Topic 3:
The Industrial Revolution (Chapter 25), Age of Democracy &
Progress (Chapter 26), Age of Imperialism (Chapter 27), &
Transformations Around the Globe (Chapter 28)
1900
L a tin
A m erica
Farming in the Middle Ages:
Enclosure Movement:
Crop Rotation:
Disadvantages:
Other Discoveries:
Forces for change:
Results of the Agricultural Revolution:
Graphic:
Graphic:
Farming in the Middle Ages:
•Villages feed themselves (subsistence farming)
•One of three fields left fallow (empty_ to regain
fertility
•Animals grazed in common pastures
Disadvantages:
•Land use was inefficient
•Farmers didn’t experiment with new farming methods.
Forces for change:
•Population growing- more food is needed
•French blockade- no corn- more food is needed.
Enclosure Movement:
•Wealthy landlords fenced in common pastures and experimented with
new farming technology
•Villages lost common lands and political power, peasants became poorer
Crop Rotation:
•Fields depleted of nutrients by one crop replenished by planting
different crops
•Fields not left inefficiently fallow.
Other Discoveries:
• Seed drill planted seeds efficiently
•New crops: Corn and potato
Results of the Agricultural Revolution:
•More food available
•Population increased
Merchant’s Role in Cottage Industry:
Textile Industry Invented:
Capitalism:
Rise of the Factory:
Effects of the Cottage Industry:
Effects of Textile Factories in Britain:
Graphic:
Graphic:
Merchant’s Role in Cottage Industry:
•Supplied materials- wool and cotton- to cottages to be carded
and spun
•Took supplies from spinning cottage to weaving cottage to dying
cottage to sell finished cloth
•Merchants sell product for mote than material and labor costs=
profit +larger investment= higher profit.
Capitalism:
•An economic system based on private ownership, free
competition, and profit
•Cottage industry is an example of early capitalism.
Effects of the Cottage Industry:
•Big profits for new class of merchants
•Alternative source of income for peasants
Shift from Cottage Industry to
Factory Work
Illustration of scavengers and piecers at work
Textile Industry Invented:
•Cottage industry couldn’t keep up with demand for textiles
•Spinning jenny, water frame, spinning mule improved spinning
•Power loom sped up weaving
•Cotton gin separated seeds from cotton
Rise of the Factory:
•New machines, often too big for homes, were put in factories
•Factories located new power source: coal, iron, water
Effects of Textile Factories in Britain:
•Prices of mass-produced textiles were much lower than hand produced
items
•Britain’s textile industry increased enormously
•‘Majority of villagers forced to leave to find work in urban factories.
The Need for Energy:
The Need for Iron:
How the Steam Engine Worked:
The Need for Coal:
Effect of Steam Engine:
Effect of Iron and Coal:
Graphic:
Graphic:
The Need for Energy:
•Early factories relied on horses, oxen, and water mills
•Steam engine evolved in response to the increasing need for power
How the Steam Engine Worked:
•Steam forced from high to low pressure produces power
Effect of Steam Engine:
•Steam Power, used wherever coal existed, increased textile
production
•Improved mining which increased metal which in turn fueled other
industries
The Need for Iron:
• Farming tools, new factory machinery, railways
•Smelting makes iron more pure, but requires carbon
The Need for Coal:
•Carbon necessary for smelting iron
•Steam engines powered by coal
Effect of Iron and Coal:
•Britain produced more iron than all other countries of the world
combined
•Coal powered Britain’s enormous navy.
The Need for Better Transportation:
Geography:
Government:
Inventions:
Social Factors:
Effects of Railroads:
Colonial Empire:
Graphic:
Advantages of Industrializing First::
The Need for Better Transportation:
•Increased production increased need to transport goods quickly
and cheaply
•Pre-Industrial society used horses, mules, and dirt roads
Inventions:
• Stone and eventually asphalt roads
•Canals
•Railroad era ushered in with the Rocket in 1829
Effects of Railroads:
•Expanded rapidly throughout Britain
•Cheaper transportation increased production and profits
•Railways fueled other industries: Coal, steam engines, iron, steel,
and many manufactured products
Steam Engine: Energy for the
Industrial Revolution
Geography:
•Climate good for textile production
•Plenty of natural resources such as iron and coal
•Separation from the European continent kept them out of wars
Government:
•Internal trade encouraged
•Population allowed to relocate
•Helped build canals and roads
Social Factors:
•British society less rigid than other European countries
Colonial Empire:
•Supplied raw material for manufactured goods
•Provided market for goods
Advantages of Industrializing First:
•No other countries competing for manufactured goods
•Monopoly on technology
Sensory Figures
What do I see?
What do I hear?
What do I feel?
What do I say?
What do I smell?
What do I touch?
Expanding
economy
Large population
increase
Many natural
resources
Industry Develops
in Great Britain
Highly developed
banking systems
Causes
Political Stability
Factors of
production
Creativity &
new inventions
Effects
Crop Rotation
•New agricultural methods
•Forced small farmers to become tenant farmers or move to cities
No more exhausted farm land
Inventions in Textiles
Took spinning & weaving out of house and into factories
Transportation Improvements
Steam engine, steamboat, road transportation, & locomotive
Railroads
Increased industrial growth, boosted agricultural & fishing
industry, thousands of new jobs, & travel made easier (country to
city)
Enclosure Movement
Upper Class:
rich entrepreneurs,
factory owners,
merchants,
bankers
Upper Middle Class: Government
employees, doctors, lawyers, managers
of factories
Lower Middle Class: factory overseers, skilled
workers, printers
Working Class: Laborers
Industrial Changes
Positive Effects
Earn higher wages
Heat homes (could afford it)
Better food
Better clothing
Created jobs
England’s economy grew
Negative Effects
Living conditions
Working conditions
Alcoholism
Class tensions
Domestic violence inc.
Pollution
My book is
called
The
Wealth of Nations
__________
The economic
policy I support
is
Capitalism
____________.
The pamphlet
I co-authored
is called
Communist
Manifesto
___________
The
economic
policy I
support is
Socialism
___________
Britain’s Steps Toward
Democracy
Chapter 26
•Vote extended to most male property owners
•Redistribution of seats in House of commons
•Slavery abolished in Britain and British
colonies
•Removal of religious restrictions
•Trade unions legalized
•Fewer than 5% of the population has the right to
vote
•Politics dominated by wealthy men
•Religious restrictions on voting and holding
office
•Rotten boroughs
•Vote extended to include
most men
•Secret ballot introduced
•Reforms in public
housing & health
•Free elementary education for all
children
•Vote extended to working-class men
•Vote extended to all
women
•Vote extended to women over 30
•Restrictions on power of the House of
Lords
When? 1800s
Where? Britain
Organizations? Women’s Social and Political Union (WSPU)
Accomplishments?
•organized the movement
•brought attention to the cause
• success was gradual, right to vote does not come
until after WWI
Anti-Semitism
• Definition: prejudice against Jews
•The Dreyfus Affair- Jewish Officer Dreyfus, France,
accused of selling military
secrets to
Germany- found guilty, but evidence shows he
was framed
•Leads to widespread anti- Semitism in
Europe- pogroms
An anti-Dreyfus poster: Jews are being driven
out of France. The caption reads: "Long live
France! Long live the Army! Down with the
Jews! Death to the traitors!" The poster also
calls for a boycott of Jewish shops.
•Rise of Zionism- movement for a
homeland in
Palestine
Jewish
What? 19th-century Britain, members of
the working class demanded
reforms in Parliament and in
elections, including suffrage for
all men.
Where? Britain
When? 19th-century (1838)
Accomplishments? By the early 1900s: Suffrage for
all men & secret ballot
Who? English Naturalist (Scientist)
Ideas? •Survival of the Fittest
•Theory of Evolution
When? Late 19th-century
Accomplishments?
•Wrote book: The Origins of Species by
Means of Natural Selection (1859)
Overview of Imperialism
Make a Web of the Factors Enabling the
Scramble for Africa
Military Force:
Better Technology
Racism: Social
Darwinism
Railways and
Steam Engines:
travel inland
Cultural and
Language Diversity:
over 1000 languages
Need Raw Materials to
Industrialize: diamonds,
gold, ivory
Ethnic and Tribal
Problems and
Rivalries
1884-1885
• Laid rules for dividing Africa b/t Europeans (NO
African leaders)
• Divided with NO REGARD to native culture,
language, or ethnicity
• Carved Africa into pieces (only 2 left independent)
Dutch
Settlers
Cape Colony
Slave Trade
Invade Lands
Boer War:
• Dutch and British fight over diamonds and gold
• British win and control South Africa
Largest tribe
in S. Africa
Review of Ottoman Empire:
•Capture Constantinople from the Byzantines in
1451
•Convert the church Hagia Sophia into a mosque
•Suleiman the Lawgiver- expanded the empire and
created a highly structured government
•Culture flourishes under Suleiman’s leadership
• Later: poor economy, weak leaders,
weak nationalism
Muslim states failed to keep European imperialists out of their lands.
Ottoman Empire
tries to reform but
fails.
Egyptian leaders
cannot complete
modernization.
Suez Canal
Persia falls to
economic
imperialism.
GEOPOLITICS
Geography Application
Motives
Actions
Russia
Wanted access to Persian Took territories
Gulf and Indian Ocean
from Persia by
force
Britain
Wanted Afghanistan as a
barrier between Russia
and India
Took
Afghanistan by
force
Persia
Wanted to raise capital
to develop resources
Sold concessions
to Europe
Which two bodies of water are joined by the Suez Canal?
Why was the building of this canal important?
Where is the canal?
Chapter 28: Transformations
Around the Globe
Japan
&
China
Internal Problems
•Overpopulation
•Widespread Hunger
•Opium Addiction
1830
1839
Opium War
1842
Treaty of
Nanjing
External Problems
•Foreign Influence
•Became Sphere of
Influence to many
European Powers & US
1850-1864
Taiping
Rebellion
1899
Open Door
Policy
1900
Boxer
Rebellion
Event
The Opium
Wars
The
Taiping
Rebellion
Date Foreign
Powers
1839 Britain
Effects of
Event
Changes
Made in
China
•Chinese addiction to
•opium
•B refuse to stop trading
opium with Chinese
•C defeated
•Treaty of
NanjingHong Kong
•Extraterritorial
rights
British China’s poverty
1853 French
The US
Open Door 1899
Policy
The Boxer
Rebellion
Causes of Event
US
•20 mil. Chinese •Inc.
died
foreign
•Short lived
pressure
Taiping Govt.
•US fears of external •Protected US
•Inc. foreign
trading
rights
forces colonizing
presence
•Prevented C from
China
•Frustration
US &
1900
European w/foreigners
•poverty
Nations
•being colonized
•Nationalism Reform
•Established
movements
Constitutional
government
China
resists
foreign
influence
China
falls to
foreign
influence
China rebels
against
foreign
influence
1900
Japan
Japan Under Shogun Rule
After AD 1000 Japan became increasingly
feudalized, with various regions controlled
by lords who retained samurai (warrior
noblemen) to protect them and their
property. In the late 12th century, the
Minamoto family, led by Yoritomo, was one
of the most powerful bands of samurai. After
Yoritomo defeated a strong rival clan, the
emperor of Japan gave Yoritomo the title of
shogun (military commander in chief). The
military form of government in Japan, known
as the shogunate, survived through several
dynasties until its demise in 1867.
Japanese Samurai in Armor
A distinct social class, the
samurai served powerful
chiefs called shoguns,
who ruled Japan from the
12th century until 1867.
The samurai lived by a
rigid code of conduct
called Bushido, or “the
way of the warrior,” which
encompassed ideals of
loyalty and sacrifice.
Japanese
Feudal
Society
Emperor- No
Power
Shogun- Actual Ruler
Daimyo- Landowners
Samurai- defenders
Peasants, Artisans, Merchants
•Japan expels missionaries,
persecutes Japanese Christians
•Portuguese arrive in Japan
(1543)
•Japan bars Western merchants
and bans foreign travel
•Spanish, Dutch, and English
traders arrive
•Foreign trade severely limited
•Japan’s only contact with the
West comes through annual visit
of a few Dutch merchant ships
•Internal trade booms
•Cities Grow
•Japan is forced to reopen
relations with the West (1853)
Japan
Shuts
the
Door
(Early
1600s)
•Japan acquires knowledge of
European weapons and ideas
•Christian missionaries arrive
•Japan fears presence of
missionaries will bring conquest
by Western powers
•Japan suspects Japanese
Christians will be loyal to
Church instead of nation.
odernization
W esternization
mperialism
apan
ndustrialization
Industrialized
Increased coal
production
RR (1872)
Studied
Western
ways
Universal
public
education
Meiji Era
Modernized
military
Strong
centralized
government
Modernization
Imperialism
Claimed feudal lands for government
Studied Western ways
Industrialized
Abolished extraterritorial
rights
Forced Korean ports to open
Fought Sino-Japanese and RussoJapanese wars
Annexed Korea
China
•Remains committed to
traditional values
•Loses numerous territorial
conflicts
•Grants other nations
spheres of influence within
China
•Finally accepts necessity
for reform
Both
•Have wellestablished
traditional values
•Initially resist
change
•Oppose Western
imperialism
Japan
•Considers modernization to
be necessary
•Borrows and adapts
Western ways
•Strengthens its economic
and military power
•Becomes an empire builder
Meiji Changes
1. Military
Forces:
From
To
•Imperial Japanese Army
samurai
•Well-trained
•Well-armed
•Strongest military power in Asia
2. Military
Technology:
From
3. Ruler (s):
From
Primitive
Tokugawa Shogun
4. Political
System:
From
Military dictatorship
To
Modernized (modeled German
Army & British navy)
To
Mutsuhito (Emperor)
To
Emperor (Centralized
Government)
Meiji Changes
5. People’s
Participation
in Gov’t.:
From
6. Economy:
From
None
Isolated
7. Industry:
From
Tea processing
& Silk
production
To
Constitution
(Representation)
To
Modern World
Market (Industrial)
To
Industrial (RR’s,
factories, ship
building, etc.)
Meiji Changes
8. Education:
From
No standards
To
Universal Public
Education
9. Gender
Roles:
From
To
Tough restrictions
(Women escorted
when travel)
Women: Some rts.
But segregates
facilities
10. Land
Ownership:
From
To
11. Cultural
Pursuits:
From
Feudal
Isolationism
Nobility controlled
(wealth)
To
Discover Western
ways
• Learned from the West, Sent
people to study in the West
•Invited Western experts to aid in
development
•Had strong central governments
• Resisted Western influence
•Western experts came in to represent
Western companies
•Had weak governments
•Had well-organized bureaucracies
•Faced power struggles within
governments
•Adopted Western business and
banking methods
•Western investors controlled
economies
• Built railroads
•Westerners built and owned
railroads
•Improved ports
•Developed industry- factories
became organized into monopolies
•Introduced social reform
•Westerners developed and controlled
ports
•Economies depended on one crop or
resource
•Retained old social systems
Latin
America
Latin America After Independence:
•Majority of Latin American
nations remained poor
•Rise of military dictators
(Caudillos)
•Latin Americans often worked
for large landowners (workers
went into debt)
•Debt was passed on from
generation to generation
(generational poverty)
•Latin Americans lacked a
voice in government
•Unequal distribution of wealth
and land in Latin America
prevented social and economic
development
Latin America & Foreign Influence
•Britain & US main
trading partners
•Not self-sufficient
•Borrowed money from
foreign countries (unable to
pay back loans)
•Foreign lenders threatened
to take facilities that they
funded by force (increased
foreign presence)
•New age of economic
colonialism emerged in
Latin America
The US & Latin America
Why did the US have an interest in Latin America other
than for money?

The security of the US depended on the security of Latin America.
What was the Monroe Doctrine?
Document created by President James Monroe in 1823 that stated
that, “the American continents…are henceforth not to be considered
as subjects for future colonization by any European powers.”

How was the Panama Canal built & what was America’s role in its
creation?
 The
US encouraged and supported Panama to fight for independence
from Columbia. As a result the US was given the rights to connect the
Pacific & Atlantic Oceans by way of the Panama Canal. It opened in
1914.
The Roosevelt Corollary
•Created in 1904, President Theodore Roosevelt
issued the Roosevelt Corollary to protect the
economic interests of the US in Latin America.
•It stated that the Corollary gave the US the right to
be an, “international police power in the Western
Hemisphere.”
President Theodore
Roosevelt
“Walk quietly & carry a
big stick…”
Mexican Revolution
Flag_of_Mexico.svg (SVG file, nominally 1400 × 800 pixels, file size: 524 KB)
Leader
Antonio Lopez de Santa
Anna
Benito Juarez
Porfirio Diaz
Major Accomplishment
1833 Mexican President
Started Liberal reform movement
RR’s, banks, currency stabilized, &
foreign investments
Francisco Madero
Ousted Diaz/Called for democracy
Emiliano Zapata
“Land & Liberty”
Pancho Villa
Robin hood policy
Venustiano Carranza
Adopted present day constitution & ended civil
war
China
Form of
Imperialism
Encountered
Japan
Latin America
Sphere of
influence
Sphere of
influence
Economic
Imperialism
Concessions to
Imperialist
Powers
•Hong Kong
•End of
isolationism
•Panama Canal
Internal
Problems
•Overpopulation
•Widespread hunger
•Opium Addiction
Modernizing
Effort
Impact of
Imperialism
Sent citizens
abroad to study
Western govts.
Creation of
constitutional
government
•Need for resources
•Lack of technology
•feudal lands for govt.
•Studied western ways
•Lack of
industrialization
•People in debt
•Poverty
Panama Canal
•Industrialized
•Meiji Restoration
•Industrialized
•Adopted Western ways
US dominant force
in Latin America
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