Sydney’s CALD Communities in 2011:
Using the Census
• Case studies: 2 local government areas (LGAs)
– City of Sydney & Auburn City Council
• Established culturally & linguistically diverse
communities (CALD):
- Speakers of Arabic (Auburn) and Cantonese
(Sydney)
• Emerging CALD communities:
- Speakers of Nepali (Auburn) and Thai (Sydney)
Year of Arrival in Australia - City of Sydney
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
Cantonese
30%
Thai
20%
Korean
10%
0%
Note: Persons who did not state year of arrival were excluded from study
Source: ABS (2012a)
Year of Arrival in Australia
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
Note: Persons who did not state year of arrival were excluded from study
Source: ABS (2012a)
Arabic
Nepali
Vietnamese
Source: ABS (2012b)
Proportions of Dwellings – (Tenure type and Landlord
type)
50%
45%
40%
35%
30%
25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
0%
Auburn
City of Sydney
Greater Sydney
Australia
Owned Owned Rented Social
Other
Outright with a
Housing Types of
mortgage
Tenure
Note: Households that did not stated their tenure or landlord type were excluded from
study. Source: ABS (2012a)
Dwellings by Individuals - Auburn
80%
Arabic
60%
Nepali
40%
20%
Tamil
0%
Owned
Outright
Owned with a
mortgage
Rented
Social Housing Other Types of
Tenure
Dwellings by Individuals - Sydney City
80%
Cantonese
60%
Thai
40%
20%
Greek
0%
Owned
Outright
Owned with a
mortgage
Rented
Social Housing Other Types
of Tenure
Note: Individuals that did not stated their tenure or landlord type were excluded from study. Source: ABS (2012a)
Ways to use/peruse ABS Census data
• Scales of difficulty:
- Beginners: Quickstats, Community Profiles,
Aust. Bureau of Statistics (ABS) publications.
- Intermediate: Tablebuilder Basic, Tablebuilder
Pro
- Advanced: Statistical packages (IBM’s SPSS or
freeware PSPP), mapping software (MapInfo)
RELATIVE PROPORTIONS: Council areas ranked by their
proportion of speakers of languages other than English (LOTE)
Rank
LGA
# of LOTE speakers % of LOTE speakers
1
Auburn
52,382
71.0%
2
Fairfield
131,075
69.8%
3
Canterbury
87,793
63.9%
4
Strathfield
21,408
60.8%
5
Burwood
19,187
59.2%
6
Bankstown
99,792
54.7%
16
Blacktown
111,177
36.9%
21
City of Sydney
50,686
29.9%
41
Blue Mountains 3,862
Source: ABS (2012a)
5.1%
ABSOLUTE VOLUMES: Council areas ranked according to
number of people from non-English speaking backgrounds
Rank
LGA
# of people from
NESB
% of people from
NESB
1
Fairfield
131,075
69.8%
2
Blacktown
111,177
36.9%
3
Bankstown
99,792
54.7%
4
Liverpool
89,762
49.8%
5
Canterbury
87,793
63.9%
6
Parramatta
83,828
50.2%
7
Rockdale
52,899
54.3%
8
Auburn
52,382
71.0%
9
Sydney
50,686
29.9%
10
Holroyd
50,524
51.0%
Source: ABS (2012a)
Year of Arrival in Australia for language groups across Greater Sydney
Language
Shona
Nepali
Gujarati
Malayalam
Hazaraghi
Dinka
Telugu
Afrikaans
Marathi
Punjabi
Malay
Bengali
Thai
Mandarin
Urdu
# of arrivals # of arrivals
Total
% that arrived 20011991 - 2000 2001-2011 Population
2011
60
1,269
1,230
522
250
54
1,083
885
790
3,044
222
4,190
2,363
27,754
2,942
Source: ABS (2012a)
1,338
12,893
9,210
3,506
1,570
1,235
4,501
2,665
2,467
10,490
1,147
11,412
6,862
61,158
7,336
1,564
15,548
13,021
5,016
2,286
1,806
6,677
4,494
4,234
18,724
2,061
20,575
13,611
133,889
16,818
85.5%
82.9%
70.7%
69.9%
68.7%
68.4%
67.4%
59.3%
58.3%
56.0%
55.7%
55.5%
50.4%
45.7%
43.6%
Income – City of Sydney
Income - All Individuals
Income - Excluding FT
students
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
Low
income
Lowermiddle
Uppermiddle
High
income
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
Individual pre-tax income. Low Income: Negative income to $399 per week; Lower-Middle Income: $400
to $999 per week; Upper-Middle Income: $1,000 to $1,499 per week; High income: $1,500 to over
$2,000 per week. Note: Individuals that did not state their income were excluded from study. Source: ABS
(2012a)
Auburn - Income (excluding FT students)
70%
60%
50%
Low
Lower-middle
Upper-middle
High
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
Arabic
Nepali
Urdu
Auburn Greater Australia
Sydney
Individual pre-tax income. Low Income: Negative income to $399 per week; Lower-Middle Income: $400
to $999 per week; Upper-Middle Income: $1,000 to $1,499 per week; High income: $1,500 to over
$2,000 per week. Note: Individuals that did not state their income were excluded from study. Source: ABS
(2012a)
English proficiency – “how well do you speak English?”
City of Sydney
Auburn
60%
60%
50%
50%
40%
40%
Very well
30%
Well
Not well
20%
Not at all
30%
20%
10%
10%
0%
0%
Source: ABS (2012a)
Alternative approaches to Census
research
• Different time scale – using Time Series data
to describe patterns & trends from 2001-2011.
• Different geographic scale – focusing on
Sydney/Australia as a whole; using data for
mesh blocks/SA1s for information on smaller
scale
• Other demographic variables: family
composition, disability, industry of occupation,
method & distance of transport etc.
Limitations to the Census
• Incomplete data – prevalence of ‘not stated’
or ‘inadequately described’ in some categories
• Subjective interpretation of questions
• Suspicion of official data collection &
perceived confidentiality issues
• Need to request non-English questionnaires
• Assumption of honest information
Alternative data sources - DIAC
• Continuous Survey of Australia’s Migrants
(CSAM): ongoing, surveying every 6 months since
April 2009, data available for 2009-2011.
• Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants in Australia
(LSIA): three cohorts of migrants from 19931995, 1999-2000 and 2004-2005
• LSIA 1 & 2 featured humanitarian visa applicants,
LSIA 3 & CSAM limited to skilled & family visas
• Humanitarian applicants featured in 2011 DIAC
commissioned report: Australian Survey
Research (2011) Settlement Outcomes of New
Arrivals, DIAC: Canberra.
LSIA data for Cohort 1 (1993-94) & Cohort 2 (1999-2000): Reasons for
migrating to Australia (more than one reason could be given)
Reasons
Cohort 1
Cohort 2
Better employment opportunities
22%
27%
To join family/relatives in Australia
46%
41%
To get married
19%
15%
To undertake studies
8%
9%
Better future for family in Australia
42%
52%
Other aspects, eg. lifestyle, climate
36%
50%
Lack of employment in former country
6%
7%
Dislike of economic conditions in former country
13%
17%
Dislike of social conditions in former country
14%
16%
Escape war or political situation
16%
12%
Other
4%
8%
Source: Richardson, Miller-Lewis et. al. (2002), p.13.
References




Australian Bureau of Statistics (2012a), ‘Sydney (C)’ and ‘Auburn (C)’, 2011 Census of
Population and Housing, tables generated for topics listed below using TableBuilder
program, cat. no. 2031.0, accessed August-November 2012,
<https://www.censusdata.abs.gov.au/webapi/jsf/login.xhtml>
Language Spoken at Home by Place of Usual Residence
Language Spoken at Home by Age by Place of Usual Residence
Language Spoken at Home by Total Personal Weekly Income by Place of Usual Residence
Language Spoken at Home by English Proficiency by Place of Usual Residence
Language Spoken at Home by Year of Arrival in Australia by Place of Usual Residence
Tenure Type by Place of Usual Residence
Landlord Type by Place of Usual Residence
Australian Bureau of Statistics (2012b), TableBuilder, website, viewed 12 March 2013,
<https://www.censusdata.abs.gov.au/webapi/jsf/login.xhtml>
Australian Survey Research (2011) Settlement Outcomes of New Arrivals, DIAC:
Canberra.
Richardson, S., Miller-Lewis, L., Ngo, P. and Illsey, D. (2002), The Settlement Experience
of Migrants: A comparison of Wave One of LSIA 1 and LSIA 2, DIMIA: Canberra.
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