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PREPARED BY
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K.ARUMUGAM,
PGT(PHYSICS)
KVS, ZIET MYSORE
HUMAN RIGHTS AND GENDER
SENSITIZATION
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After World war II in 1948 a new international
organization was set up called the UN
The United Nation was based on a code of conduct called
the Universal declaration of Human rights.
This sets out how a government can treat its citizen and
how they should treat each other.
This mean that every person regardless of personal
characteristics like race, religion or gender could appeal to
the protection of human rights and the UN against abuse.
UNITED NATIONS
HUMAN RIGHTS
1.
We Are All Born Free & Equal. We are all
born free. We all have our own thoughts and
ideas. We should all be treated in the same
way.
2. Don’t Discriminate. These rights belong to
everybody, whatever our differences.
3. The Right to Life. We all have the right to
life, and to live in freedom and safety.
4. No Slavery. Nobody has any right to make us
a slave. We cannot make anyone our slave.
5. No Torture. Nobody has any right to hurt us
or to torture us.
HUMAN RIGHTS
6. You Have Rights No Matter Where You
Go. I am a person just like you!
7. We’re All Equal Before the Law. The law
is the same for everyone. It must treat us all
fairly.
8. Your Human Rights Are Protected by
Law. We can all ask for the law to help us
when we are not treated fairly.
9. No Unfair Detainment. Nobody has the
right to put us in prison without good reason
and keep us there, or to send us away from
our country.
10. The Right to Trial. If we are put on trial
this should be in public. The people who try us
should not let anyone tell them what to do.
HUMAN RIGHTS
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11. We’re Always Innocent Till Proven Guilty. Nobody should
be blamed for doing something until it is proven. When people say
we did a bad thing we have the right to show it is not true.
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12. The Right to Privacy. Nobody should try to harm our good
name. Nobody has the right to come into our home, open our
letters, or bother us or our family without a good reason.
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13. Freedom to Move. We all have the right to go where we
want in our own country and to travel as we wish.
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14. The Right to Seek a Safe Place to Live. If we are
frightened of being badly treated in our own country, we all have
the right to run away to another country to be safe.
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15. Right to a Nationality. We all have the right to belong to a
country.
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16. Marriage and Family. Every grown-up has the right to
marry and have a family if they want to. Men and women have
the same rights when they are married, and when they are
separated.
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17. The Right to Your Own Things. Everyone has the right to own things or
share them. Nobody should take our things from us without a good reason.
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18. Freedom of Thought. We all have the right to believe in what we want to
believe, to have a religion, or to change it if we want.
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19. Freedom of Expression. We all have the right to make up our own minds,
to think what we like, to say what we think, and to share our ideas with other
people.
20. The Right to Public Assembly. We all have the right to meet our friends
and to work together in peace to defend our rights. Nobody can make us join a
group if we don’t want to.
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21. The Right to Democracy. We all have the right to take part in the
government of our country. Every grown-up should be allowed to choose their
own leaders.
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22. Social Security. We all have the right to affordable housing, medicine,
education, and childcare, enough money to live on and medical help if we are ill
or old
HUMAN RIGHTS
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23. Workers’ Rights. Every grown-up has the
right to do a job, to a fair wage for their work,
and to join a trade union.
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24. The Right to Play. We all have the right to
rest from work and to relax.
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25. Food and Shelter for All. We all have the
right to a good life. Mothers and children, people
who are old, unemployed or disabled, and all
people have the right to be cared for.
 26. The Right
to Education. Education is a
HUMAN
RIGHTS
right. Primary school should be free. We should
learn about the United Nations and how to get on
with others. Our parents can choose what we
learn.
HUMAN RIGHTS
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27. Copyright. Copyright is a special law that
protects one’s own artistic creations and writings;
others cannot make copies without permission.
We all have the right to our own way of life and
to enjoy the good things that art, science and
learning bring.
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28. A Fair and Free World. There must be
proper order so we can all enjoy rights and
freedoms in our own country and all over the
world.
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29. Responsibility. We have a duty to other
people, and we should protect their rights and
freedoms.
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Human rights are rights inherent to all
human beings, whatever our nationality,
place of residence, sex, national or ethnic
origin, colour, religion, language or any other
status. We are all equally entitled to our
human rights without discrimination. These
rights are all interrelated, interdependent and
indivisible. In substance they relate to life,
liberty, equality and dignity of the individual.
They are entitlement of any human being.
HUMAN RIGHTS
Came into force on 28th September 1993
Commission consists of
Chairperson- Chief Justice of India
One member – Judge of the Supreme
court
 One member – Who is or has been the
chief justice of High court
 Two more members from persons having
knowledge of or practical experience in
matters relating to human rights
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NHRC
Chairperson – Mr K.G.Balakrishnan Chief
Justice of India.
 Members: 1. Mr Babulal Chandulal- Chief
Justice, High court of Delhi
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2. Mr Satyabrate pal – High
commissioner of India, Embassy of
Pakistan.
 3. Sri Sharad Chandra Sinha – DG , NIA
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NHRC
Sri Wajath Habibullah _ National
Commission for Minorities.
 Sri Panna Lal Punia – National
Commission for Scheduled Castes
 Sri Rameshwar Oraon – National
Commission for Scheduled Tribes
 Smt Mamta Sharma – National
Commission for Women
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Ex-officio Members
Chair person – Chief justice of High court
 One member – Judge of High court
 One member – Having knowledge of or
practical experience in matters relating to
human rights
 There shall be a secretary, who shall be
the chief executive officer of the state
commission.
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SHRC
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For the purpose of providing speedy trial
of offences arising out of violation of
human rights the state government with
the concurrence of the chief justice of the
high court, by notification specify for each
district a court.
Speedy trial
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The National Commission for Protection of
Child Rights (NCPCR) was set up in March
2007 under the Commission for Protection of
Child Rights Act, 2005, an Act of Parliament
(December 2005). The Commission's
Mandate is to ensure that all Laws, Policies,
Programmes, and Administrative Mechanisms
are in consonance with the Child Rights
perspective as enshrined in the Constitution
of India and also the UN Convention on the
Rights of the Child. The Child is defined as a
person in the 0 to 18 years age group.
NCPCR
Prevention and eradication of the
following:
 Child labour, child marriage, child
trafficking and prostitution, child sexual
violence, female foeticide and infanticide,
child rape, HIV/AIDS in children and the
problem of juveniles.
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Major attention of NCPCR
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12 key areas:
Reducing infant mortality rate, Maternal mortality
rate, malnutrition among children.
100% civil registration of births, early childhood care
and development and quality education
Abolition of female foeticide, infanticide and child
marriage protection of girl child
Improving water and sanitation coverage both in rural
and urban
Addressing and upholding the rights of children in
difficult circumstances
Securing for all children all legal and social protection
from all kinds of abuse, exploitation and neglect.
National plan of action for children
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Came into force from 14th November 2012.
The Protection of Children from Sexual
Offences (POCSO) Act 2012 is applicable to
the whole of India. The POCSO Act 2012
defines a child as any person below the age
of 18 years and provides protection to all
children under the age of 18 years from
sexual abuse. It also intends to protect the
child through all stages of judicial process
and gives paramount importance to the
principle of "best interest of the child".
Protection Of Children From
Sexual Offences Act
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It constitutes all forms of physical and/or
emotional ill treatment or commercial or
other exploitation, resulting in actual or
potential harm to the child’s health, survival,
development or dignity in the context of a
relationship of responsibility trust or power.
Child abuse and exploitation are grave
violation of human rights of children. The
consequences may reverberate througout the
life time.
Child abuse
Physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect and
negligent treatment, emotional abuse,
exploitation, conscription of children,
Bullying/delinquent environment.
 NEED: A society with zero tolerance for
sex/child abuse.
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Types of abuse
Purview of India:
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The Right to Education: 50% of Indian
children aged 6-18 do not go to school
Dropout rates increase alarmingly in class III
to V, its 50% for boys, 58% for girls.
The Right to Expression: Every child has a
right to express himself freely in whichever
way he likes. Majority of children however
are exploited by their elders and not allowed
to express.
Few rights
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The Right to Information: Every child has a right to know
his basic rights and his position in the society. High
incidence of illiteracy and ignorance among the deprived
and underprivileged children prevents them from having
access to information about them and their society.
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The Right to Nutrition: More than 50% of India's children
are malnourished. While one in every five adolescent boys
is malnourished, one in every two girls in India is
undernourished.
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The Right to Health & Care: 58% of India's children below
the age of 2 years are not fully vaccinated. And 24% of
these children do not receive any form of vaccination. Over
60% of children in India are anaemic. 95 in every 1000
children born in India do not see their fifth birthday. 70 in
every 1000 children born in India do not see their first
birthday.
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The Right to Protection from Neglect: Every child has a
right to lead a well protected and secure life away from
neglect
The Right to Protection from Abuse: There are
approximately 2 million child commercial sex workers
between the age of 5 and 15 years and about 3.3 million
between 15 and 18 years. They form 40% of the total
population of commercial sex workers in India. 500,000
children are forced into this trade every year.
The Right to Protection from Exploitation: 17 million
children in India work as per official estimates. A study
found that children were sent to work by compulsion and
not by choice, mostly by parents, but with recruiter playing
a crucial role in influencing decision
Few rights
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With more than one-third of its population below 18 years, India
has the largest young population in the world.
Only 35% of births are registered, impacting name and
nationality.
One out of 16 children die before they attain the age of 1, and
one out of 11 die before they are 5 years old.
35% of the developing world’s low-birth-weight babies are born in
India.
40% of child malnutrition in the developing world is in India.
The declining number of girls in the 0-6 age-group is cause for
alarm. For every 1,000 boys there are only 927 females -- even
less in some places.
Out of every 100 children, 19 continue to be out of school.
Of every 100 children who enrol, 70 drop out by the time they
reach the secondary level.
Of every 100 children who drop out of school, 66 are girls.
65% of girls in India are married by the age of 18 and become
mothers soon after.
India is home to the highest number of child labourers in the
world.
Ground
Realities
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It refers to the socially constructed roles
and responsibilities of men and women.
These roles are influenced by the
perception and expectations arising from
cultural, political, environmental,
economic, social and religious factors.
Gender
Gender is socially learned/behaviour
based on social expectation from men and
women. It vary across the world
correspondingly.
 Sex is natural, whereas Gender is socio
cultural + Man made.
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Women: Caring, gentle,passive,
respectful, Obedient, responsible at home,
take care of child, dress modestly, please
to obey men, not to express desires.
 Men : Make important decision for family
(e.g) spending or household expense,
how many children to have, do not show
their soft emotions, take lead in all
relationships.
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Expected role of Men & Women
Need for change in level of thinking.
 Problem cannot be solved by the same
level of thinking that created them.
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- Albert
Einstein.
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Gender concern- Human rights
approach
GENDER SENSITIZATION UNDER
NCF-2005
 In my textbooks I learned that only men are kings
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and soldiers.
Till I read a book in which famous, queens ruled and
fought against enemies.
In my textbooks I learned that only men are doctors.
When I went to a doctor I saw that she was a
woman.
In my textbook I learned that only men do farming in
my country, until, on a train journey I saw women
working in the fields.
I have learned that I have a lot to learn by seeing.
– Pooja, Ramya, Anuj, Utkarsh
students of Class VII, Baroda
Gender is not a women’s issue; it is a
people’s issue.
 Construction of power of one determines
the construction and power of the other.
 Unequal gender relations stunt the
freedom of all individuals to develop their
human capacities to their fullest.
 Undue pressure on boys and girls to live
up to the established norms of masculinity
and femininity.
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From the NCF document
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Girls endure unwarranted social control,
discrimination and domination, boys too
suffer from the sterotyping that exists in a
patriarchal culture. Discouraged from
being emotional, gentle or fearful they are
thrust into the role of breadwinners,
protectors and warriors.
NCF on gender sensitization
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As concerning only girls and women (a biological
category).
 As an isolated category, not related to other issues.
 In terms of provision of equal facilities.
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“Equality” as a goal, strategies adopted have
focused on:
Increasing representation of these notions of gender
in educational material.
 “Sensitive” portrayals of discrimination that
girls/women face.
 Portraying positive role models and enacting role
reversals of stereotypes.
 Neutralising texts of any gendered references.
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“Gender” has primarily been
viewed
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If we are committed to achieving education for
all, we must not view gender as a separate or
additional piece of work in education
programming. We must instead use a ‘gender
lens’ when planning, implementing, monitoring
and evaluating all of our work. A gender lens is
like putting on a pair of spectacles. Through one
lens of the spectacles we see the participation,
needs and realities of girls and women. We see
boys’ and men’s participation, needs and realities
through the other. To get the full picture in any
situation we must look through both eyes
What can we do as educators?
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People are born female or male, but learn to
be girls and boys who grow into women and
men. They are taught what the appropriate
behaviour and attitudes, roles and activities
are for them, and how they should relate to
other people. This learnt behaviour is what
makes up gender identity, and determines
gender roles and responsibilities. Gender
roles vary greatly from one culture to
another and from one social, political, and
economic group to another within the same
culture.
Gender
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A person's sexuality comes from within him
or her, making a person heterosexual,
homosexual, bisexual, or asexual, depending
on the partners he or she is (or is not)
attracted to. Unlike sexuality, however,
gender roles are imposed from without,
through a variety of social influences. Formed
during the socialization phases of childhood
and adolescence, gender role issues influence
people throughout their lives; conflict can
arise when someone does not feel at ease
with his or her gender role.
Where Do Gender Roles Come
From?
Prevailing Paradigm
Patriarchy (rule by fathers) is a social
system in which the male is the primary
authority figure central to social
organization.
 Organised around an obsession with
control by men and women devalued for
their supposed lack of control, women
need men’s supervision, protection or
control.
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Needs to be boldly reconceptualised
interms of the discourse of universal
human rights.
 Gender is not a women’s issue, it is a
people’s issue.
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Need for a paradigm change
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What does gender equity mean?
Right to be born
Right to grow and develop
Right to choose with dignity
Right to participate in development
Need to empower not as a member of
particular gender category but as a
human being
New Paradigm
Orientation of the concept
of Life SkillsThe abilities for adaptive and positive behavior
that enable individuals to deal effectively with
the demands and challenges of everyday life
(WHO). Life skills promote mental well being
and competence
Life skill approach : Life skill approach is an
interactive educational methodology that not
only focuses on transmitting knowledge but
aims at shaping attitudes and developing
interpersonal skills.
The main goal is to enhance young people’s
ability to promote mental well being and
competence.
Thinking skills: Self awarness, Problem
solving, Decision making, Critical thinking
, Creative thinking , Planning and goal
setting.
 Social skills: Interpersonal relationship,
effective communication, co-operation
and teamwork, Empathy building
 Negotiating skills: Managing feelings,
emotions, resisting peer/family pressure,
advocacy skills
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Life skill framework
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Components of Attitdue:
Cognitive: This is the mental component
consisting of beliefs and perception. E.g. I
think my friend is kind/charming
Affective: This is the emotional component.
E.g: I feel good when I am around my friend.
Behavioural: This is the action component
more specifically it consists of predisposition
to act a certain way towards the attitude
object. E.g: I will avoid spiders and scream if
I see one.
Life skills
Values & Attitudes
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Formed largely from the continuous process
of socialization
Positive or negative
Once formed not easily changed
May be affected by Age, position and
education
Difficult to measure
Indicated by behavior, reaction to individual
situation and social values.
Characterists of Attitude
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The process by which children acquire the
values, motives, and behaviours viewed
as appropriate for males and females
within a culture is called Gender Typing.
Children develop gender-based beliefs,
largely on the basis of gender
stereotypes; the latter are reflected in
gender roles. Children adopt a gender
identity early in life and develop genderrole preferences as well.
Gender Typing
Parent’s influence on Children’s Gender –
Typed choices
 Parental Behavior toward Girls and Boys
 Modeling Parent’s Characteristics
 Parental absence or Unavailability
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Influence of the family on
Gender Typing
Extra- Familial Influences on
Gender roles
 Books
and Television
 Peers, Gender Roles and Selfesteem
 Schools and Teachers
Gender sterotypes
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Fixed ideas or assumptions about a group
of people. Individuals belonging to that
group are assumed to have the
characteristics of that sterotype. E.g: boy
is considered to be the life insurance for
the parents, economically independent
and defender of the family.
Statements made by adults
As a mother, I don’t have any difficulty
even though I did not go to school.
 Grand parents believed that girls are of no
use educationally. They believed that
they are meant for the home and giving
birth.
 No matter how much education you give
to a woman, she will one day end up in
someone’s kitchen and all her needs will
be catered for.
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Gender is a common term whereas
gender discrimination is meant only for
women, because females are the only
victims of gender discrimination. Denial
of equality, rights and opportunity and
suppression in any form on the basis of
gender is gender discrimination.
Gender discrimination
Any distinction exclusion or preference
based on sex or gender, which has the
effect of nullifying or impairing equality of
opportunity and treatment.
 Causes: caste, culture, religious beliefs,
low income, unemployment, society,
family situation, educational
backwardness, family situation and
attitudes.
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Gender discrimination
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more money for education of boys
Food-more to sons than daughters(Specially in villages)
Stop going to play, help mother at home.
Preference given to son, men’s wishes.
least priority for girls
female feoticide,female infanticide
poorly paid –no equal wages
discrimination at work places
not allowed to make choices even regarding pregnancy
,abortion ,contraception
held responsible for not giving birth to male child
not allowed to perform religious rites
violence against women-sexual violence harassment,
forced prostitution domestic violence, marital rape, wife
battering
dowry harassment and death
redialing and marginalizing of unmarried woman and
widows by society
Glorification of subservience to men self sacrifice
Discriminatory practices:-usually
observed
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Educating women is the best weapon
Providing employment to women
Economic independence
Empowerment
Self-confidence
Decision making
Solutions for gender
discrimination
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Gender equality refers to equal opportunities
and outcomes for women and men. Gender
equality is about valuing women and men
equally to enjoy the same status and are in
the same position to access resources and
opportunities. Equality does not mean that
women should be the same as men.
Promoting equality recognizes that men and
women have different roles and needs, and
takes these into account in development
planning.
Gender Equality
Key Principles for the Promotion of
Gender Equality
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1. Achieving gender equality is not a 'women's
concern' but the responsibility of all in society
2. Promoting gender equality will benefit all in
society.
3. Gender equality needs to be addressed in all
development programmes and at all stages of the
programming cycle.
4. Address practical and strategic gender needs
Practical needs must be addressed but gender
equality cannot be achieved without addressing
strategic needs.
Strategic needs refer to the needs related to the
promotion of the equal and meaningful
participation of boys, girls, men and women in
their family and community.
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Gender-responsive education is protective and involves
both male and female learners in working towards gender
equality. The reason being that gender is a cross-sectional
issue. Thus it:
Addresses gender-based barriers so that all girls and boys,
women and men can learn
Respects differences based on gender and acknowledges
that gender, together with age, ethnicity, language,
disability, and religion are all part of a learner’s identity
Enables education structures, systems and methodologies
to be sensitive to all girls and boys, women and men
Ensures gender parity in education as part of a wider
strategy to advance gender equality in society
Continuously evolves to close gaps on gender disparity and
eradicate gender-based discrimination.
Gender-responsive education: THE
SOLUTION
Thank
U
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