Old Imperialism Age of Discovery 1340-1600 What is an Empire? Imperialism? New Technology In the early 1400s, new technology enabled exploration Better maps (cartography) from Marco Polo’s and Arab geographers’ information had lines of latitude New ships (caravel) had many masts so had more sail and could go farther with more cargo space Lateen (triangular) sail and stern rudder enabled ships to sail into the wind Astrolabe Astronomical tool for solving problems relating to time and the position of the Sun and stars in the sky Done by drawing the sky on the face of the astrolabe and marking it, so positions in the sky are easy to find Was made of brass and was about 6 inches in diameter Motives - European Monarchs sponsored voyage in hopes of increased trade (thanks to crusades) and profitable empire - Portuguese hoped to reach Asia bypassing Italian and Muslim traders in Mediterranean Sea - Spanish were jealous of Portuguese success and wanted to spread Catholicism (since Protestant Reformation lost many Catholics) Practice Questions 1. In the 14th and 15th centuries, Western Europeans sought an all-water route to Asia in order to a) break the Italian trade monopoly. b) stimulate progress in agriculture c) add new territory to their empires. d) transport surplus population to colonies in Asia. e) engage in slave trade. Practice Regents 2. Which technological development enabled European navigators to determine their location during the Age of Exploration? a) lateen sail b) astrolabe c) cross bow d) caravel What factors were pushing Europeans to explore? ► Decline of Mongol Empire in 1400s made goods from the east harder to get, more expensive ► Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks in 1453 was a major block to trade Ottoman Empire in 1500 Motives - Later, England, France , and Dutch explorers searched for a NW passage to Asia - Some looked for gold or the Fountain of Youth Practice Regents 3. In the late 1400s and early 1500s, what was a major reason for the European voyages of exploration? a) introduction of Enlightenment ideas b) desire to control Constantinople c) rapid industrialization d) need for alternate trade routes Practice Regents 4. The Crusades indirectly contributed to the discovery of the New World by a) forcing the religious conversion of the Muslim population b) forcing the Turks to flee from Constantinople c) stimulating European demand for goods from the East d) increasing the power of feudal lords Zheng He China Does It First !!!! 1402 Reason For Exploration Ming Dynasty had just taken over and kicked out the Mongols – needed to assert themselves and prove their prominence Wanted to increase trade over Indian Ocean and extend their tribute states Hired a Chinese Muslim eunich – ZhengHe to do it. Why is this unusual for Chinese to do? What precidence? Zheng He’s Travels Zheng He’s ship compared to Columbus’s St. Maria And he had 300 of these!!!! The Boats - Junks well over 400 feet by 150 feet – largest wooden vessels ever built several decks below the main deck and several decks above at the stern of the ship crew of any where between 450-700 members able to handle deep ocean weather due to their very deep, sharp keel which gave them more stability As He Traveled While exploring, demanded native people to submit to the Emperor’s authority ~ if natives refused, force was used ~accepting, rulers were rewarded with gold or silk Brought back trade goods and gifts from visited lands Know This Map !!! Results Later rulers thought ocean voyages to be too costly As a result China decided to focus its funds on its military Chinese rulers found exploration did not benefit them personally so it was eventually halted After this emperors discouraged trade with foreign countries – became isolated This ties into Chinese belief of superiority known as…. What country also went into isolation around this time period? Let’s Think…. Up until 1450 China had better technology than West. China had more unity than West. China had greater natural resources including population than West. China had larger cities than West. What if China did not give up its exploration after Zheng He? How would the world be different today Practice Regents 5. Which conclusion about Zheng He’s voyages is valid based on the information on this map? a) His fleet traveled only as far as the Bay of Bengal. b) His expeditions sailed to ports in Asia and Africa. c) His fleet conquered and controlled Luzon. d) His expeditions traded directly with the interior of Africa. European Exploration What are their motives? Motives - What is the easiest way to remember it all? ► The Three G’s: Gold Glory God ► Although a little simplistic, this mnemonic is a great way to remember the main motivations of the European explorers. The First G: Gold ► Gold was a hot item that explorers were looking for, but remember that it is really wealth, not just literal gold that explorers were after. ► Europe needed gold (and silver) to fuel the rising banking system (think Medici) – eventually too much gold will be found leading to inflation ► Europeans also desired spices (Da Gama’s voyage to India made him a 3000% profit!) ► Other natural resources would come to be sold for profit as well (timber, sugar, tobacco, ivory, etc.) ► This competition will be enhanced by the idea of mercantilism that emerges. Practice Regents 6. Prices in Spain rose as colonies supplied large amounts of gold and silver. This suggests that Spanish imports of gold and silver led to a) food shortages b) unemployment c) inflation d) self-sufficiency Mercantalism Didn’t we cover this before – yep it is this important. ► Countries (Motherlands) wanted colonies for raw materials and markets for manufactured goods. ► Benefits go to Motherland only ► Desired to have a “favorable balance of trade” – where export (sell) more valuable manufactured goods (guns) and import (buy) cheaper raw materials. Practice Regents 7. Which idea is most closely associated with the economic concept of mercantilism? a) Colonies exist to provide raw materials and markets for a colonial power. b) Wealth and power are based on land exchanged between nobles. c) Goods and services are traded without government interference. d) Property is owned collectively and administered by the state. The second G: Glory Glory was a relatively new idea in Europe ► Came out of the Renaissance ideal of Humanism, and the focus on individual achievement ► With the rise of the printing press, the idea of gaining fame for one’s actions was more possible ► Also, individual kings wanted glory for their kingdoms, competition spreads ► The Triumph of Fame, a Flemish tapestry from 1502. The third G: God ► As members of a universalizing religion, Europeans had always seen spreading Christianity as a good thing ► Especially after the Reformation, competition will spring up ► Colonization will become a race to convert native peoples to a particular brand of Christianity ► Jesuits (Catholics) are some of the most active ► Spain under Queen Isabella will send out priests on every ship. How did these explorations begin? The first to encourage new ship explorations was Prince Henry of Portugal, known as “Prince Henry the Navigator” ► Started an institute for seafaring and exploring ► Combined ship technology learned from Islam with new European innovations ► Spain vs. Portugal Portugal had Disadvantage in Asian trade – faced Atlantic, not Mediterranean. 1488 Bartholomeu Dias rounded Cape of Storms (Good Hope) in Africa Spain In 1492, Queen Isabella sponsored Columbus’ voyage West to India to share in spice trade and spread Christianity Practice Regents 8. Which geographic feature of Spain and Portugal most enhanced their ability to engage in exploration? a) peninsular location b) mountainous region c) extensive river system d) fertile plain Practice Regents 9. One reason Spain sponsored the first voyage of Columbus to the west was to a) find a more direct trade route to Asia b) obtain military technology c) make contact with the Empire of Benin d) trade in established ports in the Americas Treaty of Tordesillas Spain and Portugal disputed each others right to explore new lands, so the Pope arranged a settlement (since both were Catholic nations) 1494- Spain and Portugal signed the Treaty of Tordesillas, which drew a Line of Demarcation through the western Atlantic Portugal’s Explorers since Treaty 1497-1498 - Vasco da Gama reached India around Africa. 1500- Pedro Cabral found Brazil Spain 1513- Vasco de Balboa found Pacific Ocean; Juan Ponce de Leon found Florida 1519-1522Ferdinand Magellan circumnavigated the globe Strait of Magellan – Naming of “Pacific” THE STRAIT OF MAGELLAN WAS A CONNECTION BETWEEN THE PACIFIC AND THE ATLANTIC OCEAN. IT WAS A 300 MILE MAZE OF MANY DIFFERENT ISLANDS. Named Ocean – Pacific because so calm Magellan’s Travels FERDINAND SAILED FOR SPAIN TO SHOW THAT THE SPICE ISLANDS BELONGED TO SPAIN AND NOT TO PORTUGAL. 260 MEN AND 5 SHIPS SET OUT ON THE VOYAGE BUT ONLY 18 MEN AND ONE SHIP SURVIVED THE VOYAGE. MAGELLAN DIED ON APRIL 21, 1521 IN THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS BY ANGERING THE NATIVES BY CONVERT THEM TO CHRISTIANITY. Practice Regents 10. What was a result of the efforts of Prince Henry of Portugal, Christopher Columbus, and Ferdinand Magellan? a) The importance of Mediterranean trade routes was established. b) The modern concept of universal human rights was promoted. c) The European view of the physical world was transformed. d) An understanding of the benefits of cultural diversity was encouraged. England 1497- John Cabot, an Italian, explored North America from Delaware to Newfoundland looking for a Northwest passage to Asia 1578-79- Sir Francis Drake raided Spanish settlements on the West coast of the Americas, then sailed around the globe back to England France 1524- Giovanni da Verrazano, an Italian, explored from the Carolinas to Nova Scotia 1534-36- Jacques Cartier sailed up St. Lawrence River, looking for the Pacific Netherlands 1609- Henry Hudson, of England, sailed up Hudson River to Albany, looking for NW passage South America Spanish rulers granted conquistadores the right to establish colonies in exchange for 1/5th of any treasure they found This reduced risk to monarchs, since the conquistadores used their own money Viceroyalties of New Spain (Mexico) and Peru had Monarch-appointed viceroys in charge with Council of Indies in Spain to make laws In each town/city, the King appointed members of a cabildo (city council) which preserved order Hernando Cortes 1519- landed in Mexico in search of gold Negotiated with Montezuma, the Aztec leader, until he agreed to become a subject of the Spanish king. Destroyed Tenochtitlan, causing the Aztec Empire to crumble. Fransico Pizarro 1529- Pizarro landed in Peru Took advantage of a civil war in the Inca Empire and captured Atahualpa, their leader, and executed many officials Without a strong leadership, the Inca forces were no match for Pizarro, Practice Regents 11. The Encounter occurred as a result of European explorers crossing the a) Atlantic Ocean b) Sahara Desert c) Andes Mountains d) Mediterranean Sea Reasons for Ease of Conquest Spanish had better weapons (guns/cannons) Spanish had horses which frightened the Aztec and Inca Spanish were thought to be gods Disease (small pox) carried by Europeans weakened both empires by wiping out entire villages Indian nations hated their oppressive rulers and helped the Spanish Practice Regents 12 Which statement can best be supported by the information provided in the graph? a) The Indian population in Mexico steadily increased between 1500 and 1700. b) The effects of the Spanish conquest on the Indian population in Mexico were most severe between 1500 and 1540. c) The Spanish conquest of Mexico improved the standard of living for the Indian population in Mexico. d) Spanish influence in Mexico had ended by 1700. Treatment of Indians Spanish government granted settlers encomiendas, right to demand taxes or labor from Indians forced Indians to mine silver, died of cave-ins, malnutrition,overwork,and disease. Practice Regents 13. Which country is responsible for the extensive colonial use of the encomienda labor system? a) England b) France c) the Netherlands d) Spain Practice Regents 14. The Spanish encomienda system in the Americas resulted in a) the strengthening of indigenous cultures b) political independence for the colonies c) the exploitation of natives d) religious freedom for the majority of peasants Bartolome de Las Casas Bartolome de Las Casas pleaded with Spanish authorities to rectify maltreatment The New Laws of 1542 were passed, forbidding Indian slavery and granting them the right to own land de Las Casas suggested African slaves be used for plantation farming, and Spain began importing thousands of slaves Brazil King of Portugal appointed captain general to oversee colony he gave loyal subjects land and the donatario (land owner) enlisted settlers to farm or trade on his land imported slaves to work sugar plantations MOST SLAVES THAT CAME TO AMERICAS CAME TO WORK IN SUGAR FIELDS OF BRAZIL North America Until 1600s, Dutch, English, and French were too busy with religious wars and political troubles to explore. Then they explored north of Mexico where Spain/Portugal were not strong. Spain, looking for legendary cities of gold, explored north first, but settlements were not as profitable as southern ones, so they were paid little attention As the colonies of England, France, and the Netherlands grew, they competed for land England took New Netherland from Dutch, renamed New York French,allied with Algonquin, fought Dutch,allied with Iroquois, and caused Indian tribes to clash Dutch / Swedish Colonies Netherlands organized Dutch West India Company and built a colony in present-day New York under Peter Minuit - New Netherland, gave land to patroons (wealthy landowners) who brought over farmers to work their estates French Colonies After Cartier explored St. Lawrence, French found that furs could be sold for great profits in Europe France did little to encourage settlement of New France, forbidding Huguenots to move to escape persecution. Got along much better with natives because of that. Samuel de Champlain set up a permanent settlement in Quebec, from which the French expanded farther into Canada, setting up trading posts and forts for fur trade English Colonies English settled from Newfoundland to Georgia, eventually had 13 colonies, small farms in North, plantations in South elected assembly controlled king-appointed governor’s salary and consented to his laws fought with Indians for land Many came to colonies for religious freedom Puritans in MA, RI, CT ; Quakers in PA ; Catholics in MD Languages Groups – Cultural Diffusion Practice Regents 15. Why is Catholicism a major religion practiced in Latin America? a) b) c) d) e) Spain conquered and colonized much of Latin America. Disputes over international boundaries within Latin America were settled by the pope. The traditional beliefs of Africans were incorporated into the cultures of Latin America. The Church provided Latin America with a strong central government. Practice Regents 16. Which of these events during the Age of Exploration was a cause of the other three? a) Europeans brought food, animals, and ideas from one continent to another. b) European diseases had an adverse effect on the native populations of new territories. c) Warfare increased as European nations competed for land and power. d) Advances in learning and technology made long ocean voyages possible.