Rebecca Field, Ph.D.
Featuring
• Anaida Gonzalez-Fortiche
• Michele Liguori-Alampi
RCSD
Director,
Language in Education Division
Caslon Publishing and Consulting
[email protected]
www.caslonpublishing.com
Agenda
Morning
Getting started
• Big ideas
• Learning objectives and language objectives
• Vocabulary notebook
• Introducing the Bilingual Common Core Progressions
Critical features of effective programs for ELLs/bilingual learners
The role of the content, language, and literacy teachers
Developing a PD plan to support your work
Afternoon
Using the Progressions in different types programs for
ELLs/bilingual learners
How content, language, and literacy teachers can use the
Progressions in their classes
Developing PD around the Progressions for staff in your schools
and districts
Next steps
Big Ideas
 English language learners are everyone’s responsibility.
 Administrators, teachers, and leadership teams are
powerful agents for change.
 There is no one-size-fits-all approach to educating
ELLs/bilingual learners.
 Effective educational leaders use sound theory, core
principles, flexible frameworks, guiding questions, and
defensible evidence to inform their decisionmaking
about equity for ELLs/bilingual learners in their
schools.
 Students come first.
Learning Objectives
Participants will be able to…
 Identify critical features of effective programs for
ELLs/bilingual learners
 Explain how content, language, and literacy teachers
can collaborate to ensure equity for ALL students,
particularly ELLs/bilingual learners
 Identify PD needs for different categories of teachers who
work with ELLs/bilingual learners in their schools and
districts.
Note: Learning objectives are the same for all
participants/students
Language Objectives
Participants will be able to…
 Use content-obligatory and content-compatible vocabulary orally and
in writing
 Conversational language, academic language
 Additive bilingualism, subtractive bilingualism
 ELL, emergent bilingual, bilingual learner
 Sheltering instruction, differentiating instruction and assessment
 New Language Arts Progressions
 Home Language Arts Progressions
 Student performance indicators
 Use oral and written language to describe, identify, explain
NOTE: Language objectives are differentiated according to level of
new and home language development and other background
factors
Developing academic vocabulary
Demonstration: Vocabulary notebook
Word
Connections/Questions
 Where have I heard it?
 What does it remind me of?
 What questions do I have about it?
Conversational
fluency
Academic language
proficiency
* * * * * * *
Additive
bilingualism
Subtractive
bilingualism
Meaning(s)
• From PD opportunities
• From professional conversations
• From written texts
New/Home Language Arts Progressions K-W-L-S
Know
Want to know
Learned
Still want to
know
The Bilingual Common Core Initiative:
Creating an Optimal Learning Environment
Bilingualism as a resource
1.
Flexible uses of language



In the first two stages Entering and Emerging students,
regardless of their grade level, can use their home language in
order to access the content
Transitioning students can make use of their home language
when they have a need to
Expanding and Commanding students will be expected to use
the new language
2. Five levels of language progressions
3. The use of the four communicative modalities
Source: Velasco, P. (in preparation). Challenges and Changes the Common Core Brings
and the Implications for Language Learners.
New/Home Language Arts Progressions K-W-L-S
Know
Want to know
Learned
Still want to
know
Critical features
of effective programs
for bilingual learners
Common Core-aligned
content-area instruction
 In two languages in
bilingual programs
 In English in content area
classes in ESL programs
 Authentic assessments
Featured educators
from Rochester, NY
• Anaida Gonzalez-Fortiche
• Michele Liguori-Alampi
Support for home language and biliteracy
development




Standards-driven ESL
(new language)
instruction




Stand-alone ESL class
Pull-out ESL
Push-in ESL
Authentic assessments
In bilingual program
In home language program
Creatively in English-medium program
Authentic assessments
Positive Sociocultural Context
Figure adapted from
Hamayan & Freeman Field (2012), pp. 119.







Strong, knowledgeable leadership and qualified teachers
Resource orientation to linguistic and cultural diversity
Responsive to community strengths, needs, and interests
Shared responsibility for ELL education
Balanced assessment and accountability system
Collaborative relationships
Perceived as a successful school
1. How do you structure instructional
programs for ELLs/bilingual learners?
How does our district ensure that all
ELLs/bilingual learners have
• Access to comprehensible Common Core-
aligned content-area instruction in ELA,
math, science, and social studies?
• Opportunities to develop the oral and written
academic English they need to participate and
achieve in all content area instruction?
• Opportunities to use their home languages as
resources for learning, and continue to
develop their home languages?
What kinds of language choices do
teachers make every day?
All teachers make
decisions about the
ways they use
languages in class. ..
What principles can
teachers use to guide their
decision-making about
additional scaffolds for the
ELLs/bilingual learners in
their classes?
Striving for equity: Create school environments where each
individual feels valued and respected.
Promoting additive
bi/multilingualism:
View language
minority students’
home language or
languages as
resources for
teaching and
learning.
Affirming identities: Validate
diverse cultural experiences in
school policies and classroom
practices.
Structuring for integration:
Establish inclusive policies
and practices that encourage
equal-status relationships
among and participation by
different constituencies.
It’s always a balancing act…
Go to de Jong (2012, pp.144-146 for more).
See also De Jong, Ester (2011). Foundations for Multilingualism in Education.
Philadelphia: Caslon. www.caslonpublishing.com
2. How do ELL educators in your district work together
to ensure that ALL students, particularly
ELLs/bilingual learners, can succeed?
a. Who are the ELL educators (teachers and
administrators) in our district)?
• Content teachers
• New language teachers
• Home language teachers
• Specialists
b. How do educators work together to ensure that all
ELLs/bilingual learners have equitable
opportunities to learn?
c. What are our staff strengths and challenges?
Points of collaboration
E.g., Among ELA and ESL teachers
using New Language Arts
Progressions and common
content and language assessments
Content Teacher
English-medium; bilingual




Language Arts
Math
Science
Social Studies
Points of collaboration E.g.,
Among content teachers in English
and another language using Home
Language Progressions and common
content and language assessments
New Language Teacher


ESL/ELD
LOTE
Home Language Teacher


Points of collaboration
E.g., Among ESL and bilingual
teachers using New Language
Arts and Home Language Arts
Progressions and common
content and language
assessments
Bilingual teacher (focus on
language instruction)
LOTE (e.g., Spanish for
Spanish speakers)
Points of collaboration
E.g., Among content, home, and
new language teachers using
New and Home Language Arts
Progressions and common
content and language assessments
ELLs are everyone’s responsibility, and collaboration is critical!
3. How do you structure PD opportunities
for ELL educators?
Teaching for Biliteracy: Strengthening Bridges between Languages
• Michele Liguori-Alampi
• Anaida Gonzalez-Fortiche
July 15-19, 2013
Purpose
This 20 hour professional development series will assist current teachers (bilingual
and ESOL) and support staff working with students enrolled in the RCSD bilingual
program, understand and apply the New York State Language Progressions and
assist them with techniques and strategies to design, develop and implement units
lessons that build linguistic bridges between Spanish and English for both English
language learners and Spanish language learners within the bilingual classroom.
Monolingual,
assimilationist perspective
Multilingual, sociocultural
perspective
 Monolingualism is norm
 Linguistic/cultural diversity is norm
 Minority languages are problems
 Languages are resources to develop
 Standardized, one-size-fits-all
approaches that educators
uncritically implement with fidelity
 Guiding principles/flexible frameworks
that educators draw on and adapt to
specific contexts
 Fractional view of bilingualism
 Holistic view of bilingualism
 Language as autonomous code
 Languages/literacies as social practices
 Transmission model of teaching
 Constructivist learning and teaching
 Standardized testing in English not
related to learning and teaching
 Formative assessments tied to learning
and teaching in two languages
 Subtractive programs, practices,
policies favor assimilation
 Additive or developmental programs,
practices, and policies favor pluralism
Ester J. de Jong, 2011
Principles for Decisionmaking
1. Striving for equity
2. Affirming identities
3. Promoting additive bilingualism
4. Structuring for integration
Ticket-out-the-door
1. What stood out?
2. What did you learn?
3. What can you use?
4. What questions do you have?
Rebecca Field, Ph.D.
Director,
Language in Education Division
Caslon Publishing and Consulting
[email protected]
www.caslonpublishing.com
Agenda
Morning
Getting started
• Big ideas
• Learning objectives and language objectives
• Vocabulary notebook
• Introducing the Bilingual Common Core Progressions
Critical features of effective programs for ELLs/bilingual learners
The role of the content, language, and literacy teachers
Developing a PD plan to support your work
Afternoon
Using the Progressions in different types programs for
ELLs/bilingual learners
How content, language, and literacy teachers can use the
Progressions in their classes
Developing PD around the Progressions for staff in your schools
and districts
Next steps
Big Ideas
 The NY Bilingual Common Core New and Home Language Arts
Progressions are powerful tools for educators who work in any
type of instructional program for ELLs/bilingual learners and
students developing language and literacy in Language Arts.
 The New and Home Language Arts Progressions can be used in
different ways /for different purposes depending on
 The instructional program model (bilingual, ESL) for
ELLs/bilingual learners implemented at the district/school level
 The teachers (ELA, NLA, ESL, LOTE) who implement the
instructional program model for ELLs and other language learners
in their districts and schools.
 Informed administrators, instructional leaders and PD providers
customize and differentiate their PD around the Progressions
with attention to their district and school program models and
their teacher needs.
Learning Objectives
Participants will be able to…
 Explain the purpose(s) of the New and Home Language
Arts Progressions
 Explain how the Progressions can be used by different
teachers (ELA, Bilingual and ESL, LOTE) in different
program models for bilingual learners
 Identify PD needs for different categories of teachers who
will use the Progressions for different purposes.
Note: Learning objectives are the same for all
participants/students
Language Objectives
Participants will be able to…
 Use content-obligatory and content-compatible vocabulary orally and
in writing
 Conversational language, academic language
 Additive bilingualism, subtractive bilingualism
 ELL, emergent bilingual, bilingual learner
 Sheltering instruction, differentiating instruction and assessment
 New Language Arts Progressions
 Home Language Arts Progressions
 Student performance indicators
 Use oral and written language to describe, identify, explain
NOTE: Language objectives are differentiated according to level of
new and home language development and other background
factors
Building Background
What do we know about program models for
ELLs/bilingual learners in our schools/districts?
ESL
TBE
1-way
B/DL
2-way
B/DL
LOTE
1. Who are the students?
2. What are the goals?
3. How is the program
structured?
Key: ESL = English as a second language
TBE = Transitional bilingual education
1-way B/DL = Bilingual/Dual language for ELLs only
2-way B/DL = Bilingual/Dual language for ELLs and English speakers
LOTE = Language other than English
Critical features
of effective programs
for bilingual learners
Common Core-aligned
content-area instruction
(handout p. 7)
 In two languages in
bilingual programs
 In English in content area
classes in ESL programs
 Authentic assessments
Support for home language and biliteracy
development




Standards-driven ESL
(new language)
instruction




Stand-alone ESL class
Pull-out ESL
Push-in ESL
Authentic assessments
In bilingual program
In home language program
Creatively in English-medium program
Authentic assessments
Positive Sociocultural Context
Figure adapted from
Hamayan & Freeman Field (2012), pp. 119.







Strong, knowledgeable leadership and qualified teachers
Resource orientation to linguistic and cultural diversity
Responsive to community strengths, needs, and interests
Shared responsibility for ELL education
Balanced assessment and accountability system
Collaborative relationships
Perceived as a successful school
Table talk: Who teaches language arts in what language to
students from what language backgrounds at your school?
ELA
ESL
teacher teacher
English language arts to
English speakers
(i.e., home language
arts)
Native (e.g., Spanish)
language arts to Spanish
Speakers (i.e., home
language arts)
English language arts to
ELLs (i.e., new language
arts)
Language arts in a
language other than
English to English
speakers (i.e., new
language arts).
NLA
teacher
Bilingual
teacher
LOTE
teacher
Take-away
 The New and Home Language Arts Progressions are
powerful tools for teachers working in any type of
program model.
 Different teachers use the NLAP and HLAP in
different ways depending on the students in their
classes.
 Teams of teachers can use the NLAP and HLAP to
promote collaboration in different types of
instructional programs for ELLs/bilingual learners.
Points of collaboration
E.g., Among ELA and ESL teachers
using New Language Arts
Progressions and common
content and language assessments
Content Teacher
English-medium; bilingual




Language Arts
Math
Science
Social Studies
Points of collaboration E.g.,
Among content teachers in English
and another language using Home
Language Progressions and common
content and language assessments
New Language Teacher


ESL/ELD
LOTE
Home Language Teacher


Points of collaboration
E.g., Among ESL and bilingual
teachers using New Language
Arts and Home Language Arts
Progressions and common
content and language
assessments
Bilingual teacher (focus on
language instruction)
LOTE (e.g., Spanish for
Spanish speakers)
Points of collaboration
E.g., Among content, home, and
new language teachers using
New and Home Language Arts
Progressions and common
content and language assessments
ELLs are everyone’s responsibility, and collaboration is critical!
Using the NLAP and HLAP
Essential Questions for Reflective Practitioners
1.
Who are our students?



2.
What are our long-term and short-term learning and language development
targets and objectives?

3.
Content/literacy/new and home language development
What strategies can we use to ensure that all of our students can engage with
the activities we organize in our classes?

6.
Content/literacy/new and home language development
What is likely to be challenging for our students relative to our targets and
objectives?

5.
Content/literacy/new and home language development
What can our students do relative to our targets and objectives?

4.
English language learners/bilingual learners/all students
Levels of new language progressions, home language progressions, literacy
Prior schooling, cultural considerations
Differentiate according to new and home language and other background factors
How can we assess our students’ performance relative to our targets and
objectives?

Content/literacy/new and home language development
1. Who are the ELLs/bilingual learners in my class?

Marco is an Entering ELL from the Dominican Republic who speaks Spanish. Marco arrived in
the United States earlier this year. The ESL teacher determined informally that Marco can read and
write in Spanish, but probably below grade level. According to a common formative assessment
conducted by the teacher, Marco is Entering in Listening, Entering in Speaking, Entering in Reading,
and Entering in Writing in English.

Damaris is a Transitioning ELL who was born in the continental United States into a Puerto
Rican family that speaks mostly Spanish at home and in the neighborhood. Damaris has
attended school in the US since kindergarten, and she has been in pull-out ESL each year. There is no
bilingual program at the school, and Damaris has not learned to read and write in Spanish. According
to a common formative assessment conducted by the teacher, Damaris is Commanding in Listening,
Expanding in Speaking, Transitioning in Reading, and Emerging in Writing in English.

Ko Than Nu is a Transitioning ELL from Burma who speaks Karen. Ko Than Nu is a refugee and
has been in the United States for two years. He had no formal schooling before coming to the United
States, nor had he learned to read or write. When Ko Than Nu arrived, he was placed in a
newcomer/port of entry class that focused on literacy and numeracy development, with attention to
the cultural norms of US schools and society. According to a common formative assessment
conducted by the teacher, Ko Than Nu is Expanding in Listening and Speaking, and Emerging in
Reading and Writing in English.

Tasfiah is a Transitioning ELL from Bangladesh who speaks Bengali. Tasfiah arrived in the
United States in the middle of last year. She has a strong educational background which included
English instruction every year in Bangladesh. However, Tasfiah’s English instruction gave her little
opportunity to speak English at school, and she has had little exposure to American English prior to
her arrival. According to a common formative assessment conducted by the teacher, Tasfiah is
Emerging in Listening, Entering in Speaking, Commanding in Reading, and Expanding in Writing in
English.
Go to Funk, Alexander (2012). The Languages of New York : A CUNY-NYSIEB Guide for Educators. New York: CUNY-NYSIEB.
For more on Spanish, pp. 151-167; Karen, pp. 111-122; Bengali, pp. 25-36)
2. What are our long-term and short-term goals and objectives?
Example: Common Core ELA standards  Reading for Information
 Same Common Core ELA Anchor and Grade Level Standards on NLAP
and HLAP.
 Same high academic demands for all students, regardless of their level
of new and home language development.
3a. What can our ELLs do with their new language (i.e., English) relative
to the linguistic demands of the core standards?
The Bilingual Common Core Initiative:
Creating an Optimal Learning Environment
Bilingualism as a resource
1.
Flexible uses of language



In the first two stages Entering and Emerging students,
regardless of their grade level, can use their home language in
order to access the content
Transitioning students can make use of their home language
when they have a need to
Expanding and Commanding students will be expected to use
the new language
2. Five levels of language progressions
3. The use of the four communicative modalities
Source: Velasco, P. (in preparation). Challenges and Changes the Common Core Brings
and the Implications for Language Learners.
can home
your bilingual
learners do with their
3b. What can our bilingual learners do withWhat
their
languages?
home languages?
The Bilingual Common Core HLAP
and NLAP are not just about ELLs!
Remember…
ELA teachers can use the Home Language Arts
Progressions to differentiate instruction and
assessment for the English speakers in the classes.
Furthermore…
Bilingual and LOTE teachers can use the New
Language Arts Progressions to differentiate
instruction and assessment for the English
speakers who are learning a language other than
English in a dual language or LOTE program.
4. What is likely to be challenging for our students relative to our
goals and objectives?  Focus on linguistic demands of CCSS
• What are the grade-level academic demands of this activity sequence?
• What are the linguistic demands of this activity sequence?
Flexible frameworks
5. What strategies can we use to ensure that all students
engage with the activities we organize in our classes?
The New and Home
Language Arts Progressions
provide concrete answers
to this critical question!
NLAP Reading for Information (RI) RI.4: RI 3.4
p. 1
What strategies can ELA teachers use to differentiate listening and reading
instruction and assessment for Marco and Damaris?
NLAP Reading for Information (RI) RI.4: RI 3.4
p. 2
What strategies can ELA teachers use to differentiate speaking and writing
instruction and assessment for Marco and Damaris?
You try it…
Look at the HLAP RI. 3.4
 How might the ELA teacher use this HLAP to support
instruction in the ELA class for Marco and Damaris?
 How might the NLA teacher use this HLAP to support
instruction in the NLA class for Marco and Damaris?
 How might the ELA and NLA teacher collaborate to
ensure that Marco and Damaris can reach RI 3.4?
Remember  Academic language involves
much more than vocabulary
What do we mean “academic language is about much
more than vocabulary”? Look at NLAP RL 6.3 p. 3
Task: Think-pair-share
What kinds of PD do we need to provide around the New
and Home Language Arts Progressions in our districts and
schools?
Step 1: Find a partner to work with for this activity (if possible - someone from
your school/district, someone who is working in the same type of program for
ELLs/bilingual learners, someone who is working with the same grade groups).
Step 2: Turn to page 9 of your handout. Your task is to answer question 6, with
attention to concrete next steps you need to take to further the work.
Step 3: Select a pair of progressions to work with
• HLAP and NLAP RL. 3: RL 6.3
• HLAP and NLAP RI. 4: RI 3.4
• HLAP and NLAP SL. 4: SL 1.4
• HLAP and NLAP W. 5: W 11-12.5.
Step 4: Discuss how you might use the progressions in PD for the different
teachers who work with ELLs/bilingual learners in your district and schools.
You may want to refer to the diagrams on page 7 (critical features of effective
programs for ELLs/bilingual learners and page 8 (roles of the content,
language, and literacy teachers) to focus your discussion.
Step 5: Jot down your ideas on your handout, and share out with the group.
NLAP and HLAPs suggest additional scaffolds and supports that
teachers can use within the context of Common Core-aligned
Language Arts instruction
To be selected according to student level of new and home
language arts progressions…
 Provide pre-identified key words, sentences, and phrases, word banks
or glossaries.
 Provide sentence starters, cloze-type procedures, graphic organizers
(modeled, partially completed), and notemaking guides.
 Use partnership and small-group discussions.
 Allow students to meet the standard in new or home language,
especially in the early stages.
Additional resources for teachers working with bilingual learners..
Closing Reflections
 What stood out?
 What did you learn?
 What can you use?
 What questions do you have?
Professional Development Resources from Caslon
www.caslonpublishing.com
 Beeman, K. & Urow, C. (2012). Teaching for Biliteracy: Strengthening Bridges







between Languages.
Cloud, N., Lakin, J., Leininger, E. & Maxwell, L. 2010. Teaching Adolescent
English Language Learners: Essential Strategies for Middle and High School.
De Jong, E. (2011). Foundations for Multilingualism in Education: from
Principles to Practice.
Fairbairn, S. & Jones-Vo, S. 2010. Differentiating Instruction and Assessment
for English Language Learners: A Guide for K-12 Teachers.
Hamayan, E. & Freeman Field, R. (Eds.). 2012. English Language Learners at
School: A Guide for Administrators, 2nd ed.
Hamayan, E., Marler, B., Sanchez-Lopez, C. & Damico, J. (2013). Special
Education Considerations for ELLs: Delivering a Continuum of Services, 2nd ed.
Wagner, S. & King, T. 2012. Implementing Effective Instruction for English
Language Learners: 12 Key Practices for Administrators, Teachers, and
Leadership Teams.
Wright, W. (2010). Foundations for Teaching English Language Learners:
Research, Theory, Policy, and Practice.
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Positioning ELLs/bilingual learners at the core of the Core