Computer
Confluence 7/e
© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 1
Computer Confluence 7/e
Chapter 6
Graphics, Digital Media, and Multimedia
© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 2
Computer Confluence 7/e
Chapter 6
Objectives
 Compare and contrast several types of computer graphics
programs used by artists, photographers, designers, and
others
 Explain how computers are changing the way professionals
and amateurs work with video, animation, audio, and music
 Describe several ways that computers are used to create
multimedia materials in the arts, entertainment, education,
and business
© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 3
Computer Confluence 7/e
Chapter 1
Objectives (continued)
 Explain the relationship between hypermedia and
multimedia, describing applications of each
 Describe several present and future applications for
multimedia technology
© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
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Computer Confluence 7/e
Chapter 1
Tim Berners-Lee Weaves the Web for Everybody
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Born in London in 1955
Wanted to create an open-ended
distributed hypertext system with no
boundaries, so scientists everywhere
could link their work together
Invented the World Wide Web and
gave it to all
Now works at MIT
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Heads the World Wide Web Consortium
(W3C)
© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 5
Computer Confluence 7/e
Chapter 6
Focus on Computer Graphics
Painting: Bitmapped Graphics
 Painting software:
 Paints pixels on the screen with a
pointing device
 Pointer movements are translated
into lines and patterns on the screen
 Stores an image at 300
dots per inch or higher
© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 6
Computer Confluence 7/e
Chapter 6
Focus on Computer Graphics
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Pixels: tiny dots of white, black, or color that make up
images on the screen
The palette of tools mimics real-world painting tools
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Also contains other tools that are unique to computers
Bitmapped graphics (or raster graphics): pictures that
show how the pixels are mapped on the screen
Color depth: the number of bits devoted to each pixel
Resolution: the density of the pixels
© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
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Computer Confluence 7/e
Chapter 6
Focus on Computer Graphics
Image Processing: Photographic Editing by Computer
 Allows the user to manipulate photographs and other highresolution images with tools such as Adobe Photoshop
 Far more powerful than traditional photo-retouching techniques
 Can distort and combine photos as demonstrated in the tabloids
 Can create fabricated images that show no evidence of tampering
© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
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Computer Confluence 7/e
Chapter 6
Focus on Computer Graphics
 Digital photo management software programs such as Apple
iPhoto and Microsoft PictureIt! simplify and automate common
tasks associated with capturing, organizing, editing, and sharing
digital images
Take an image
© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Combine it with
other objects
Make a statement
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Computer Confluence 7/e
Chapter 6
Focus on Computer Graphics
Drawing: Object-Oriented Graphics
 Drawing software stores a picture as a collection of lines and
shapes (called object-oriented or vector graphics)
 Memory demands on storage are not as high as for bitmapped images
 Many drawing tools–line, shape, and text tools–are similar to
painting tools in bitmapped programs
© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
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Computer Confluence 7/e
Chapter 6
Focus on Computer Graphics
PostScript: a standard page-description language for
describing text fonts, illustrations, and other elements
of the printed page
Used by professional drawing programs such as Adobe
Illustrator and Macromedia Freehand
Built into many laser printers and other high-end output
devices so those devices can understand and follow
PostScript instructions
PostScript-based drawing software constructs a PostScript
program as the user draws
© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
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Computer Confluence 7/e
Chapter 6
Focus on Computer Graphics
 Bit-mapped painting (pixels)
gives you these advantages:
 More control over textures, shading
and fine detail
 Appropriate for screen displays,
simulating natural paint media and
embellishing photographs
© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 12
Computer Confluence 7/e
Chapter 6
Focus on Computer Graphics
 Object-oriented drawing gives you
these advantages:
 Better for creating printed graphs,
charts, and illustrations
 Lines are cleaner and shapes are
smoother
© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
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Computer Confluence 7/e
Chapter 6
Focus on Computer Graphics
 Some integrated programs contain both drawing and painting
modules
 Allows you to choose the right tool for each job
 Some programs merge features of both in a single application
 Blurring the distinction between types
 Offers new possibilities for amateur and professional illustrators
© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
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Computer Confluence 7/e
Chapter 6
Focus on Computer Graphics
Rules of Thumb: Creating Smart Art
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Reprogram yourself . . . relax
Choose the right tool for the job
Borrow from the best
Don’t borrow without permission
Protect your own work
 U.S. Copyright Office Web Site:
http://lcweb.loc.gov/copyright/
© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
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Computer Confluence 7/e
Chapter 6
Focus on Computer Graphics
3-D Modeling Software
 Used to create three-dimensional objects with tools similar
to those in drawing software
 Goal for some applications: to create an animated
presentation on a computer screen or videotape
 Flexible: can create a 3-D model, rotate it, view it from
different angles
 Can “walk-through” a 3-D environment that exists only in
the computer’s memory
© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
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Computer Confluence 7/e
Chapter 6
Focus on Computer Graphics
Images in wireframe
view; those on the right
are fully rendered to
add surface textures
© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 17
Computer Confluence 7/e
Chapter 6
Focus on Computer Graphics
CAD/CAM: Turning Pictures into Products
 Computer Aided Design (CAD) software:
 Allows engineers, designers, and architects to create
designs on screen for products ranging from computer
chips to public buildings
 Can test product prototypes
 Cheaper, faster, and more accurate than traditional
design-by-hand techniques
© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
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Computer Confluence 7/e
Chapter 6
Focus on Computer Graphics
 Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) is the process by
which data related to the product design are fed into a program
that controls the manufacturing of parts
 Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) refers to the
combination of CAD/CAM and is a major step toward a fully
automated factory
© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 19
Computer Confluence 7/e
Chapter 6
Focus on Computer Graphics
Presentation Graphics: Bringing Lectures to Life
Automates the creation of visual aids for lectures,
training sessions, sales demonstrations, and other
presentations
Create slide shows directly on computer monitors or
LCD projectors, including still images, animation, and
video clips
© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 20
Computer Confluence 7/e
Chapter 6
Focus on Computer Graphics
You start by creating an
outline of the main points of
your talk, arranging headings
and points in the appropriate
order
© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 21
Computer Confluence 7/e
Chapter 6
Focus on Computer Graphics
You can design the background, borders,
and text format yourself, or select a
professionally designed template from the
collection that comes with PowerPoint
The program places your text on this
template for each slide in the presentation
© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
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Computer Confluence 7/e
Chapter 6
Focus on Computer Graphics
You can print overhead
transparencies or have slides made,
but since there is a big screen
computer system in the lecture
room, you opt to create an
interactive slideshow with
animated visual transitions between
slides
© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
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Computer Confluence 7/e
Chapter 6
Focus on Computer Graphics
Microsoft Producer lets you
combine a presentation with a
video of the speaker and a table of
contents
© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 24
Computer Confluence 7/e
Chapter 6
Rules of Thumb: Making Powerful Presentations
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Remember your goal
Remember your audience
Outline your ideas
Be stingy with words
Keep it simple
Use a consistent design
Be smart with art
Keep each slide focused
Tell them what you’re going to tell them, then tell them,
then tell them what you told them
© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 25
Computer Confluence 7/e
Chapter 6
Dynamic Media: Beyond the Printed Page
 Modern media contains dynamic information, which is
information that changes over time or in response to user input
 Animation
We’re on the threshold of a moment in
cinematic history that is unparalleled.
 Desktop Video
Anything you can imagine can be done.
If you can draw it, if you can describe it,
 Audio
we can do it. It’s just a matter of cost.
—James Cameron, filmmaker
 Hypertext and hypermedia
© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 26
Computer Confluence 7/e
Chapter 6
Dynamic Media: Beyond the Printed Page
Animation: Graphics in Time
 Each frame of computer-based
animation is a computer-drawn picture;
the computer displays these
frames in rapid succession
 Tweening: Instead of drawing each frame
by hand, the animator can create key frames
and objects and use software to help fill
in the gaps
© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 27
Computer Confluence 7/e
Chapter 6
Dynamic Media: Beyond the Printed Page
Desktop Video: Computers, Film, and TV
 Analog and Digital Video
 A video digitizer can convert analog video signals from a television
broadcast or videotape into digital data
© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 28
Computer Confluence 7/e
Chapter 6
Dynamic Media: Beyond the Printed Page
 Many video digitizers can import signals from televisions,
videotapes, video cameras, and other sources
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Signals displayed on the computer’s screen in real time—at the
same time they’re created or imported
 Digital video cameras capture footage in digital form
 Digital video can be copied, edited, stored, and played back
without any loss of quality
 Digital video will soon replace analog video for most
applications
© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 29
Computer Confluence 7/e
Chapter 6
Dynamic Media: Beyond the Printed Page
Video Production Goes Digital
Today most video editing is done using nonlinear editing
technology
Video editing software, such as Adobe Premiere, makes it
easy to eliminate extraneous footage, combine clips from
multiple takes, splice together scenes, create specific effects
and other activities
Morphs are video clips in which one image metamorphoses
into another
Data compression software and hardware are used to
squeeze data out of movies so that they can be stored in
smaller spaces
© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
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Computer Confluence 7/e
Chapter 6
Dynamic Media: Beyond the Printed Page
Many Web sites deliver streaming
video content to viewers with fast
broadband Internet connections
© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
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Computer Confluence 7/e
Chapter 6
Dynamic Media: Beyond the Printed Page
The Synthetic Musician: Computers and Audio
 Audio digitizer – captures sound and stores it as a data file
 Synthesizer – an electronic instrument that
synthesizes sounds using mathematical
formulas
 MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital
Interface) – standard interface that allows
electronic instruments and computers to
communicate with each other
© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
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Computer Confluence 7/e
Chapter 6
Dynamic Media: Beyond the Printed Page
 Music is digitized on audio CDs at a high sampling rate and bit
depth—high enough that it’s hard to tell the difference between
the original analog sound and the final digital recording
The iTunes Music Store helps Mac
and Windows users purchase music
by their favorite artists in protected
digital format
© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 33
Computer Confluence 7/e
Chapter 6
Dynamic Media: Beyond the Printed Page
Rule of Thumb: Digital Audio Dos and Don’ts
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Don’t steal
Understand streaming and downloading
Know your file formats
Don’t over-compress
© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
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Computer Confluence 7/e
Chapter 6
Dynamic Media: Beyond the Printed Page
Format
Downloadable
Streamable
Typically used for...
MP3
Yes
Yes
Ripping (copying) CDs to the computer and
to portable audio players
WMA
Yes
Yes
Ripping CDs to the computer and for
purchased music from online music stores
AAC
Yes
Yes
Purchased music from online music stores
RealAudio
Yes
Yes
Audio streams from commercial Web sites
like CNN
MIDI
Yes
Yes
Contains no audio—just sequences of
commands to control musical instruments
and music samples on a PC
Popular Digital Audio Formats
© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 35
Computer Confluence 7/e
Chapter 6
Dynamic Media: Beyond the Printed Page
Samplers, Synthesizers, and Sequencers:
Digital Audio and MIDI
Multimedia computers can control a variety of
electronic musical instruments and sound sources
using MIDI
MIDI commands can be interpreted by a variety of:
Music synthesizers
Samplers
© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 36
Computer Confluence 7/e
Chapter 6
Dynamic Media: Beyond the Printed Page
 A piano-style keyboard sends MIDI signals to the computer
 Computer interprets the MIDI commands using sequencing software
 Sequencing software turns a computer into a musical
composing, recording, and editing machine
 Electronica—music designed from the ground up with digital
technology
 Some of the most interesting sequenced music
© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 37
Computer Confluence 7/e
Chapter 6
Dynamic Media: Beyond the Printed Page
A growing number of musicians
depend on sequencers to play along
with live musicians in performances
• Abelon’s Live is a sequencer with
special features for bridging the
communication gap between
human players and computer in
concert
© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 38
Computer Confluence 7/e
Chapter 6
Dynamic Media: Beyond the Printed Page
Hypertext and Hypermedia
 Hypertext refers to information linked in non-sequential
ways
 Hypermedia combines text, numbers, graphics,
animation, sound effects, music, and other media in
hyperlinked documents
 Useful for on-line help files
 Lets the user jump between documents all over the Internet
© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 39
Computer Confluence 7/e
Chapter 6
Dynamic Media: Beyond the Printed Page
Hypermedia documents can be disorienting and leave
readers wondering what they’ve missed
 Documents don’t always have the links readers want
 Authors can’t build every possible connection into documents
 Some readers get frustrated because they can’t easily get “here” from
“there”
© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 40
Computer Confluence 7/e
Chapter 6
Dynamic Media: Beyond the Printed Page
 Documents sometimes contain “lost” links,
 Especially on the Web, where even a popular page can
disappear
 Documents don’t encourage scribbled margin notes,
highlighting, or turned page corners for marking key
passages
 Hardware can be hard on humans
 The art of hypermedia is still in its infancy
© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 41
Computer Confluence 7/e
Chapter 6
Interactive Multimedia: Eye, Ear, Hand, and
Mind
Interactive Multimedia: What Is It?
 A combination of text, graphics,
animation, video, music, voice,
and sound effects that allows the
user to take an active part in the
experience
 Requirements: high-quality color
monitors, fast processors, large memory,
CD-ROM drives, speakers, and sound cards
© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 42
Computer Confluence 7/e
Chapter 6
Interactive Multimedia: Eye, Ear, Hand, and
Mind
Multimedia Authoring: Making Mixed Media
 Uses authoring programs such as
HyperStudio and MetaCard
 Binds source documents together to
communicate with users in an aesthetically
pleasing way
© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 43
Computer Confluence 7/e
Chapter 6
Interactive Multimedia: Eye, Ear, Hand, and
Mind
Multimedia authoring involves
programming objects on the screen to
react, or behave, in particular ways under
particular circumstances
Macromedia Director MX, one of the
most popular of such packages, includes
pre-written behaviors that can be attached
to on-screen buttons, images, and other
objects
© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 44
Computer Confluence 7/e
Chapter 6
Interactive Multimedia: Eye, Ear, Hand, and
Mind
Rules of Thumb:
Making Interactive Multimedia Work
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Be consistent in visual appearance
Use graphical metaphors to guide viewers
Keep the screen clean and uncluttered
Include multimedia elements to enliven the presentation
Focus on the message
Give the user control
Test your presentation with those unfamiliar with the subject
© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 45
Computer Confluence 7/e
Chapter 6
Interactive Multimedia: Eye, Ear, Hand, and
Mind
Inventing the Future: Shared Virtual Spaces
 Virtual reality combines virtual worlds with networking
 Places multiple participants in a virtual space
 People see representations of each other, sometimes called avatars
 Most avatars today are cartoonish, but they convey a sense of presence and
emotion
© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 46
Computer Confluence 7/e
Chapter 6
Interactive Multimedia: Eye, Ear, Hand, and
Mind
 Tele-immersion:
 Uses multiple cameras and high-speed networks to create a
videoconferencing environment in which multiple remote users can
interact with each other and with computer-generated objects
 Combines the display and interaction techniques of virtual reality with
new vision technologies that allow participants to move around in shared
virtual spaces, all the while maintaining their unique points of view
 Augmented reality (AR):
 The use of computer displays that add virtual information to a person’s
sensory perceptions
© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 47
Computer Confluence 7/e
Chapter 6
Lesson Summary
 Computer graphics today encompass more than quantitative
charts and graphs generated by spreadsheets
 Computers today aren’t limited to working with static images;
they’re widely used to create and edit documents in media that
change over time or in response to user interaction
 The interactive nature of the personal computer makes it
possible to create nonlinear documents that enable users to take
individual paths through information
© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 48
Computer Confluence 7/e
Chapter 6
Lesson Summary (continued)
 Today we can create or explore hypermedia documents—
interactive documents that mix text, graphics, sounds, and
moving images with onscreen navigation buttons—on disk and
on the World Wide Web
 Multimedia computer systems make a new kind of software
possible—software that uses text, graphics, animation, video,
music, voice, and sound effects to communicate
 Regardless of the hardware, interactive multimedia software
enables the user to control the presentation rather than just
watch or listen passively
© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 49
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Computer Confluence 6/e