Steven E. Phelan,
July, 2010
• Focuses on strategic, intentional and
usually large-scale change
• Entails following a variety of steps; the
exact steps vary depending upon the
model used
• Belief that achieving organizational
change is possible through a coordinated
and planned approach
• Ten Steps
Define the vision
Handle emotions
Handle power
Train and coach
• 12 Actions
Get support of key power groups
Get leaders to model change behavior
Use symbols and language
Define areas of stability
Surface dissatisfaction
Promote participation
Reward behavior that supports change
Disengage from the old
Communicate image of future
Use multiple leverage points
Develop transition mgt arrangements
Create feedback
• 10 Commandments
Analyze the need for change
Create a shared vision
Separate from the past
Create a sense of urgency
Support a strong leader role
Line up political sponsorship
Craft an implementation plan
Develop enabling structures
Communicate and involve
• Reinforce and institutionalize
• Eight-step model (Kotter)
• Establish the need for
• Ensure there is a power
change group to guide the
• Develop a vision
• Communicate the vision
• Empower staff
• Ensure there are short term
• Consolidate gains
• Embed the change in the
• Compare and contrast the various steps in
these models. What is left out of different
• Create your own composite model.
• Is there a preferred sequence of steps? Why?
• Identify the key management skills associated
with each step
• Which ones are you strongest on? Weakest on?
• In your experience:
• Which steps have been best handled?
• Worst handled? Why?
• Views change as a continuous process which unfolds
differently depending upon the time and the context
• It sees the outcome of change as occurring through a
complex interplay of different interest groups, goals, and
politics. Only some outcomes will be able to be achieved
given the “messiness” of change
• This approach does not provide a list of “what to do”
steps as in the change management approaches.
• Rather it alerts the change manager to the range of influences
which they will confront and the way in which these will lead to
only certain change outcomes being achieved
• Stay alive
• Learn to greet absurdity with laughter
• Use your skills, emotions, labels, and positions don’t be
used by them
• Don’t get trapped in other people’s games
• Start where the system is
• Understand how others see themselves (empathy)
• Never work uphill
Work in the most promising arenas
Don’t build hills as you go
Build resources
Don’t over organize
Don’t argue if you can’t win
Don’t drift – remain focused on your purpose
• Light many fires
• Load experiments for success
• Innovation requires a good idea, initiative, and
a few friends
• Find the people who are ready and able to work,
introduce them to one another, and work with them
• Those who need to rebel or submit are not reliable
• Keep an optimistic bias
• Capture the moment
• timing is everything
• Key propositions
• Proceed experimentally and flexibly
• Conceal true goals and intentions
• Build awareness and credibility to legitimize new
• Tactical shifts, partial solutions
• Use serendipity to promote supporters, replace opponents,
fund pet projects
• Broaden political support and overcome opposition
• Encourage others to trial new ideas and create
pockets of commitment (but don’t be associated with
• Why is this a processual view of change?
• Values
• Humanistic
• Openness, honesty, integrity
• Democratic
• Social justice, freedom of choice, involvement
• Developmental
• Authenticity, growth, self-realization
• T-groups (Lewin, 1946)
• Training groups – a form of group therapy
• Socio-technical systems
• Tavistock Institute
• Focus on social teams and industrial democracy
• Surveys with Likert scales from 1946
• Often used for diagnosis of organizational climate
and post-intervention
• Participative Action research
• A Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle that involves those who
are affected by the changes
• Steps
• Problem identification
• Consultation/collaboration with OD
• Data gathering and problem diagnosis
• Feedback
• Joint problem diagnosis (with group)
• Joint action planning (with group)
• Change actions
• Further data gathering
• Critics of change management depict it as
being “faddish” and the product of
management consultancy firms
• There is a debate between proponents of OD
and proponents of change management:
• OD is criticized for being less relevant to modern
organizations which require strategic, often large
scale change rather than slower, incremental
change often associated with a traditional OD
• Change management is criticized for lacking a
humanistic set of values and for having a focus on
the concerns of management rather than on those
of the organization as a whole
• Focus on transformational change, culture,
and learning organizations
• Argyris undiscussables, double loop learning, and
triple loop learning
• Senge’s system dynamics for learning
• New interest in teams
• High performance work organizations
• Self managed teams
• Visioning, diversity, large meetings
• Large-scale OD
• Loss of community
• People pretend to care more about one another than they
really do
• Loss of employer-employee social contract
• I must take care of myself
• Employability
• Is my employer giving me the skills to find another job if I
have to?
• Trust
• Widening gap between have and have nots
• Difference between what managers say and do
• Lack of openness
• Culture Clash
• Need for negotiation and conflict resolution skills
• Participation by large-scale intervention
• Shows a shift from problem solving to
joint envisioning of the future
• Involves a four-step technique:
Discovering current best practices
Building on existing knowledge
Designing changes
Sustaining the organization’s future
• Goal: Quality executive education
• Step 1: Describe your peak experience in quality
• Step 2: Generate some ‘provocative propositions’
for the UNLV EMBA program based on step 1.
• Step 3: Describe times when the UNLV program
approached peak experience
• Step 3: Develop a vision of what could be
• Step 4: What needs to change in skills, structure,
processes and systems, management style, and
staffing to enhance this vision
• CEO - Gerry
• CIO - Kanani
• HR - Michael
• VP-Retail – Erin
• Branch Mgr – Akash
• Admin Asst - Drew
• CEO - Cindy
• CIO - Jody
• HR - Jonathan
• VP-Retail - Chad
• Branch Mgr – Eric
• Admin Asst - Lane
• Stakeholders
State Governor – Professor Phelan
State Regulator – Jim
Union Organizer – Jenny
Journalist – Tony
Largest Customer (South) – Darwin
Largest Shareholder (North) - Brad
East/West Bank – Kyle

Organizational Change 2 - University of Nevada, Las Vegas