Creating User Interfaces
[Catch up presentations].
Language. Localization.
Homework: Work on teaching
projects. Post comments on
source for localization, language
Localization
• Create web site for use in several specific 'local'
places.
• Create multiple web sites, each for use in
specific place.
– in an efficient, effective manner so any underlying
common content does not need to be duplicated (and
commonality diluted).
• Develop tools (networking s/w, standards, etc.)
that promote Web as "global, interoperable tool
of communication"
– www.w3c.org
International / Global / ?
• So-called localization more than just language
– Alphabets
– Idiom
• Other issues
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Dates
Layout (flow on page)
money
Cultural issues ??
More?
Class exercise
What is the word in that language for
– Spanish
• Latin America, Spain, USA, …
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Portuguese
Chinese (Mandarin? Hainese?)
Korean
Japanese
Hebrew
Russian
French
Arabic (Classical, today)
What is the direction of text?
What is the format for dates? Time? Money?
Relevant cultural issues?
Example
There can be differences:
• Aymara example concerning time
• Spanish double negative
– Double positive?
Globalization techniques
(globalisation)
• Separate content from formatting and
programming (behavior)
– Content: separate text
• checklists
Bits and bytes
• How many different patterns can be held
in a bit string
– 4 bits long
–7
–8
– 16
Character code
• Note: European languages plus several
other 'small' alphabets easily handled.
• We/I (typical monolingual American) can't
hardly appreciate the challenge:
– two Chinese (kanji) character sets: modern
(China) and traditional (Taiwan + most of the
Chinese diaspora)
– 'ruby': symbols 'over' ideographs
http://www.cs.tut.fi/~jkorpela/chars.html#code
character repertoire: A set of distinct characters.
character code: A mapping, often presented in
tabular form, which defines a one-to-one
correspondence between characters in a character
repertoire and a set of nonnegative integers.
Characters, more
character encoding: A method (algorithm) for
presenting characters in digital form by mapping
sequences of code numbers of characters into
sequences of octets. In the simplest case, each
character is mapped to an integer in the range 0
- 255 according to a character code and these
are used as such as octets. Naturally, this only
works for character repertoires with at most 256
characters. For larger sets, more complicated
encodings are needed. Encodings have names,
which can be registered.
charset
Using the terms just defined, the charset
attribute in an HTML meta tag means
encoding
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content=
"text/html;charset=utf-8" />
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content=
"text/html;charset=ISO-8859-1" />
Language
• Attribute of html tag
<html lang="en-us">
MAY be used by browsers (spell-check,
hyphenation, speech synthesizers), search
engines, other tools.
See two-letter codes:
http://www.w3c.org/WAI/ER/IG/ert/iso639.ht
m
… more
• A glyph is a presentation of a particular
shape which a character may have when
rendered or displayed.
– speak of same glyph in italic, bold, etc.
• A repertoire of glyphs comprises a font. In a
more technical sense, as the implementation
of a font, a font is a numbered set of glyphs.
The numbers correspond to code positions of
the characters (presented by the glyphs).
Thus, a font in that sense is character code
dependent. An expression like "Unicode font"
refers to such issues and does not imply that
the font contains glyphs for all Unicode
characters.
Examples
• ASCII is a character repertoire, code and
encoding. Note: confusion about 7 vs 8 bit ASCII
• ISO Latin 1 alias ISO 8859-1 standard defines a
repertoire, code and encoding of which ASCII is
a subset. ISO 8859 is a family of many
encodings, indicated by the –n. ISO 8859-5
handles Cyrillic.
Unicode
… provides a unique number for every character, no
matter what the platform, no matter what the
program, no matter what the language. This is the
goal.
Unicode, continued
The Unicode Standard has been adopted by such industry
leaders as Apple, HP, IBM, JustSystem, Microsoft,
Oracle, SAP, Sun, Sybase, Unisys and many others.
Unicode is required by modern standards such as XML,
Java, ECMAScript (JavaScript), LDAP, CORBA 3.0,
WML, etc., and is the official way to implement ISO/IEC
10646.
It is supported in many operating systems, all modern
browsers, and many other products. The emergence of
the Unicode Standard, and the availability of tools
supporting it, are among the most significant recent
global software technology trends.
Note
• Unicode goal is universal coverage…
• Unicode is product of a consortium of
'mostly US companies'.
• Some controversy in its treatment of things
– Combining certain kanji characters
Unicode consortium
• Go to
http://www.unicode.org/unicode/standard/WhatIs
Unicode.html
• Examine the Translations on the left. See what
language characters do not appear on your
computer.
– Select one and
– Go to Display Problems and see if you can fix it.
Techniques
• One web site / screen provide options to go to
different pages
– use symbols/icons that are meaningful to
audience
• tricky. Flags may not be appropriate.
– use images containing text in the specific
language
– risky choice: hope that
computer/platform/browser has character
encoding and font to display language
– poor choice: use English word for other
language and/or require English
– Other?
Class Exercise
Go to these sites to see what they do?
– http://www.lionbridge.com/
– http://wikipedia.org
– http://cnn.com
– http://google.com
– Pick one (a site that would claim to have
a global appeal)
Refrain: Accessibility
• Many organizations (including SUNY) require
websites, other applications to be accessible to
people with disabilities.
• There also can be situational blindness, other
situations, in which attention/awareness helps a
wider set of people.
• Note: complex situation example: ramps for
wheelchairs versus curbs for the blind. Can you come up
with a computer interface example?
• How to make websites be accessible for
differently-abled in different
places/languages?
Special requirements
• How to help visually impaired people
understand mathematics?
• One approach (Murphy, et al, at Dublin
City University): use a mixture of nonspeech (e.g., rising and falling tones),
modified speech, and binaural
spatialization: http://www.usablenet.com/
• http://mcg.computing.dcu.ie/amexamples
Discussion
• What would be other approachs?
• How would these types of techniques
apply to something else?
Something to explore
• Speech synthesis (Text to speech) and
• Speech recognition
I have not studied this:
http://zenorocha.github.io/voiceelements/?utm_source=html5weekly&utm_
medium=email
Segue to privacy
• European countries (may be European
Union) have stricter rules about privacy,
such as maintaining data on people
Business model
• … for many products involves using
information for marketing
• For Facebook, Google, etc. "we are not
the consumer; we are the product."
– My source: Jeffrey Rosen,
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/02/magazine
/who-do-online-advertisers-think-youare.html?pagewanted=all
– Alternate: if you aren't paying for it, you are
the product.
– What is your reaction?
Homework
• Find unique source on (one of)
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techniques & checklists for localization/globalization
Unicode,
interactions with geolocation,
exact purpose for lang attribute, other html, similar
things in meta tags
– privacy issue (especially differences in different
places)
– Speech reco / speech synthesis package
• Write summary of what the site is/does;
your assessment, and include working
link.
• Keep working on teaching project
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Creating User Interfaces