Interoperable Architecture in
Distributed Data Sharing Settings
Louis Hecht
Executive Director
Regional Operations and Development
[email protected]
301-654-0698
© 2005, Open Geospatial Consortium, Inc.
Talk Topics
• OGC leads the development of web based geospatial standards based on
common architecture methods
– What is OGC and What do we do, Some of our members
– The General Idea Behind Interoperability
• Interoperability in the Federal Enterprise Architecture
– OGC architecture
– OGC specifications and standards
• Distributed Data and Services and Government interoperability – Data
Harmonization
– Protecting value of legacy data and systems
– Easing insertion of new technologies and updating old ones
• What might COG consider
OGC
© 2005, Open Geospatial Consortium, Inc.
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OGC Background
• Open Geospatial Consortium
(OGC)
– Not-for-profit, international
voluntary consensus standards
organization
• Incorporated in US, UK,
Australia
– 280+ industry, government, and
university members
– Class A Liaison of ISO TC 211,
TC 204 and CEN TC 287
– Founded in 1994
OGC
© 2005, Open Geospatial Consortium, Inc.
OGC Mission
To lead in the
development, promotion
and harmonization of
open spatial standards,
to support their effective
implementation and ICT
infrastructure
architectures worldwide,
and to advance the
formation of new market
opportunities for spatial
information and
processing services.
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OGC Vision
A world in which
everyone benefits
from geographic
information and
services made
available across
any network,
application, or
platform.
OGC
© 2005, Open Geospatial Consortium, Inc.
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Who Belongs to OGC?
• Vendors (examples)
– Autodesk, Compusult, Cubewerx, ESRI, Galdos, Intergraph, Ionic, Laser
Scan Ltd., ObjectFX, MapInfo, NAVTEQ, Tele Atlas
• Integrators (examples)
– BAE Systems, Boeing S&IS, Booze Allen Hamilton, Harris Corp, ITT
Industries, Lockheed Martin, Michael Baker, Jr., Northrop Grumman –
TASC, Parsons-Brinckerhoff, Raytheon, SAIC
• Universities (examples)
– Alabama – Huntsville, Arkansas, Columbia, MIT, GMU, Harvard, Illinois,
Indiana, Penn State, Maine, Maryland, Michigan State, Minnesota,
Washington U in St. Louis
Full list available at:
http://www.opengeospatial.org/about/?page=members&view=Name
OGC
© 2005, Open Geospatial Consortium, Inc.
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Who Belongs to OGC?
• U.S. Government Organizations
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U.S. Defense Modeling & Simulation Office (DMSO)
U.S. Naval Research Laboratory
Program Executive Office, C4I and Space
US Army Corps of Engineers (ACE)
US Census Bureau
US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
US Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
US Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC)
US Geological Survey (USGS), National Mapping Division
US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
US National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA)
US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA/NCDDC)
OGC
© 2005, Open Geospatial Consortium, Inc.
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What is OGC Interoperability? - The General
Idea
• The ability of systems to exchange and use information and services.
– By "systems," we mean software processes, services and other
components, the data, hardware, and supporting networks.
• This capability comes from open standards.
• OGC has developed an open framework that enables geospatial
interoperability.
– using a global-based voluntary consensus-based process -- specifications
that result -- describe open, vendor-neutral, and non-proprietary interfaces,
encodings and human to machine vocabularies.
OGC
© 2005, Open Geospatial Consortium, Inc.
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Standards Enable Interoperability
INTEROPERABILITY: the ability of
two or more autonomous,
heterogeneous, distributed digital
entities (e.g. systems, applications,
procedures, directories, inventories
or data sets) to communicate and
cooperate among themselves
despite differences in language,
context, format or content. These
entities should be able to interact
with one another in meaningful ways
without special effort by the user the data producer or consumer - be
it human or machine.
OGC
© 2005, Open Geospatial Consortium, Inc.
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OGC’s Place in the Market
• To enable interoperability
– OGC operates our consensus process with industry,
government and academic members to define
architectures and interfaces
– OGC commercial vendor and integrator members write
and sell software that uses our published OGC
interfaces
– Interface specifications are also made public
– Users like yourselves -- employ OGC-based
architectures -- to decide what software to buy that
satisfies your requirements and operational necessities
OGC
© 2005, Open Geospatial Consortium, Inc.
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The Federal Enterprise Architecture
OGC
© 2005, Open Geospatial Consortium, Inc.
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FEA Profiles
• Two kinds of documents
– Each agency and department identifies its own Lines of Business
and then completes the profiles for them
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Performance
Business
Service
Data
Technical
– Several ‘cross cutting’ areas have been identified (those that are
important to all agencies and probably all Lines of Business)
• Security
• Records Management
• Geospatial
OGC
© 2005, Open Geospatial Consortium, Inc.
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Geo and the Federal Enterprise Architecture
• Federated interoperability means that the ‘hidden
geospatial’ elements in all government data needs to be
accessible and useable
– FGDC defining a Geospatial profile of the FEA
– Project Visible at Geospatial Community of Practice Wiki
• http://colab.cim3.net/cgi-bin/wiki.pl?GeoSpatialCommunityofPractice
• Geo Profile is an ‘overlay’ to all other lines of business
– Some agencies have lines of business that are entirely geospatial
• USGS, Census, others
– Some agencies have lines of business that just include some data
elements that are geospatial
• HUD has thousands of housing units each with its own address
– That address is geospatial, even though HUD uses it only as a mail box
OGC
© 2005, Open Geospatial Consortium, Inc.
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Shared lines of business
Integrated Data and Information “To Be State”
Recreation
Using the
FEA-DRM
Geospatial Overlay
Natural Resource
Health
Emission
Consumer Safety
Public
Health
Monitoring
Consumer
Health &
Safety
Recreational
Resource
Management
& Tourism
Pollution
Prevention
& Control
Energy
Research
GeoCOP Plan
• 30 September 2005
– Deliver Geospatial Profile document
• Overview
• Context for all five Reference Models
• Geo ‘overlay’ for all five Reference Models
– Address geo as line of business
– Address geo elements in all other lines of business
• Next fiscal year
– Demonstrate proof that the proposed profile supports
interoperability
– OGC specifications will be required
OGC
© 2005, Open Geospatial Consortium, Inc.
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The Role of Data for Realizing the FEA Vision
• Data needs to discoverable and semantically interoperable
– The first barrier to sharing is knowing it exists
– The user must know what a ‘road’ is
• Services that access data need to automatically useable
– User must know what the service is
– Chaining is desireable
• Architecture into which the services fit to manipulate the data
– You plug your new stereo into the wall for power and into the rest of your
system to make it work – why not geospatial processing too?
• All three rely on open, industry consensus standards to fit the pieces
together – multi-jurisdictional payers means multi-vendor software
OGC
© 2005, Open Geospatial Consortium, Inc.
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Common Geospatial Interoperability Framework
Multi-source Access and Integration (Homeland Security)
Data
Providers
Civil
Authorities
Analysis &
Support
Emergency
First
Mgmt Personnel Responders
Common Interoperable
Operating Pictures
Private Data and
Services
Local Data and
Services
State Data and
Services
Federal Data and
Services
Tribal Data and
Services
Information Architecture:
Models, Transforms, Application
Schemas and Dictionaries
OGC
Service Architecture:
Standards, Certified Services for Accessing,
Processing, Presenting Information
Geospatial Interoperability Framework meets cross-organizational enterprise
challenges.
© 2005, Open Geospatial Consortium, Inc.
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Data Harmonization Approach (1)
•
A single data model or specification for all domains is extremely unlikely
•
Traditional bulk transfer of data (sets) is often too inflexible and not meeting
user requirements
•
Approach focussing on providing services to the information gained from
different data holdings is required
•
Application Schema defines content and structure of data but may also specify
services for accessing and manipulating data by an application
•
Services Architecture details the required services and interfaces to implement
a solution that serves the user information requirements through automated
translation of existing data sources and their existing stovepipe data models into
harmonized schemas with resulting output suitable for sharing and human use
OGC
© 2005, Open Geospatial Consortium, Inc.
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Data Harmonization Approach (2)
• Application Schema specifies the domain specific feature types
– describing the specific view of the real world based on the information
requirements of that domain
– Define the core concepts of the domain in a meaningful way (e.g. “lake”,
“parcel”, “road”) along with their attributes, properties, possible
constraints, etc.
• Proven to be extremely valuable in building geospatial information
networks comprising heterogeneous data sources
OGC
© 2005, Open Geospatial Consortium, Inc.
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Summary
• OGC leads the development of web based geospatial standards based
on common architecture methods
• U.S. government is defining Federal Enterprise Architecture
– OGC architecture fits into FEA
• Data and services will move interoperably around the government –
– Easing insertion of new technologies and updating old ones
– Protecting value of legacy data and systems
• COG and member organizations need to share data and use a plethora
of sources...
– COG will need to situate itself within the FEA framework
– COG will need to consider an iterative development strategy
– Today’s requirements for exchanging geospatial data and the multi
jurisdictional nature of those sources requires COG to consider using open,
industry standardization for sharing information between jurisdictions
OGC
© 2005, Open Geospatial Consortium, Inc.
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