Putting It Together An ER verb assembly kit Karin White – French teacher C&I 401 – Fall 2005 Dr. Cheri Toledo Curriculum Web- Middle School French October 28, 2005 Putting It Together An ER verb assembly kit Setup Getting Started FAQ’s Projects A do-it-yourself program for constructing complete thoughts and actions using regular ER verbs Owner’s Manual Setup The process of verb conjugation Parts and accessories La Conjugaison des Verbes Verb Conjugation So what is conjugation? What does “conjugate” mean? In grammatical terms, it’s… Taking the regular form of the verb (such as: to have, to eat, to dance, to speak, etc) and changing it to agree with the subject of the verb (the person/object performing the action) Lost? Don’t you worry. We conjugate verbs in English every day! How??? La Conjugaison des Verbes Verb Conjugation Watch carefully as our verb repair specialty crew conjugates an English verb in the present tense. to be I am We are You are You (pl) are He/She is They are La Conjugaison des Verbes Verb Conjugation Don’t they do excellent work? Here are some other familiar projects: to eat to dance I dance We dance I eat We eat You dance You (pl) dance You eat You (pl) eat He/She eats They eat He/She dances They dance Is it making sense yet? We change “to dance” to “dance” or “dances” depending on who we’re talking about (I, You, They). The same goes for “to eat.” Try a few on your own: La Conjugaison des Verbes Verb Conjugation Here are a few verbs try. Remember to use the present tense! to watch to work I watch We watch I work We work You watch You (pl) watch You work You (pl) work He/She works They work He/She watches They watch How did you do? C’est facile, n’est-ce pas? La Conjugaison des Verbes Verb Conjugation Would you say… (click on each one) I is? You be? He are? They watches? She work? I to be? You to work? Oops! Of course not! Conjugated verbs are not interchangeable! It sounds ridiculous! It’s the same way with the French language. Now that you are experts, lets check out the nuts and bolts of conjugating French verbs. La Conjugaison des Verbes Parts and Accessories In order to be a successful verb conjugator, you will need to know the following 4 terms: Subject- The person or thing doing the action (je, vous, la télé) Infinitive- The verb by itself: danser, parler, inviter, regarder What others can you name? travailler habiter organiser écouter chanter Stem- The verb without the er: dans, parl, invit, regard La Conjugaison des Verbes Parts and Accessories And most importantly: Ending- The combination of letters that we put in place of the “er” that we dropped earlier. Each pronoun has it’s own ending to be used. Below is a chart that gives these endings -ER Endings Je e [—] Nous ons [ohn] Tu es [—] Vous ez [eh] Il/ Elle e [—] Ils/ Elles ent [—] La Conjugaison des Verbes Parts and Accessories Or think of it this way: Subject The worker: Infinitive The drill packaging: Stem The drill: (packaging removed) Ending The drill bits: er Je, Tu, Nous, la fille, Ils aimer, danser, aim, dans, chanter, parler chant, parl e, es, e, ons, ez, ent The worker chooses the bit for each drill!!! La Conjugaison des Verbes Parts and Accessories Ok, here’s the drill : Try to conjugate these French verbs by following the 4 simple step: 1. Take note of the worker 2. Choose your drill package 3. Remove ALL er packaging from the drill (how else are you going to use it?) 4. Select the correct bit for the worker given *Notice, there are 6 workers for each verb!* parler Je Tu Il/Elle Nous Vous Ils/Elles La Conjugaison des Verbes Parts and Accessories parler Je Tu Il/Elle jouer Nous Vous Ils/Elles Je Tu Il/Elle habiter Je Tu Il/Elle Nous Vous Ils/Elles aimer Nous Vous Ils/Elles Je Tu Il/Elle Nous Vous Ils/Elles Go to the next page to see how you did! La Conjugaison des Verbes Parts and Accessories parler jouer Je parle Nous parlons Je joue Nous jouons Tu parles Vous parlez Tu joues Vous jouez Il/Elle parle Ils/Elles parlent Il/Elle joue Ils/Elles jouent habiter J’habite Tu habites Il/Elle habite Nous habitons Vous habitez Ils/Elles habitent aimer J’aime Tu aimes Il/Elle aime Nous aimons Vous aimez Ils/Elles aiment How did you do? Ready for a new twist? Getting Started Parts Review The Rule of THREE Parts Review Surveying the Foundation You should know the following terms before proceeding: -conjugate -subject -infinitive -stem -ending Remember, when putting something together, it’s always better to have a strong foundation than a weak one. You want what you are making to last, right? Make sure your foundation is strong before you begin further building. La Règle de TROIS The Rule of THREE 1 2 Most conjugated forms of an ER verb sound the same (even though their spellings are different), so you only have to learn THREE pronunciations! There are THREE “Special G” verbs that break the rules for conjugating the nous form: -nager 3 -voyager -manger Each conjugated form of an ER verb in the present tense has THREE meanings. TROIS Prononciations Three Pronunciations 1 Most conjugated forms of an ER verb sound the same (even though their spellings are different), so you only have to learn THREE pronunciations! TROIS Prononciations Three Pronunciations For example, let’s conjugate: danser Je danse Tu danses Il/Elle danse Nous dansons Vous dansez Ils/Elles dansent Say them to yourself: danse = [dawnss] danses = [dawnss] danse = [dawnss] dansons = [dawnss-ohn] dansez = [dawnss-eh] dansent = [dawnss] TROIS Prononciations Three Pronunciations danser Je danse Tu danses Il/Elle danse Nous dansons Vous dansez Ils/Elles dansent Trois Pononciations! 1. [dawnss] 2. [dawnss-ohn] How does it work? 3. [dawnss-eh] TROIS Prononciations Three Pronunciations When you take off the packaging (er), you get the stem (the drill). The stem is pronounced just like it looks. It’s like saying the infinitive form without the ER sound at the end: Infinitive drop ER = Stem -étudier [ay] = étudi [ay-tew-dee] -inviter [ay] = invit [aahn-veet] -habiter [ay] = habit [ah-beet] And then… TROIS Prononciations Three Pronunciations Add the bit! As a quick reminder, here are the pronunciations of each bit (ending) -ER Endings Je e [—] Nous ons [ohn] Tu es [—] Vous ez [eh] Il/ Elle e [—] Ils/Elles ent [—] Do you see the 4 bits that have the same pronunciation? TROIS Prononciations Three Pronunciations Let’s try it with dîner: Subject (worker) + Stem (drill) + Ending (bit) Result Je + dîn [deen] + e [-] dîne [deen] Tu + dîn [deen] + es [-] dînes [deen] Il/Elle + dîn [deen] + e [-] dîne [deen] Nous + dîn [deen] + ons[ohn] Vous + dîn [deen] + ez[eh] dînez [deen-eh] Ils/Elles + dîn [deen] + ent [-] dînent [deen] dînons [deen-ohn] TROIS Prononciations Three Pronunciations Do you see the 4 bits that have the same pronunciation? Subject (worker) + Stem (drill) + Ending (bit) Result Je + dîn [deen] + e [-] dîne [deen] Tu + dîn [deen] + es [-] dînes [deen] Il/Elle + dîn [deen] + e [-] dîne [deen] Nous + dîn [deen] + ons[ohn] Vous + dîn [deen] + ez[eh] dînez [deen-eh] Ils/Elles + dîn [deen] + ent [-] dînent [deen] dînons [deen-ohn] Les exemples au Web More examples: (click on links to hear an authentic pronunciation) http://www.frenchtutorial.com/standard/present/group1.php http://www.laits.utexas.edu/tex/gr/ver1.html The above links are the internet examples (described in your packet) Les verbes du “G” special Special G verbs 2 There are THREE “Special G” verbs that break the rules for conjugating the nous form: Les verbes du “G” special Special G verbs These three “special G” verbs are: nager voyager manger They are all three ER verbs with a “G” before the –er. Les verbes du “G” special Special G verbs For these “special G” verbs, the “Nous” form is different. What changes? Why? (think pronunciation) nager Je nage Nous nageons Tu nages Vous nagez Il/Elle nage Ils/Elles nagent voyager manger Je voyage Nous voyageons Je mange Nous mangeons Tu voyages Vous voyagez Tu manges Vous mangez Il/Elle voyage Ils/Elles voyagent Il/Elle mange Ils/Elles mangent Something about the spelling has changed… Les verbes du “G” special Special G verbs So what changes? -We’ve added an “e” between the “g” and “ons” -Why? -So we can keep the [zsh] sound in all the verb forms (je, tu, nous, vous, etc) consistently. And if we didn’t? -We’d have: nagons [nah – gohn] voyagons [voy –a-gohn] mangon [mah –gohn] And the French would say… Oh là là! Fermez les oreilles!!! [mahn-gohn]??? Zut! C’est un massacre de la langue française! NON! NON! NON!!! [nah-gohn]??? NON!!! C’est horrible! Quelle horreur!!!! Et [voy-a-gohn]?!? Quelle mauvaise prononciation!!!! Les verbes du “G” special Special G verbs So… in the interest of positive foreign relations, let’s remember: -The “NOUS” form is special for nager, voyager, and manger -In the “NOUS” form of these three verbs, we need to insert and “e” after the “g” to make the pronunciation sound nice SPECIAL “G” needs an “E” to sound “JOLI!” (pretty) 3 pronunciations, 3 special “G” verbs, and now… TROIS Sens Three Meanings 3 Each conjugated form of an ER verb in the present tense has THREE meanings. TROIS Sens Three Meanings For example, let’s conjugate: voyager Je voyage Nous voyageons Tu voyages Vous voyagez Il/Elle voyage Ils/Elles voyagent “Je voyage” has three meanings: I travel, I am traveling, I do travel “Ils/Elles voyagent” has three meanings: They travel, they are traveling, and they do travel TROIS Sens Three Meanings Need a few more examples? We play Nous jouons We are playing We do play Elles empruntent I win Je gagne I am winning I do win They borrow They are borrowing They do borrow La Règle de TROIS The Rule of THREE Et VOILÀ! Conjugate while remembering these three rules and you’ll create a masterpiece every time! And speaking of masterpieces… lets put it all together and try your handiwork… Projects Les Projets Projects Visit the following sites and try to activities to test your newfound skills and knowledge: 1. be sure to following instructions in parentheses! http://atschool.eduweb.co.uk/rgshiwyc/school/curric/HotPotatoes/in dex.htm (click on “Français, scroll down and select Present Tense, click on Regular –ER Verbs) 2. http://french.about.com/library/weekly/aa101199t.htm 3. http://www.quia.com/mc/66100.html (you may play several times) 4. http://www.laits.utexas.edu/tex/gr/ver1.html (scroll down towards the bottom, starting with “fill in the blanks”) Be sure to record your scores on the activity sheet! FAQ’s Les Questions Fréquentes Frequently Asked Questions Technical Questions: Instead of dropping the “er” when conjugating a verb, can’t I just drop the “r”? What you’re really asking: Can’t I leave some of the packaging and still use the drill without any problems? Answer: NO! It may seem like it doesn’t make a difference, but it is a bad habit to start! Some -er verbs have fancier endings and cannot be conjugated by just dropping the “r”. Conjugation will not turn out properly… nor will your project if you leave the packaging on the drill! Les Questions Fréquentes Frequently Asked Questions Technical Questions: Why is the “e” missing in “Je” when I conjugate verbs like “aimer, habiter, écouter, inviter, etc.” What you’re really asking: Is the “Je” worker picky about certain drills? Answer: Yes, the “Je” worker is picky. If the drill it wants to use begins with the vowels “a,e, or i” or a vowel sound, it likes to eliminate the “e” in “Je” and put an apostrophe in it’s place. For example: J’habite, J’aime, J’invite. Les Questions Fréquentes Frequently Asked Questions Technical Questions: Will “je suis parle” or “je suis parler” work instead of saying “je parle” to mean “I am speaking”? What you’re really asking: Can’t a worker use two drills at the same time with or without the correct bit? Answer: NO! It’s dangerous and makes no sense! “Je parle” already means “I am speaking.” “Je suis parle,”translates to “I am am speaking.” “Je suis parler,” means “I am to speak.” Do not put any form of être (suis, es, est, sommes, êtes, sont) in front of any verb!!! (you’d be using two drills… être and another verb) Owner’s Manual (Teaching Guide) Introduction: This curriculum web introduces students to the process of verb conjugation. It is limited to one specific form of verbs (regular ER), but goes fairly in-depth with what conjugation, is, means, and looks like in English and French. By the end of the curriculum, students should be able to identify and apply the basic steps to conjugating a regular ER verb in French. Aim: This curriculum web enables students to conjugate ER verbs so that they can create complete sentences to express actions, their thoughts, etc. In doing so they will greatly expand their grammatical base because the rules and patterns they learn can be applied to so many other aspects of the language. Owner’s Manual (Teaching Guide) Rationale: This activity a partial introductory but supplementary part of the curriculum. Audience: Middle School French or High School French I. Prerequisites: Students will need to recognize and know the meaning of ER verbs, as well as be family with the usage of ER verbs in every day expressions before starting this activity. Owner’s Manual (Teaching Guide) National Learning Standards: -Standard 1.2: Students understand and interpret written and spoken language on a variety of topics. -Standard 3.1: Students reinforce and further their knowledge of other disciplines through the foreign language. -Standard 4.1: Students demonstrate understanding of the nature of language through comparisons of the language studied and their own. Owner’s Manual (Teaching Guide) Goals: -Students will be able to apply the concept of verb conjugation to their own language and to ER verbs in French -Students will be able to list the steps necessary in conjugating and French ER verb _Students will be able to correctly conjugate French ER verbs and identify the differences and similarities between conjugated verb forms. Owner’s Manual (Teaching Guide) Instructional Plan: -Review what we know of “LUNDI,” our Monday stretch activity. (Quizzes over “LUNDI” material will have been given prior to this entire unit as means of reinforcement) -As a class, break down the concepts from “LUNDI” so that the students begin to see what “conjugation” is in its finished form. -From there, we will discuss how these conjugation patterns that we have noticed arrived at their finished form (the steps necessary). -Introduce curriculum web and go over activity instructions. Spend two-three days in computer lab (40 min periods). Owner’s Manual (Teaching Guide) Instruction Plan con’t: -Students will work individually. Materials: -Activity packet -computer with internet access -headphones -pencil Owner’s Manual (Teaching Guide) Assessment and Evaluation Plan: -Assessment is contained within the curriculum web. Students will complete the “projects” with their new knowledge and skills. -For further oral assessment, students will create dialogs (in groups) based on prompts. Pronunciation quizzes will also be given on a weekly basis. Special Note: French grammar can be a very tedious and tiresome topic. In order to maintain interest and simplify the seemingly ambiguous concepts for my young audience, I’ve added animation, music, and partial assessments along the way. This project is designed around a construction/work project theme.