FROM AACR2 to RDA
(and a few things in between)
The history and context of RDA
development
Jenny Stephens, National Library of
Australia, October 2010
This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0
Australia License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/au/
Overview
• From AACR2 to RDA, Part I: History and
Context
• FRBR/FRAD
• From AACR2 to RDA, Part II: Structure
Overview
TODAY • History of RDA Development
• International context
History of RDA
Why replace AACR2?
• International Conference 1997
– Analysis of underlying structure of AACR2
– Intellectual Content vs. Physical format
• Too much to just “amend” AACR2
History of RDA
AACR3?
2004 proposal for AACR3:
– Extensive revision of Part I of AACR2
– Alignment with FRBR
– Addition of a third section for authority control
• Constraints of working within existing AACR
structure
History of RDA
2005 – new standard
• Built on the foundations of AACR2
BUT
• New structure and new emphasis
• Designed for the digital world
• Adaptable and flexible for the future
History of RDA
• Three parts:
– Resource description
– Provision of Access points
– Formulation of data used for authority control
• Focused on user tasks
• Independent of presentation/encoding standards
• More user-friendly wording, layout and
formatting
International
Context
RDA
FRBR/FRAD
MARC
International
Cataloguing
Principles
Metadata
standards
ISBD
FRBR/FRAD
Functional requirements for
Bibliographic and Authority Data
•
•
•
•
Growth of shared cataloguing
Lower level cataloguing
Catalogues not meeting user needs
1990- IFLA commissioned a study to define the
functional requirements of bibliographic records in
relation to the variety of user needs and the variety
of media
[Source: Functional Requirements for Bibliographic records (FRBR), Functional requirements for
10
Authority Data (FRAD), Catherine Argus, 2010]
FRBR/FRAD
Functional requirements for
Bibliographic and Authority Data
• Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records
– 1992- Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR) Study
Group established
– 1998- FRBR conceptual model published
– FRBR Review Group – reviews FRBR on an ongoing basis, revising when
needed
[Source: Functional Requirements for Bibliographic records (FRBR), Functional requirements for
Authority Data (FRAD), Catherine Argus, 2010]
11
FRBR/FRAD
Functional requirements for
Bibliographic and Authority Data
• Functional Requirements for Authority Data
– 1999- working group formed
– 2009- FRAD conceptual model published
• Functional Requirements for Subject Authority Data
– 2005- working group formed
– 2010- published
[Source: Functional Requirements for Bibliographic records (FRBR), Functional
requirements for Authority Data (FRAD), Catherine Argus, 2010]
12
FRBR/FRAD
Functional requirements for
Bibliographic and Authority Data
Conceptual models
– Identify & define the things that are important - entities
– Identify & define the attributes that characterise the entities
– Identify & define significant relationships between entities
[Source: RDA : Resource description and access, Deirdre Kiorgaard.
RDA information session for QUT students, August 31, 2010]
FRBR/FRAD
Functional requirements for
Bibliographic and Authority Data
• Define bibliographic entities
– resources, people, families, corporate bodies, and subjects
• List their attributes
• Identify the relationships between the entities
• Map to user tasks
[Source: Adapted from: What you need to know about FRBR and FRAD when reading RDA, Pat Riva, May 2009]
14
FRBR/FRAD
Functional requirements for
Bibliographic and Authority Data
• are not cataloguing rules
• are not system models
• do not prescribe how they might be implemented
[Source: Adapted from Functional Requirements for Bibliographic records (FRBR), Functional requirements for
Authority Data (FRAD), Catherine Argus, 2010]
15
FRBR/FRAD
FRBR and RDA
• RDA uses FRBR and FRAD concepts, terms and
user tasks
• RDA content and organisation reflect FRBR and
FRAD
– Attributes
– Relationships
[Source: Functional Requirements for Bibliographic records (FRBR), Functional
requirements for Authority
16 Data (FRAD), Catherine Argus, 2010]
International
Cataloguing Principles
Paris Principles 1961
• Achieved international standardisation
• Used as the basis of most cataloguing standards
BUT
• Covered only textual works
• Focused on choice and form of entries
17
International
Cataloguing Principles
International Cataloguing
Principles 2009
•All types of materials
• All aspects of bibliographic and authority data
•Built on FRBR Model
18
International
Cataloguing Principles
International Cataloguing
Principles 2009
Principles:
• Convenience of users
• Common usage
• Representation
• Accuracy
• Sufficiency and necessity
•Significance
19
International
Cataloguing Principles
International Cataloguing
Principles 2009
Principles (continued):
• Economy
• Consistency and standardisation
• Integration
20
ISBD
International Standard
Bibliographic Description (1971)
•Aims
•Promotion of uniform bibliographic description
•Facilitates shared cataloguing
•Determined
•Required data elements
•Sequence of elements
•Prescribed punctuation
•Multiple ISBDs for different formats
21
ISBD
International Standard
Bibliographic Description (2007)
•Aims unchanged
•Single consolidated ISBD that is format neutral
•Conformed to FRBR data elements
22
Metadata standards
Developed and maintained by
cultural and computer science
sectors
Standard developed by
Publishing industry
ONIX
23
MARC
•Machine Readable Code for catalogue
data
•Based on layout of card catalogue
•Still the most widely used encoding standard in
library systems.
•Developed beyond boundaries of AACR2
24
Next steps
When do we start using RDA?
• 2010
– Published June 2010
– Free public trial of Toolkit until end August
– Subscriptions available from September
– US National Testing, 2nd half 2010
Next steps
When do we start using RDA?
• 2011
– Analysis of test results by US, 1st half 2011
– Release of report on test, mid 2011
– International response to report 2nd half 2011
Next steps
When do we start using RDA?
• 2011-2012
– Training – begin mid-2012
– International implementation, TBC but likely 1st
half 2012
Next steps
At the National Library of Australia
• Develop and provide training
• Policies
• System changes
• Update documentation
Sources
International Federation of Library Associations
www.ifla.org
Joint Steering Committee for the Development of RDA
www.rda-jsc.org
Dublin Core Metadata Initiative
http://dublincore.org/
Editeur
http://www.editeur.org/
Sources
Oliver, Chris, Introducing RDA : a guide to the basics (London,
Facet Publishing, 2010)
Argus, Catherine, Functional Requirements for Bibliographic
records (FRBR), Functional requirements for Authority Data
(FRAD). [Powerpoint presentation, 2010]
Kiorgaard, Deirdre, RDA : Resource description and access, [RDA
information session for QUT students, August 31, 2010]
Sources
ACOC Website
http://www.nla.gov.au/lis/stndrds/grps
/acoc/rda.html
Acronyms
RDA
JSC
COP
IFLA
ICP
ISBD
FRBR
FRAD
DCMI
Resource Description and Access
Joint Steering Committee for the Development of
RDA
Committee of Principals (JSC’s governing body)
International Federation of Library Associations
International Cataloguing Principles (2009)
International Standard Bibliographic Description
Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records
Functional Requirements for Authority Data
Dublin Core Metadata Initiative
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