlantic, not
Mediterranean. 1488 Bartholomeu Dias rounded
Cape of Storms (Good Hope) in
Africa
Spain In 1492, Queen Isabella
sponsored Columbus’ voyage
West to India to share in spice
trade and spread Christianity
Practice Regents
8. Which geographic feature of Spain and
Portugal most enhanced their ability to
engage in exploration?
a) peninsular location
b) mountainous region
c) extensive river system
d) fertile plain

Practice Regents
9. One reason Spain sponsored the first
voyage of Columbus to the west was to
a) find a more direct trade route to Asia
b) obtain military technology
c) make contact with the Empire of Benin
d) trade in established ports in the Americas
Treaty of Tordesillas
Spain and Portugal disputed each others right
to explore new lands, so the Pope arranged a
settlement (since both were Catholic nations)
 1494- Spain and Portugal signed the Treaty of
Tordesillas, which drew a Line of
Demarcation through the western Atlantic

Portugal’s Explorers since
Treaty

1497-1498 - Vasco da
Gama reached India
around Africa.

1500- Pedro Cabral found
Brazil
Spain
1513- Vasco de
Balboa found
Pacific Ocean;
Juan Ponce de
Leon found Florida
 1519-1522Ferdinand
Magellan
circumnavigated
the globe

Strait of Magellan – Naming of
“Pacific”
THE STRAIT OF
MAGELLAN WAS A
CONNECTION BETWEEN
THE PACIFIC AND THE
ATLANTIC OCEAN.
 IT WAS A 300 MILE MAZE
OF MANY DIFFERENT
ISLANDS.
 Named Ocean – Pacific
because so calm

Magellan’s Travels 
FERDINAND SAILED FOR SPAIN TO SHOW THAT
THE SPICE ISLANDS BELONGED TO SPAIN AND
NOT TO PORTUGAL.

260 MEN AND 5 SHIPS SET OUT ON THE VOYAGE
BUT ONLY 18 MEN AND ONE SHIP SURVIVED THE
VOYAGE.

MAGELLAN DIED ON APRIL 21, 1521 IN THE
PHILIPPINE ISLANDS BY ANGERING THE
NATIVES BY CONVERT THEM TO CHRISTIANITY.
Practice Regents
10.
What was a result of the efforts of Prince Henry of
Portugal, Christopher Columbus, and Ferdinand Magellan?
a)
The importance of Mediterranean trade routes was
established.
b)
The modern concept of universal human rights was
promoted.
c)
The European view of the physical world was transformed.
d)
An understanding of the benefits of cultural diversity was
encouraged.
England
1497- John Cabot, an
Italian, explored North
America from Delaware to
Newfoundland looking for a
Northwest passage to Asia
 1578-79- Sir Francis Drake
raided Spanish settlements
on the West coast of the
Americas, then sailed
around the globe back to
England

France

1524- Giovanni da
Verrazano, an Italian,
explored from the
Carolinas to Nova
Scotia

1534-36- Jacques
Cartier sailed up St.
Lawrence River,
looking for the Pacific
Netherlands

1609- Henry Hudson, of
England, sailed up
Hudson River to Albany,
looking for NW passage
South America

Spanish rulers granted conquistadores the right
to establish colonies in exchange for 1/5th of
any treasure they found
 This reduced risk to monarchs, since the
conquistadores used their own money

Viceroyalties of New Spain (Mexico) and Peru
had Monarch-appointed viceroys in charge with
Council of Indies in Spain to make laws
 In each town/city, the King appointed
members of a cabildo (city council) which
preserved order
Hernando
Cortes



1519- landed in Mexico
in search of gold
Negotiated with
Montezuma, the Aztec
leader, until he agreed
to become a subject of
the Spanish king.
Destroyed
Tenochtitlan, causing
the Aztec Empire to
crumble.
Fransico Pizarro



1529- Pizarro landed
in Peru
Took advantage of a
civil war in the Inca
Empire and captured
Atahualpa, their
leader, and executed
many officials
Without a strong
leadership, the Inca
forces were no
match for Pizarro,
Practice Regents
11. The Encounter occurred as a result of
European explorers crossing the
a) Atlantic Ocean
b) Sahara Desert
c) Andes Mountains
d) Mediterranean Sea
Reasons for Ease of Conquest





Spanish had better weapons (guns/cannons)
Spanish had horses which frightened the Aztec
and Inca
Spanish were thought to be gods
Disease (small pox) carried by Europeans
weakened both empires by wiping out entire
villages
Indian nations hated their oppressive rulers
and helped the Spanish
Practice Regents
12 Which statement can best be
supported by the information provided in
the graph?
a)
The Indian population in Mexico
steadily increased between 1500 and
1700.
b)
The effects of the Spanish conquest
on the Indian population in Mexico
were most severe between 1500 and
1540.
c)
The Spanish conquest of Mexico
improved the standard of living for
the Indian population in Mexico.
d)
Spanish influence in Mexico had
ended by 1700.
Treatment of Indians

Spanish government granted settlers encomiendas,
right to demand taxes or labor from Indians

forced Indians to mine silver, died of cave-ins,
malnutrition,overwork,and disease.
Practice Regents
13. Which country is responsible for the
extensive colonial use of the encomienda
labor system?
a) England
b) France
c) the Netherlands
d) Spain

Practice Regents
14. The Spanish encomienda system in the
Americas resulted in
a) the strengthening of indigenous cultures
b) political independence for the colonies
c) the exploitation of natives
d) religious freedom for the majority of
peasants
Bartolome de Las Casas
Bartolome de Las Casas pleaded
with Spanish authorities to rectify
maltreatment
The New Laws of 1542 were
passed, forbidding Indian slavery
and granting them the right to
own land
de Las Casas suggested African slaves be used for
plantation farming, and Spain began importing
thousands of slaves
Brazil



King of Portugal appointed
captain general to oversee
colony
 he gave loyal subjects land
and the donatario (land
owner) enlisted settlers to
farm or trade on his land
imported slaves to work sugar
plantations
MOST SLAVES THAT CAME TO
AMERICAS CAME TO WORK IN
SUGAR FIELDS OF BRAZIL
North America





Until 1600s, Dutch, English, and French were too
busy with religious wars and political troubles to
explore. Then they explored north of Mexico where
Spain/Portugal were not strong.
Spain, looking for legendary cities of gold, explored
north first, but settlements were not as profitable
as southern ones, so they were paid little attention
As the colonies of England, France, and the
Netherlands grew, they competed for land
England took New Netherland from Dutch,
renamed New York
French,allied with Algonquin, fought Dutch,allied
with Iroquois, and caused Indian tribes to clash
Dutch / Swedish Colonies

Netherlands organized Dutch West
India Company and built a colony in
present-day New York under Peter
Minuit - New Netherland, gave land
to patroons (wealthy landowners)
who brought over farmers to work
their estates
French Colonies

After Cartier explored St. Lawrence, French found
that furs could be sold for great profits in Europe
 France did little to encourage settlement of New
France, forbidding Huguenots to move to escape
persecution. Got along much better with natives
because of that.
 Samuel de Champlain set up a permanent
settlement in Quebec, from which the French
expanded farther into Canada, setting up trading
posts and forts for fur trade
English Colonies

English settled from Newfoundland to Georgia,
eventually had 13 colonies, small farms in
North, plantations in South



elected assembly controlled king-appointed
governor’s salary and consented to his laws
fought with Indians for land
Many came to colonies for religious freedom

Puritans in MA, RI, CT ; Quakers in PA ; Catholics in
MD
Languages Groups – Cultural Diffusion
Practice Regents
15. Why is Catholicism a major religion
practiced in Latin America?
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
Spain conquered and colonized much of Latin America.
Disputes over international boundaries within Latin
America were settled by the pope.
The traditional beliefs of Africans were incorporated into
the cultures of Latin America.
The Church provided Latin America with a strong central
government.
Practice Regents
16. Which of these events during the Age of
Exploration was a cause of the other three?
a) Europeans brought food, animals, and ideas
from one continent to another.
b) European diseases had an adverse effect on the
native populations of new territories.
c) Warfare increased as European nations
competed for land and power.
d) Advances in learning and technology made long
ocean voyages possible.
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Exploration and Expansion