Bilingual Methods and Strategies Improving ASL/English Literacy Skills in Deaf HH Students Karen Schulz KYEDHH Summer Conference July 15, 2012 Learning Targets: I can explain the CAEBER Project (source for bilingual methodology). I can define bilingualism. I can define literacy of Deaf/HH students and how it is different from hearing students. I can explain the importance of language planning in my classroom and analyze my own practices. I can list and define bilingual methods/strategies used with Deaf/HH students. CAEBER Project Formally known as STAR SCHOOLS Project @ NMSD Originally funded by the U.S. Department of Education under the United Star Distance Learning Consortium (USDLC) Professional Development training for DHH teachers across the country VISION: The Star Schools Project envisions high academic achievement for deaf and hard-of-hearing students proficient in American Sign Language and English through staff development in assessment and curriculum, parent involvement, and technology. MISSION: The Mission of the Star Schools Project is to provide a bilingual staff development model that promotes effective instruction of language and literacy for deaf and hard-ofhearing students. Need for ASL/English Bilingual Education Staff In-service Total communication did not lead to expected gains in academic achievement for deaf students (Barnum, 1984; Charrow, 1975; Johnson, Liddel, & Erting, 1989; Stewart, 1992) Lack of clarity in the implementation of total communication has led to equally unclear and misguided practices in the field (Stewart, 1992) No standards and limited publications of curricula or guidelines on bilingual/bicultural approaches Little or no training in bilingual approaches. Project Goals To develop and disseminate effective staff development in-service curriculum in bilingual education, in order to improve practices in dual language instruction for deaf learners To increase research-based practice in deaf education through research, evaluation, and dissemination activities To use blended technologies to deliver and support effective staff development for improved practices in teaching languages for deaf learners Some of the Participating Schools and Universities Kentucky School for the Deaf Indiana School for the Deaf Texas School for the Deaf Illinois School for the Deaf Alabama School for the Deaf Wisconsin School for the Deaf California School for the Deaf, Riverside American School for the Deaf South Dakota School for the Deaf Jean Massieu School for the Deaf Minnesota State Academy for the Deaf Metro Deaf School (Minn.) California State University, Northridge Gallaudet University Lamar University McDaniel College Western Oregon University * Offerings in teacher preparation classes Question: Are you a bilingual? Most people do not consider themselves bilingual even though they use both ASL and English in daily communication. The common belief was that a bilingual person was the one who had grown up with two languages and was equally fluent in both. What does bilingual mean? Use of two languages Language ability Language proficiency Language skills Balanced of two languages Different levels of bilingualism Bilingualism: How do we learn language? Vygotsky’s Theory: Learning is social. Vygotsky Learning is social in nature. Collaborative activities Field trips Group cooperative learning activities Sharing experiences Peer tutoring Cultural events Mix fluent language users with developing users Pair-Share: With a partner, discuss the following question…… Discussion Question: Traditionally deaf children have had to learn English in school with a focus on form (ELA standards, writing portfolios, grammar and vocabulary). QUESTION: How can we increase deaf children’s opportunities to use English in a social/interactive setting? How can we increase a student’s use of English with each other during school and after school/unstructured time? What is literacy? Definition of Literacy: (French) literacy involves the interdependent learning of conversational language, reading and writing, and related variables, including motivation and “social interactions.” Language Abilities for Deaf Bilinguals ASL • • Attending, watching Signing • • • • • • • • English Listening Speaking Reading Writing Fingerspelling Fingerreading Speechreading Typing Stephen Nover Activity: Language Use in Your Classroom Using the form entitled “ Estimation of Language Distribution of ASL and English in the Classroom“, reflect upon and analyze a typical instructional day. Estimate the % of time you and your students use the languages ASL/English. Think about: What language do I or my students use most often? Do I balance the use of the two languages? How can I improve in my instructional planning? Share thoughts, reflections and feelings with the group. Social/Academic Language Use ASL S o c ia l E n g lis h S o c ia l ASL A c a d e m ic E n g lis h A c a d e m ic Virginia Collier, 1995 Social Language is an interactive process between at least two people. Participants engage in communication and make language allowances for the purpose of comprehension without concern for correct structure. It is also an informal register used in daily living activities and takes 2-5 years to acquire. Academic Language is more complex at succeeding grade levels. It is tied directly to cognitive development and is involved with discussion of higher order concepts and ideas. It takes 7-10 years to acquire academic language. Virginia Collier, 1995 • Interact in discussions on informal topics (e.g. weather, news, food) • Brainstorm in small or large groups (e.g. storytelling, planning activities) • Play and participate in interactive games (e.g. handshapes, signs, board games) Social ASL What else??? • Engage in discussions on content topics, facts, predictions, inferential and critical information/questions (e.g. literature, expository) • Translate (ASL to English and English to ASL) • Plan and make presentations (e.g. role-play, drama, Jr. NAD, Student Council) Academic ASL using Aesop’s Fables What else??? • Writing: language experience stories, learning logs, literature journals, presentations, reports, business letters, dictated responses on charts, etc. • Self evaluate writing pieces (e.g. word choice, syntax) • Fingerspell/finger-read for academic purposes (e.g. target vocabulary words) Academic English What else??? Social English Informal contexts (e.g. diary, food orders, passes, friendly letters, notes) Fingerspell/finger-read for social purposes (e.g. names of people, places, unknown signs) Social English (E-pals, IM, FB) Bilingual Methodologies Bilingual Methodology • • • • • Preview View Review (PVR) Purposeful Concurrent Usage (PCU) Translanguaging Translating Language Separation Source: CAEBER, 2004; Baker, 2001, pp. 274-282 Bilingual Methodology • Language Separation • Concurrent Use of Languages Language Separation Sets up distinct separation and clear boundaries between the two languages. Subject/Topic Person Time Place Medium of Activity Curriculum Material Function Student Language Separation Best model for developing second language proficiency Requires thoughtful language planning Requires resources (e.g., time, people, money) Language Separation Concurrent Use of Languages in a Lesson Switching of languages (i.e., codeswitching) Integrated use of both languages in a lesson (or conversation, activity, etc.) Concurrent Use of Language Randomly Switching Languages Purposeful Codeswitching Translanguaging Translating Preview, View and Review Purposeful Concurrent Usage (or New Concurrent Approach) Sandwiching and Chaining (Padden and Ramsey, 1998) Baker, 2001 Randomly Switching Languages Random Not rule-governed Doesn’t have clear purpose Not recommended in classroom Translanguaging Student’s input in one language and output in the other language. (e.g. reading in English and discussing in ASL) Translating • The repetition in one language of what was conveyed in the other language. Literal Translation Translation from English (text) to signing in ASL, but closely following the original text. Free Translation Translation from English (text) to ASL with artistic interpretation. Preview, View and Review Preview in L1 Introduction Background knowledge View in L2 Content Review in L1 Comprehension check OR… Preview, View and Review Preview in L2 Introduction Background knowledge View in L1 Content Review in L2 Comprehension check Purposeful Concurrent Usage (New Concurrent Approach) Balanced amount of time is allocated to two languages. Teacher decides what language to use and expects the student to use the same language. Bilingual Approach: PCU Bilingual Approach: PCU Bilingual Approach: Presentation of English print to ASL Activity: Identify the bilingual methodology used in each lesson: For each lesson, hold up the card you think matches the described lesson. Students review facts from a science handout about electricity using ASL. Students play a review game where questions & answers occur only in English. Teacher shares details of Mark Twain’s life in ASL. Students write in a Response Log their reflections on MT’s life. More bilingual methods….. In ASL, teacher briefly discusses some details of history of integration at KSD. In English, students read the paragraph. In ASL, the group discusses history of integration at KSD. Teacher reads a story about “ Ruby Bridges” by pointing/underlining words, phrases or sentences; signs following English order closely and using ASL signs and facial expressions. More bilingual methods….. The teacher signs text about the Civil Rights Movement and follows ASL structure; expansion; “disconnects” from English print Students read the (English) text about the Greek Civilization. Students summarize the information in ASL. Teaching Strategies Possible Bridges Between ASL & English Fingerspelling Codeswitching “Sandwiching” “Chaining” “Sandwiching” and “Chaining” “Sandwiching” A technique where a sign “sandwiches” (surrounds) the same word fingerspelled “Sandwiching” (cont.) or fingerspelling “sandwiches” a sign, or a sign (or fingerspelling) “sandwiches” a pointing gesture Examples of “Sandwiching” A teacher signs COMPUTER, immediately fingerspells it, and repeats the sign COMPUTER. A deaf parent fingerspells P-U-P-P-Y, immediately points to the puppy, and fingerspells P-U-P-P-Y again. “Chaining” A technique used to form a relationship between a sign, a printed word, a fingerspelled word, and its concept “Chaining” Examples Produced in order (like a “chain”): Fingerspelling a word, pointing to the same word printed, signing the word, and then explaining its meaning Producing a sign, fingerspelling its English translation, and then pointing to the same word printed Practice time……(small groups) Sandwiching: Hotdog Basketball Table Electricity Government Triangle Giraffe Chaining: Hotdog Basketball Table Electricity Government Triangle giraffe Why the emphasis on Technology.. Making that ASL to English connection and providing full access to the English language Technology Infrastructure Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 (1997-1998) (1998-1999) (1999-2000) (2000-2001) (2001-2002) Email Email Email Email Email Digital Cameras Digital Cameras Digital Cameras Digital Cameras Digital Cameras Internet/WWW Internet/WWW Internet/WWW Internet/WWW Internet/WWW PowerPoint PowerPoint PowerPoint PowerPoint PowerPoint Videoconferencing Videoconferencing Videoconferencing Videoconferencing Laptop Loan Laptop Loan Laptop Loan Laptop Loan ASL/English Videos ASL/English Videos ASL/English Videos ASL/English Videos ASL/English CD-ROMs ASL/English CD-ROMs ASL/English CD-ROMs ASL/English CD-ROMs WEB Report WEB Report WEB Report WEB Report Bulletin Boards Bulletin Boards Bulletin Boards Chatrooms Chatrooms Chatrooms CD-ROM of CD-ROM of CD-ROM of ASL/English Bilingual ASL/English Bilingual ASL/English Bilingual Model (planning) Model (planning) Model (completed) SMARTBoard SMARTBoard SMARTBoard Webcasting Webcasting Digital Camcorder Digital Camcorder Portable distance learning equipment in classroom Questions? Concerns? Comments?