Emergency Alert System
Requirements
Update
Steven C. Johnson
Johnson Telecom, LLC
www.JohnsonTelecom.com
[email protected]
704-968-7031
EAS Objective

Provide Communications from the
President in case of National
Emergency
• Mandatory

Secondarily, Provide Communications
for Local Emergencies
• Optional except where required by
franchise
What is Required Now?


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
Purchase and install equipment
Be prepared to carry Presidential
Alerts
Forward Required Monthly Tests
(within 15 minutes of reception)
Forward or Create Required Weekly
Tests
On All Downstream Video
Programming – digital and analog
Event Codes -- Mandatory
• Emergency Action Notification EAN
• Required Monthly Test RMT
• Required Weekly Test RWT
Digital EAS v Analog EAS


Analog – EAS channelized at
Headend
Digital – EAS message built in STB
• Vendor Proprietary
• SCTE 18
SCTE 18



Cable Card products required to
support SCTE 18
QAM tuners w/o Cable Card not
required to support SCTE 18
How Do We Support EAS on Clear
QAM?
• Broadcast
• PEG
• Tiers
Common Alerting Protocol




Supports more detail than the EAS
protocol
180 days after FEMA approves
standard
Status with FEMA?
Mandatory override for Governor’s
messages (180 days after CAP
standards approval)
CAP Problems


CAP to EAS converter
CAP Support
• Origination
• Reception
8VSB Passthrough

Non-Override agreement
Future Considerations



Home Networking
Support EAS to video displays
Cable Labs ongoing work
Future Requirements
FCC asked for more input on
• Multiple Language
• Local Government
Documentation




Cable EAS Handbook with EAS
equipment (Headend)
FCC Part 11 and 76 – on File
Logging
State Plan
References

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
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State Plan
FCC Part 11
FCC EAS Cable Handbook
FCC EAS Event Code list
FCC 2nd R&O
SCTE 18
Non-Override Agreement
GAO Report on EAS
RGB info
SA DNCS reference
Emergency Alert System
Requirements
Update
Steven C. Johnson
Johnson Telecom, LLC
www.JohnsonTelecom.com
[email protected]
704-968-7031
Background Material
EAS Protocol




Packet Header repeated 3 times
Attention Signal – 8 to 25 seconds
Audio message up to 2 minutes
(unlimited time on EAN)
Packet End of Message (EOM)
repeated 3 times
Targeting Alerts -- FIPS Code
Federal Information Processing Standard


PSSCCC
P = County
Subdivision 0-9
• 0 = all, 1 = NW, 2
= N, 3 = NE, 4 =
W, etc


SS = State
designation
CCC = County
designation
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Targeting Alerts

Targeted to hub through DNCS
Overrides


All Downstream Video Programming
Not Required on
• Music Services
• Graphics Generated in STB
• Telephone
• Cable Modem
EAS Protocol

Required to be followed on all
required alerts
• National Alerts and tests



EAN (Emergency Action Notification-Presidential),
RWT (Required Weekly Test),
RMT (Required Monthly Test) – within 60
minutes of receipt
• Video and Audio
EAS Header





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[PREAMBLE]
ZCZC
ORG
EEE
PSSCCC
TTTT
JJJHHMM
LLLLLLLL
Preamble



10101011 sent to
clear the system,
set AGC and
set asynchronous decoder clocking
cycles.
The preamble must be transmitted
before each header and End Of
Message code.
EAS Header



[PREAMBLE]ZCZC-ORG-EEEPSSCCC+TTTT-JJJHHMM-LLLLLLLL
ZCZC = Identifier, sent as ASCII
characters ZCZC to indicate the start
of ASCII code
ORG = Originator of message
ORG




EAS Participant
EAS
Civil authorities
CIV
National Weather Service
WXR
Primary Entry Point System PEP
EAS Header



[PREAMBLE]ZCZC-ORG-EEEPSSCCC+TTTT-JJJHHMM-LLLLLLLL
EEE = Event Code
PSSCCC = Location code -- Federal
Information Processing Standard
(FIPS)
EAS Protocol


[PREAMBLE]ZCZC-ORG-EEEPSSCCC+TTTT-JJJHHMM-LLLLLLLL
TTTT = Event Duration in 15 minute
increments
• Not to be confused with override time of
2 minutes max, except for Presidential
alert
EAS Protocol


[PREAMBLE]ZCZC-ORG-EEEPSSCCC+TTTT-JJJHHMM-LLLLLLLL
JJJHHMM
• JJJ = day (0 to 365)
• HHMM = time in UTC

LLLLLLLL = ID Code of participant
transmitting or retransmitting message
• Cable System name or CUID (Community Unit
ID)
EAS EOM

[PREAMBLE]NNNN

NNNN = End of Message
1394






Inconsistent implementation by CE
Few TVs supporting
Motorola – OK
SA – Does not support EAS graphics
via 1394 port
Optional input selection
Component connections required w/
input selector
Event Codes -- Optional

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Administrative Message ADR
Avalanche Watch AVA
Child Abduction Emergency CAE
Civil Emergency Message CEM
Coastal Flood Watch CFA
Earthquake Warning EQW
Fire Warning FRW
Flash Flood Watch FFA
Flood Warning FLW
Flood Statement FLS
High Wind Warning HWW
Hurricane Warning HUW
Hurricane Statement HLS
Avalanche Warning AVW
Blizzard Warning BZW
Civil Danger Warning CDW
Coastal Flood Warning CFW
Dust Storm Warning DSW
Evacuation Immediate EVI
Flash Flood Warning FFW
Flash Flood Statement FFS
Flood Watch FLA
Haz Mat Warning HMW
High Wind Watch HWA
Hurricane Watch HUA
Event Codes -- Optional

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Law Enforcement Warning LEW
Network Message Notification NMN
Nuclear Pwr Plant Warning NUW
Radiological Hazard Warning RHW
Severe Thunderstorm Watch SVA
Shelter in Place Warning SPW
Special Weather Statement SPS
Tornado Watch TOA
Tropical Storm Watch TRA
Tsunami Watch TSA
Winter Storm Warning WSW
Local Area Emergency LAE
911 Tele Outage Emerg TOE
Practice/Demo Warning DMO
Severe T-storm Warning SVR
Severe Weather Stmt SVS
Special Marine Warning SMW
Tornado Warning TOR
Tropical Storm Warning TRW
Tsunami Warning TSW
Volcano Warning VOW
Winter Storm Watch WSA
Recommended



CAE – Child Abduction Emergency
(AMBER)
Tornado Warning, where appropriate
Should participate in some voluntary
alerts to avoid the risk of becoming
mandatory
AMBER


Difficult to do in an automated form
EAS Protocol does not support the
details necessary
• Description of suspect
• Description of vehicle
• Description of victim
• Location last seen
• etc
Override Length



2 minute max except for Presidential
alert
Controlled by audio packet header
and encoder/decoder
Override ends when decoder hears
EOM or 2 minutes has elapsed
Override Time vs Event Duration

Override Time
• 2 minute time out or at EOM
• Except for Presidential Alert – EAN

Event Duration
• Length of time that event is a threat
• For example, a tornado warning from 8
PM to 10 PM – 2 hours

Override time does not = Event
Duration
Decision Tree for Decoder
National Alert? -- override until
completed
My Area? – if No, then Stop
Test? – override
Programmed event code? -- override
Repetition of Alerts


Not Required
Optional repeat overrides may be
done during the event
• Get message to those just tuning in
Details Channel




AKA Tune to Channel
Optional, not required
“For More information, tune to
channel XYZ”
Tune to Channel may be the override
method used (Force Tune)
Force Tune




National Alert (EAN)
Motorola
Cable Card (if audio required)
Franchise required alert (maybe)
Analog Override Techniques





Baseband Switching
IF Switching
Crawl and optional Audio substitution
Comb Generator
Edge Device such as RGB
Digital Override Techniques

Force Tune
• Motorola
• Presidential

Out of Band Signaling
• Scientific Atlanta
• Data sent to STB to create banner
• Audio file optionally sent to STB
CAP Tests in Wisconsin






Summer 2006 to December 2007
CAP Transport to Facility
Emergency Communications  web
site
Creates CAP message
Delivered to appropriate locations via
internet
Translated to EAS protocol and
delivered to viewers
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EAS Requirements - SCTE Piedmont Chapter