Howard Gardner’s:
Multiple Intelligences
• Theory that people are not born with all of the
intelligence they will ever have
• Intelligence can be learned throughout life.
• Everyone is intelligent in at least seven different
ways and can develop each aspect of
intelligence to an average level of competency.
• Intelligence, as defined by Gardner, is the ability
to solve problems or fashion products that are
valuable in one or more cultural settings.
The 9 intelligences included in Gardner’s theory are:
*Verbal/ Linguistic
*Visual/ Spatial
*Interpersonal
*Musical/ Rhythmic
*Logical/ Mathematical
*Intrapersonal
*Bodily/ Kinesthetic
*Naturalistic
*Existential
There are 8 Criteria for
Defining Multiple Intelligences:
Each of the intelligences:
 can potentially be isolated by brain damage.
 has a process of developing during normal
child development and has a peak end-state
performance.
 Has been tested extensively and is
evidenced in species other than human
beings.
Linguistic
Intelligence
~*Linguistic Intelligence*~
Gardner's Definition:
Linguistic Intelligence (Word Smart) is the capacity to use language, your
native language, and perhaps other languages, to express what's on your
mind and to understand other people.
Criteria Used for Linguistic Intelligence
•Can understand words and manipulate the structure of language
•Has highly developed communication skills including writing, speaking, and story-telling
•Knows and correctly uses rules of grammar
•Enjoys reading, writing, and speaking
•Has a large vocabulary
This person learns best by:
•Saying, hearing, and seeing words
•Writing
•Talking
•Reading
• Author
• Playwright
• Journalist • Radio Announcer
• Poet
• Speech Pathologist
(one who interprets)
• Typist
• Novelist
• Comedian
• Politician
• Orator
• Actor
• Curator
Famous People With
Linguistic Intelligence
•William Shakespeare
•Edgar Allen Poe
•Earnest Hemmingway
•F. Scott Fitzgerald
•Emily Dickinson
•Agatha Christie
•T.S. Eliot
•Rudyard Kipling
Activities These People
Would Enjoy
• Book reporting
• Telling jokes
• Writing words
• Reading
• Journal writing
• Speaking
•Letter writing
•Storytelling
•Discussing
•Creative writing
•Debating
•Persuading
Logical-Mathematical
Intelligence
 Has the capacity to use numbers effectively and reason
well
 Able to see cause and effect really well
 Able to identify a problem and solve it right there on
the spot.
 Think by reasoning
 Love experimenting, questioning, figuring out
logical puzzles, and calculating
What kinds of processes are used in the
logical-mathematical intelligence sequence?
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Categorization
Classification
Inference
Generalization
Calculation
Hypothesis testing
• Accountant
Careers
• Economist
• Actuary
• Legal Assistant
• Auditor
• Mathematician
• Banker
• Purchasing Agent
• Bookkeeper
• Science Researcher
• Businessperson
• Science Teacher
• Computer Analyst
• Statistician
• Computer Programmer
• Technician
• Doctor
• Underwriter
Famous Mathematicians
• Einstein
• Pythagoras
• Newton
• Pascal
• Archimedes
• Euclid
• Copernicus
• Plato
• Galileo
• Aristotle
Activities
 Analyzing
 Reasoning
 Categorizing
 Time Lines
 Formulas
 Synthesis
 Logic Games
 Sequencing
 Numbers
 Rational Thinking
 Outlining
 Scientific Thinking
 Patterns
 Venn Diagrams
 Problem Solving
 Statistics
Spatial Intelligence
What is spatial intelligence?
The brain’s ability to perceive
and interpret visual stimuli.
In other words, it’s how our
minds process what we see.
Why is spatial
intelligence important?
The way we visually perceive and interpret the
world around us makes us who we are.
In the arts, the ability to transfer a vision to a
painting, sculpture, or film is a key quality.
Careers such as architecture, require a person to
transfer a vision of a structure into a blueprint.
“Average” people use it everyday to remember
small, but important facts, like how to travel
from school to your house.
Possible Careers
• Advertising Agent
• Architect
• Cartographer(Map
Maker)
• Drafter
• Engineer
• Fine Artist
• Graphic Designer
• Fashion Designer
• Interior
Designer
• Inventor
• Painter
• Photographer
• Pilot
• Sculptor
• Surveyor
• Urban Planner
Famous People With High
Spatial Intelligence
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•
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Leonardo Da Vinci
Pablo Picasso
Spike Lee
Vincent Van Gogh
Frank Lloyd Wright
(architect)
• Steven Spielberg
• Ansel Adams
(photographer)
• Amelia Earhart
• Auguste Rodin
(sculptor)
• Robert Fulton
(inventor)
• Michelangelo
What is BodilyKinesthetic Intelligence?
It is expertise in using one’s whole body to express ideas
and feelings.
Examples: acting, dancing, sports, and using body language
It is the ability to use one’s hands to produce or
transform things.
Examples: sculpting clay and hands-on learning
Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence
Love
 Dancing
 Running
 Jumping
 Building
 Touching
 Gesturing
Need
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Role play
Drama
Movement
Things to build
Sports and physical games
Tactile (touchable) experiences
Hands-on learning
Other Enjoyable Activities
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Acting
Charades
Collections
Demonstrations
Experiments
Field Trips
Gymnastics
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Impersonations
Inventing
Martial Arts
Miming
Puppetry
Visiting
Exercise
Possible Career Choices
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Actor
Athlete
Carpenter
Choreographer
(creates/arranges dances)
Craftsman
Dancer
Farmer
Forest Ranger
•
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Inventor
Jeweler
Mechanic
Mime
P.E. Teacher
Physical Therapist
Recreational Director
Actress
•
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Babe Ruth
Jim Thorpe
Kristi Yamaguchi
Mickey Mantle
Thomas Edison
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Isadora Duncan
Cincinnatus
Fabergè
Wilbur Wright
Orville Wright
Musical Intelligence
What is Musical Intelligence?
o Distinguishing the
sounds around you
o Ability to create your
own melodies
o Even when singing a
song or making music,
you are using your
musical intelligence!
If you are musically
intelligent, you are able to:
o Perceive
o Discriminate
o Transform
o Express all kinds of
musical forms
Types of Musical Intelligence
Figural
(“top-down”)
This means that you
are very intuitive about
the nature of music and
its creation.
and
Formal
(“ bottom-up”)
This means that you
analytic and technical
about music and its
creation.
*Anyone can have either both or one of these forms *
Careers
•
• Song Writer
•
• Performing Musician •
• Piano Turner
•
• Singer
•
• Musical Theater
•
Actor/ Actress
•
• Studio Engineer
•
• Instrument Manager
• Rapper
Advertising Agent
Conductor
Disc Jockey
Film/Instrument Maker
Composer
Music Teacher
Sound Engineer
Music Therapist
Famous Musicians
•
•
• Leonard Bernstein
• Ludwig van Beethoven •
•
• Ray Charles
•
• Robert Schumann
•
• Sergei Rachmaninoff
•
• Yehudi Menuhin
•
• Willie Nelson
•
• The Mavericks
•
• Lawerence Welk
•
Joan Baez
Zubin Mehta
Ethel Merman
Jean Redpath
Gustav Mahler
Leonard Bernstein
George Gershwin
Ella Fitzgerald
Jenny Lind
Stephen Foster
Antonio Stradivari
Activities
The following is a list of activities that can be used in a
classroom or anywhere else to enhance one’s own musical
intelligence.
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Sing Ballads
Create Chants
Create Concept Songs
Discographies (lists of
musical selections to
enhance what you are
learning or teaching.)
Environmental Sounds
Humming
Illustrate With Sounds
Rhythms
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Instrumental sounds
Listening
Lyrics
Mood Music
Music Composition or creation
Musical concepts
Musical Performance
Percussion and Raps
Reproduce sounds and rhythms
Singing and Songs
Vocal Sounds and Tonal
Patterns
Interpersonal
Intelligence
Interpersonal Intelligence
Gardner's Definition:
• Interpersonal intelligence, (people smart),
is understanding other people.
• Ability we all need, but is at a premium if
you are a teacher, clinician, salesperson, or
a politician.
• Anybody who deals with other people has
to be skilled in the interpersonal sphere.
Activities
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Giving feedback to the teacher or to classmates
Understanding other's feelings
Person-to-person communication
Cooperative learning strategies
Receiving feedback
Group projects
Teaching someone else something new
Learning from someone outside of school
Other points of view
Creating group rules
Acting in a play or simulation
Conducting an interview
Creating "phone buddies" for homework
Sensing others’ motives
Creating group rules
Famous Interpersonal People
• Abraham Lincoln
• George
Washington
• Ghandi
• Dr.Joyce
Brothers
• Oprah Winfrey
• Jesse Jackson
• Martin Luther
King
Interpersonal Careers
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Administrator
Anthropologist
Arbitrator
Counselor
Manager
Nurse
Personnel Director
Politician
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Public Relations
Salesperson
School Principal
Sociologist
Therapist
Teacher
Travel Agent
Religious Leader
Psychologist
“What is intrapersonal intelligence?”
 Having self-knowledge and the ability to act
adaptively on the basis of that knowledge.
 Having an accurate picture of oneself (one’s
strengths and weaknesses); awareness of inner
moods, intentions, motivations, temperaments,
and desires; and the capacity for self-discipline,
self-understanding, and self-esteem.
Essentially, it’s how well you know yourself!
• Clergyman
• Entrepreneur
• Program planner
• Psychiatrist
• Psychology Teacher • Philosopher
• Theologian
• Researcher
• Spiritual Counselor
• Psychologist
* Aristotle
* Emily Dickinson
* Gen. George Patton
* Helen Keller
* Malcolm X
* Mohammed
Book References
• Multiple Intelligences: In The Classroom
by Thomas Armstrong
• Multiple Intelligences: The Theory in Practice
by Howard Gardner
• Multiple Intelligence Approaches Assessment:
Solving the Assessment Conundrum
by David Lazear
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Multiple Intelligence Theory