Bilingual Methods
and Strategies
Improving ASL/English Literacy Skills in
Deaf HH Students
Karen Schulz
KYEDHH Summer Conference
July 15, 2012
Learning Targets:
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I can explain the CAEBER Project (source for
bilingual methodology).
I can define bilingualism.
I can define literacy of Deaf/HH students and
how it is different from hearing students.
I can explain the importance of language
planning in my classroom and analyze my own
practices.
I can list and define bilingual methods/strategies
used with Deaf/HH students.
CAEBER Project
Formally known as STAR SCHOOLS
Project @ NMSD
 Originally funded by the U.S. Department

of Education under the United Star Distance
Learning Consortium (USDLC)
Professional
Development training for
DHH teachers across the country
VISION:
The Star Schools Project envisions high academic
achievement for deaf and hard-of-hearing students
proficient in American Sign Language and English through
staff development in assessment and curriculum, parent
involvement, and technology.
MISSION:
The Mission of the Star Schools Project is to provide a
bilingual staff development model that promotes effective
instruction of language and literacy for deaf and hard-ofhearing students.
Need for ASL/English Bilingual
Education Staff In-service
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Total communication did not lead to expected gains
in academic achievement for deaf students
(Barnum, 1984; Charrow, 1975; Johnson, Liddel, &
Erting, 1989; Stewart, 1992)
Lack of clarity in the implementation of total
communication has led to equally unclear and
misguided practices in the field (Stewart, 1992)
No standards and limited publications of curricula
or guidelines on bilingual/bicultural approaches
Little or no training in bilingual approaches.
Project Goals
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To develop and disseminate effective staff
development in-service curriculum in bilingual
education, in order to improve practices in dual
language instruction for deaf learners
To increase research-based practice in deaf
education through research, evaluation, and
dissemination activities
To use blended technologies to deliver and
support effective staff development for improved
practices in teaching languages for deaf
learners
Some of the Participating Schools and
Universities
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Kentucky School for the Deaf
Indiana School for the Deaf
Texas School for the Deaf
Illinois School for the Deaf
Alabama School for the Deaf
Wisconsin School for the Deaf
California School for the Deaf,
Riverside
American School for the Deaf
South Dakota School for the
Deaf
Jean Massieu School for the
Deaf
Minnesota State Academy for
the Deaf
Metro Deaf School (Minn.)
 California State
University, Northridge
 Gallaudet University
 Lamar University
 McDaniel College
 Western Oregon
University
* Offerings in teacher
preparation classes
Question: Are you a bilingual?

Most people do not consider
themselves bilingual even though
they use both ASL and English in
daily communication. The
common belief was that a
bilingual person was the one who
had grown up with two languages
and was equally fluent in both.
What does bilingual mean?
Use of two languages
 Language ability
 Language proficiency
 Language skills
 Balanced of two languages
 Different levels of bilingualism

Bilingualism:
How do we learn
language?
Vygotsky’s Theory:
Learning is social.
Vygotsky
Learning is social in nature.
Collaborative activities
Field trips
Group cooperative learning activities
Sharing experiences
Peer tutoring
Cultural events
Mix fluent language users with
developing users
Pair-Share:
With a partner, discuss the
following question……
Discussion Question:
Traditionally deaf children have had to learn
English in school with a focus on form (ELA
standards, writing portfolios, grammar and
vocabulary).
QUESTION: How can we increase deaf
children’s opportunities to use English in a
social/interactive setting? How can we
increase a student’s use of English with each
other during school and after
school/unstructured time?
What is literacy?
Definition of Literacy:
(French)
literacy involves the interdependent
learning of conversational language,
reading and writing, and related
variables, including motivation and
“social interactions.”
Language Abilities for Deaf
Bilinguals
ASL
•
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Attending,
watching
Signing
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•
English
Listening
Speaking
Reading
Writing
Fingerspelling
Fingerreading
Speechreading
Typing
Stephen Nover
Activity: Language Use in
Your Classroom
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Using the form entitled “ Estimation of Language
Distribution of ASL and English in the Classroom“,
reflect upon and analyze a typical instructional day.
Estimate the % of time you and your students use
the languages ASL/English.
Think about: What language do I or my students
use most often? Do I balance the use of the two
languages? How can I improve in my instructional
planning?
Share thoughts, reflections and feelings with the
group.
Social/Academic Language Use
ASL
S o c ia l
E n g lis h
S o c ia l
ASL
A c a d e m ic
E n g lis h
A c a d e m ic
Virginia Collier, 1995

Social Language is
an interactive process
between at least two
people. Participants
engage in communication
and make language
allowances for the
purpose of comprehension
without concern for
correct structure. It is also
an informal register used
in daily living activities and
takes 2-5 years to acquire.
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Academic Language
is more complex at
succeeding grade levels. It is
tied directly to cognitive
development and is involved
with discussion of higher
order concepts and ideas. It
takes 7-10 years to acquire
academic language.
Virginia Collier, 1995
• Interact in discussions on informal topics
(e.g. weather, news, food)
• Brainstorm in small or large groups (e.g.
storytelling, planning activities)
• Play and participate in interactive
games (e.g. handshapes, signs, board
games)
Social ASL
What else???
• Engage in discussions on content topics,
facts, predictions, inferential and critical
information/questions (e.g. literature,
expository)
• Translate (ASL to English and
English to ASL)
• Plan and make presentations (e.g.
role-play, drama, Jr. NAD, Student
Council)
Academic ASL using Aesop’s
Fables
What else???
• Writing: language experience stories,
learning logs, literature journals,
presentations, reports, business letters,
dictated responses on charts, etc.
• Self evaluate writing pieces (e.g. word
choice, syntax)
• Fingerspell/finger-read for academic
purposes (e.g. target vocabulary words)
Academic English
What else???
Social English
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Informal contexts (e.g. diary, food orders,
passes, friendly letters, notes)
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Fingerspell/finger-read for social purposes
(e.g. names of people, places, unknown
signs)
Social English (E-pals, IM, FB)
Bilingual Methodologies
Bilingual Methodology
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Preview View Review (PVR)
Purposeful Concurrent Usage (PCU)
Translanguaging
Translating
Language Separation
Source: CAEBER, 2004; Baker, 2001, pp. 274-282
Bilingual Methodology
•
Language Separation
•
Concurrent Use of Languages
Language Separation

Sets up distinct separation and clear boundaries
between the two languages.
 Subject/Topic
 Person
 Time
 Place
 Medium of Activity
 Curriculum Material
 Function
 Student
Language Separation
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Best model for developing second
language proficiency
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Requires thoughtful language planning
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Requires resources (e.g., time, people,
money)
Language Separation
Concurrent Use of
Languages in a Lesson
 Switching
of languages (i.e.,
codeswitching)
 Integrated
use of both
languages in a lesson (or
conversation, activity, etc.)
Concurrent Use of Language
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Randomly Switching Languages
Purposeful Codeswitching
Translanguaging
Translating
Preview, View and Review
Purposeful Concurrent Usage (or New
Concurrent Approach)
Sandwiching and Chaining (Padden and Ramsey,
1998)
Baker, 2001
Randomly Switching
Languages
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Random
Not rule-governed
Doesn’t have clear purpose
Not recommended in classroom
Translanguaging
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Student’s input in one language and
output in the other language. (e.g.
reading in English and discussing in
ASL)
Translating
•
The repetition in one language of what
was conveyed in the other language.
Literal Translation
Translation from English (text) to signing in
ASL, but closely following the original text.
Free Translation
Translation from English (text) to ASL with
artistic interpretation.
Preview, View and Review
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Preview in L1
 Introduction
 Background knowledge
View in L2
 Content
Review in L1
 Comprehension check
OR…
Preview, View and Review
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Preview in L2
 Introduction
 Background knowledge
View in L1
 Content
Review in L2
 Comprehension check
Purposeful Concurrent Usage
(New Concurrent Approach)
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Balanced amount of time is allocated to
two languages.
Teacher decides what language to use
and expects the student to use the
same language.
Bilingual Approach: PCU
Bilingual Approach: PCU
Bilingual Approach: Presentation
of English print to ASL
Activity: Identify the bilingual
methodology used in each lesson:
For each lesson, hold up the card you
think matches the described lesson.
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Students review facts from a science handout
about electricity using ASL.
Students play a review game where questions &
answers occur only in English.
Teacher shares details of Mark Twain’s life in
ASL. Students write in a Response Log their
reflections on MT’s life.
More bilingual methods…..
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In ASL, teacher briefly discusses some
details of history of integration at KSD. In
English, students read the paragraph. In
ASL, the group discusses history of
integration at KSD.

Teacher reads a story about “ Ruby Bridges”
by pointing/underlining words, phrases or
sentences; signs following English order
closely and using ASL signs and facial
expressions.
More bilingual methods…..
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The teacher signs text about the
Civil Rights Movement and follows
ASL structure; expansion;
“disconnects” from English print
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Students read the (English) text
about the Greek Civilization.
Students summarize the
information in ASL.
Teaching Strategies

Possible Bridges Between
ASL & English
Fingerspelling
 Codeswitching
 “Sandwiching”
 “Chaining”
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“Sandwiching” and “Chaining”
“Sandwiching”

A technique where a sign
“sandwiches” (surrounds)
the same word fingerspelled
“Sandwiching” (cont.)
or fingerspelling
“sandwiches” a sign,
 or a sign (or
fingerspelling)
“sandwiches” a
pointing gesture
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Examples of “Sandwiching”
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A teacher signs COMPUTER,
immediately fingerspells it, and
repeats the sign COMPUTER.
A deaf parent fingerspells
P-U-P-P-Y, immediately points
to the puppy, and fingerspells
P-U-P-P-Y again.
“Chaining”
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A technique used to form a
relationship between a sign,
a printed word, a
fingerspelled word, and its
concept
“Chaining” Examples
Produced in order (like a “chain”):
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Fingerspelling a word, pointing to the
same word printed, signing the word,
and then explaining its meaning
Producing a sign, fingerspelling its
English translation, and then pointing
to the same word printed
Practice time……(small groups)
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Sandwiching:
Hotdog
Basketball
Table
Electricity
Government
Triangle
Giraffe
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Chaining:
Hotdog
Basketball
Table
Electricity
Government
Triangle
giraffe
Why the emphasis on Technology..
Making that ASL to
English connection and
providing full access to
the English language
Technology Infrastructure
Year 1
Year 2
Year 3
Year 4
Year 5
(1997-1998)
(1998-1999)
(1999-2000)
(2000-2001)
(2001-2002)
Email
Email
Email
Email
Email
Digital Cameras
Digital Cameras
Digital Cameras
Digital Cameras
Digital Cameras
Internet/WWW
Internet/WWW
Internet/WWW
Internet/WWW
Internet/WWW
PowerPoint
PowerPoint
PowerPoint
PowerPoint
PowerPoint
Videoconferencing
Videoconferencing
Videoconferencing
Videoconferencing
Laptop Loan
Laptop Loan
Laptop Loan
Laptop Loan
ASL/English Videos
ASL/English Videos
ASL/English Videos
ASL/English Videos
ASL/English
CD-ROMs
ASL/English
CD-ROMs
ASL/English
CD-ROMs
ASL/English
CD-ROMs
WEB Report
WEB Report
WEB Report
WEB Report
Bulletin Boards
Bulletin Boards
Bulletin Boards
Chatrooms
Chatrooms
Chatrooms
CD-ROM of
CD-ROM of
CD-ROM of
ASL/English Bilingual ASL/English Bilingual ASL/English Bilingual
Model (planning)
Model (planning)
Model (completed)
SMARTBoard
SMARTBoard
SMARTBoard
Webcasting
Webcasting
Digital Camcorder
Digital Camcorder
Portable distance
learning equipment in
classroom
Questions?
Concerns?
Comments?
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