Technology
Considerations for
Individuals on the Autism
Spectrum
Sean J. Smith, Ph.D.
University of Kansas
[email protected]
Assistive Technology
• Defined as…
– products, devices or equipment, whether
acquired commercially, modified or
customized, that are used to maintain,
increase or improve the functional
capabilities of individuals with
disabilities.
2
AT is?
• The skies the limit…..
– Computers
– Software
– Communication devices
– Communication boards
– Visual supports
– Interactive social stories
– iPhone?
3
Understanding
Autism
Gagnon, E., & Myles, B. S. (1999). This is asperger syndrome. Shawnee Mission, KS: AAPC.
This book is available from the
Autism Asperger Publishing
Company
www.asperger.net
5
Gagnon, E., & Myles, B. S. (1999). This is asperger syndrome. Shawnee Mission, KS: AAPC.
6
Gagnon, E., & Myles, B. S. (1999). This is asperger syndrome. Shawnee Mission, KS: AAPC.
7
Gagnon, E., & Myles, B. S. (1999). This is asperger syndrome. Shawnee Mission, KS: AAPC.
8
Gagnon, E., & Myles, B. S. (1999). This is asperger syndrome. Shawnee Mission, KS: AAPC.
This book is available from the
Autism Asperger Publishing
Company
www.asperger.net
9
Autism Internet Modules
• Ocali’s Modules -http://www.ocali.org/aim/
The Ohio Center for Autism and Low
Incidence (OCALI) is developing Autism
Internet Modules (AIM) in partnership with
the Autism Society of America (ASA) and
the Nebraska Autism Spectrum Disorders
Network. The AIM project is developing a
series of 60 online modules on ASD
including characteristics, diagnosis,
interventions and supports, transition, and
employment.
10
Autism Information
• Autism Info - http://www.autisminfo.com/
Site provides information on autism
treatments and therapies to parents,
teachers, therapists and doctors.
11
Autism Today
• Autism Today -
http://www.autismtoday.com/
While this organization has a number of for pay
options, it is still a good resource for individuals
seeking to learn more about autism, resources,
forums, trainings, conferences, print updates, and
more.
12
Autism Speaks
• Autism Speaks -
http://www.autismspeaks.org
Of course, many of us have heard the
advertisement on the radio or watched one
of the numerous public service
announcements in collaboration with the
AD Council, however; Autism Speaks goes
beyond advertisement. It also offers some
good information and links to helpful
resources for parents and teachers.
13
Structuring Our
Discussion
UDL Framework
What is UDL?
• Universal Design for Learning is a
planning framework that is based on
the work conducted in architecture in
the development of universal
buildings.
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16
17
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Some other examples???
19
Some Other Examples???
• ATM machines
• Cross walk mechanisms
• Doors at super markets
• Closed captioning
• Keyless entry
20
Cell Phones
• iPhone
• Cell Phones that Read to the Blind
• Knfb Reading
• Visual Search Engines - http://www.ujiko.com
• Web Anywhere -
http://webanywhere.cs.washington.edu/wa.php
21
Brain-based Framework
• Recent research in neuroscience
shows that each brain processes
information differently. UDL has
identified three primary brain
networks and the roles they play in
learning.
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Recognition Network
• Gathering facts. How we identify
and categorize what we see, hear,
and read. Identifying letters, words,
or an author's style are recognition
tasks the "what" of learning.
23
Strategic Network
• Planning and performing tasks.
How we organize and express our
ideas. Writing an essay or solving a
math problem are strategic tasks the
"how" of learning.
24
Affective Networks
• How students are engaged and
motivated. How they are
challenged, excited, or interested.
These are affective dimensions the
"why" of learning.
25
UDL Principles
• UDL principles help educators
customize their teaching for
individual differences in each of these
three brain networks. A universallydesigned curriculum offers the
following:
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UDL Principles
• Multiple means of representation
to give learners various ways of
acquiring information and knowledge;
• Multiple means of expression to
provide learners alternatives for
demonstrating what they know, and;
• Multiple means of engagement to
tap into learners' interests, challenge
them appropriately, and motivate
them to learn
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Principle One
• Supporting Recognition Learning
– Provide multiple examples
– Highlight critical features
– Provide multiple media formats
– Support background contexts
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Some Examples
• Reading
– Readplease.com
– Texthelp.com
• Setting an Anchor
– http://streaming.discoveryeducation.com/
• Representing Material
– http://nlvm.usu.edu/en/NAV/vlibrary.html
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Principle Two
• Support Strategic Learning
– Provide flexible models of skilled
performance
– Provide opportunities to practice with
supports
– Provide ongoing, relevant feedback
– Offer flexible opportunities for
demonstrating skill
31
Some Examples
• Practice
– http://www.inspiration.com
• Skill demonstration
– Microsoft’s PPT - Star Wars
– Inspire Data
– Apple’s - iMovie
– Microsoft’s Movie Maker
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Principle Three
• Support Affective Learning - Provide
alternative means for engagement
– Offer choices of content and tools
– Offer adjustable levels of challenge
– Offer choices of rewards
– Offer choices of learning context
33
Some Example
• Software Products - Adjustable levels
– http://www.techmatrix.org/
– Type to Learn
• Learning context
– Hands on
– Connect to previous understanding
• Choice of Rewards
– What makes you tick?
34
UDL Toolkit
Interested in learning more about UDL?
Great website about free toolkit for UDL in
the classroom:
http://udltechtoolkit.wikispaces.com
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Connections to ASD
Let’s Get to the Technology
Graphic Organizers
Graphic Organizers
• Comprehension Instruction
– Build and extend
background knowledge
– Develop Vocabulary
– Make Connections to real life
experiences
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Graphic Organizers
• Kidspiration/Inspiration
– Students build graphic organizers by combining pictures,
text and spoken words to represent thoughts and
information.
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Graphic Organizers
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Graphic Organizers
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Kidspiration/Inspiration
• Templates - Google Kidspiration Templates
– globalclassroom.org/together/kidspiration.html
– t4.jordan.k12.ut.us/teacher_resources/Kidspiration/
– strategictransitions.com/samplekidspirationtemplates.htm
41
Read Write Think
• Graphic map
– readwritethink.org/materials/graphicmap/
– Assist in reading and writing activities.
• Persuasion Map
– readwritethink.org/student_mat/student_material.asp?id
=34
– is an interactive graphic organizer that enables students
to map out their arguments for a persuasive essay or
debate.
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Other Graphic Organizers
• WriteDesign: Graphic Organizers: Visualize
– writedesignonline.com/organizers/visualize.html
– Lists and describes several types of graphic organizers
which fall under the "visualize" mold, including sketches,
diagrams, and thumbnails.
• Think Technlogy http://www.thinkport.org/Technology/template.tp
• Graphic Organizers - http://www.graphicorganizers.com/
• Educator’s Place - http://www.eduplace.com/graphicorganizer/
•
•
•
•
Mindomo - http://www.mindomo.com
MindJet - http://www.mindjet.com
MindMeister - http://www.mindmeister.com
MxGraph - http://www.mxgraph.com
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A few more Ideas
• Jenny’s Writing Fun
– http://www.teachers.ash.org.au/jeather
/writingfun/writingfun.html
– This is a wonderful site but quite busy
and so have to use for the right student.
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Graphic organizers & Digital
mapping tools
• GIST is designed from the
ground up for use in
classrooms incorporating the
Content Enhancement
Routines. Developed with the
KU-CRL, GIST offers a robust
tool set for educators to
create and present CE devices
with diverse learners,
teaching critical content to all.
• www.gistplan.com
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Visualization &
Social Skills
Making the Connections
Social Skills
• Social Stories
– Social Stories are written in first person and
are individually written for each child for
various difficult social situations (for example,
staying in assigned seat on the bus). The Social
Story should be visually represented in a mode
which the child can most readily understand
(such as written words, line drawings and
written words, photos and written words).
• General information on Social Stories
– http://www.polyxo.com/socialstories/introduction.html
• Carol Gray
http://www.thegraycenter.org/
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Social Narratives
• The repetitious "reading" of the Social
Story, when the child is calm, is what
leads to the success of this strategy.
• Picture It - This software program is ideal
for adding line drawing graphics above
written words to increase the child's
understanding of Social Stories.
• slatersoftware.com - Let’s Take a Look
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Picture It - Pix Writer
Picture Assisted Literacy
slatersoftware.com
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Social Scripts
• Use of social scripts readily helps in
role playing various social situations
with peers, puppets, etc. Social
scripts can also be used to visually,
and thus clearly indicate what went
"wrong" in a social situation.
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Comic Strips
• The use of simple drawings to
visually clarify the elements of social
interactions and emotional relations.
Comic Strip Conversations are used
to visually "work through" a problem
situation and identify solutions.
• Read Write Think Comic Creator – http://www.readwritethink.org/student_mat/student_ma
terial.asp?id=21
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Social Skills
• Turn Taking Cards - whose turn
• Wait Cards - abstract concept of waiting
• Help Cards - abstract concept of I need help
• Power Cards
– TEC - http://escholarship.bc.edu/education/tecplus/vol5/iss1/art2/
– Tony Attwood http://www.tonyattwood.com.au/articles/bookssocial8.html
52
Social Skills
Mind Reading
• Using the software
you can explore over
400 emotions, seeing
and hearing each
one performed by six
different people.
http://www.jkp.com/mindreading/
53
Social Skills
• Fun with Feelings
– identification and understanding of common
emotional states
– visual features of each emotion
– situational factors that produce emotions
– voice and sounds associated with emotions
– language-thinking skill
– comprehension and perception
– http://www.digisoftdirect.com/products/funwithfeelings.h
tml
– Other Software Companies
54
Social Skill Builder
• School Rules
– CD Product
– Video of Scenarios
– Children 8-18
• http://www.socialskillbuilder.com
– Preschool Playtime
– My School Day
– My Community
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Bubble Share
• Bubble Share - www.bubbleshare.com
• Allows you to create slide shows where
you can add captions, animations, and the
like. This is an easy visual way to create
social narratives.
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Social Skills
Voice Thread - voicethread.com
• For pay site allowing you to create
interactive slide shows that reside on the
web.
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Photo Story
• Show - n - Tell
• Share Your Stories
• Create Stories
• Runs free on Windows
– http://www.microsoft.com/windowsxp/using/di
gitalphotography/photostory/photostory3_shar
e.mspx
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Social Skills
Difficulty generalizing “what they
know” to different social situations.
• Let’s “You Tube IT”
• iMovie - edcommunity.apple.com/ali/
– Apple Learning Exchange
• MovieMaker - microsoft.com/education
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Some Resources to Consider
Enhancing the Visual
• Jump Cut - http://www.jumpcut.com
– Grab pieces of video, or clips from other
postings and create and post your own video.
• Internet4Classrooms: Graphics
www.internet4classrooms.com/graphics.htm
– Hosts a handy list of links to all sorts of
graphics and other media that teachers and
students can use for visualization.
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Some Resources to Consider
Enhancing the Anchor/Visual
• Free Play Music
– http://www.freeplaymusic.com/
– Here is where you can go to get free,
copyright-clear, quality of music for a
presentation, movie, and the like.
• Graphics for Teachers
-
http://www.montgomeryschoolsmd.org/departme
nts/hiat/websites/graphics.shtm
– A list of a variety of resources that would be
useful to teachers.
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Comics and Social Skills
• Want to create your own comics?
www.toondoo.com
• Willing to purchase your own software?
– Comic Life - plasq.com
• This is a software that allows you to create your
won comic book.
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Low Tech
Technology-based
Solutions
Comprehension Skills
• Increasing comprehension of
tasks/activities/situations is essential
in addressing skill areas such as
– organization,
– attending,
– self help,
– following directions,
– following rules and modifying behavior
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Schedules
• Consistent daily use of an
individualized visual schedule will
increase a child's organization skills
and independent functioning
throughout all aspects of his life and
will ease transition through adulthood
(Brenda Myles).
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Visual Schedules
A visual schedule will give the child the
following information:
• What is currently happening;
• What is coming up next (the
sequence of events);
• When they are "all done" with
something;
• Any changes that might occur.
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Visual Schedules - Talking
Photo Album
• You can record four minutes of
speech,
• 10 seconds at a time,
• in any language of your choice.
• You can use photos, book
cutouts, symbols, drawings…
• augcominc.com/book_details.html
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Visual Supports
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Photographs
Food labels
Written words
Calendars
Objects
Schedules
Picture symbols
• Picture This…
• slatersoftware.com
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Visual Supports
• Do2learn – http://www.dotolearn.com/
• Activity Exchange – http://www.spectronicsinoz.com/activities/
• Orange County PS AT http://teachers.ocps.net/atteam/page28.html
• AAC Resources http://speech.jppss.k12.la.us/aac%20index%201.htm
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BoardMaker
• Boardmaker There are a host of Boardmaker
Resources available via the Web.
– aacintervention.com
– bcps.k12.md.us/boardmaker/
– mayer-johnson.com
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Trainings & Resources
• Ready Made Activities for Board Maker
– www.spectronicsinoz.com/browse.asp?cat=3087
• Fairfax County Public Schools
– http://www.fcps.edu/ss/its/howtos/index.htm
– Nice list of How To’s
• E-Learning - Geneva Centre for Autism http://www.elearning.autism.net/en/index.php
PECS system and make the connection for them
• Yellow School Bus
– http://www.yellowschoolbustour.com/index_web_classes.htm
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Activity Schedules
• An activity schedule helps students
with autism to independently engage
in appropriate tasks/activities for a
certain period of time.
– Visual cues engage learner
– Sequence tasks
– Broken down and depicted step-by-step
– Or single Cue to get them started…
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Activity Schedule
The activity schedule book
should contain the various
tasks/activities (and steps
if needed) depicted in
whatever visual
representation system the
child best comprehends
(e.g., photos, line
drawings, etc.). Upon
completion, a social
reinforcer can be "built in"
as the last page in the
activity schedule book.
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Activity Schedule
• Calendar
–
–
–
–
Daily
Weekly
Upcoming events
Planning
– Use of a visual calendar can also be helpful in
assisting the child to understand when regularly
scheduled events may not occur.
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Visual Information
• Give a student an understanding of
what is expected of them - Examples
– Use of a dry erase board or contact
paper white board (google) covering
part of a notebook or schedule system
to write/draw various visual directions
which are given auditorily.
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Visual Information
• Sequential step directions for specific
tasks/activities.
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Brushing teeth
making lunch
Vacuuming
folding towels
setting the table
checking out books from the library, cooking
"homework directions”
"school morning directions" etc.
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Visual Information
• Forewarning
– For children who need very explicit forewarning
regarding when something is going to
"stop/end" or be "all done", use of "go",
"almost done" and "stop" cards have proven
very effective in giving children this important
information to assist them in making this
sometimes difficult transition (to stop).
– Computer games
– Video games
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Visual Information
Rules/Alternate Behaviors
– Putting rules in a visual form allows the
child to understand the expectations, as
well as what actions or alternatives are
acceptable.
• Self-regulation
• Self-management
– Class Rules/Individual Rules
– Good Choices that I can Make List
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Visual Interactive
• AbleLink Technologies
– Visual Assistant
– Schedule Assistant
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Visual Information
Individual Rule/Behavior Cards
Picture Communication Symbol (PCS) laminated on
large index cards to communicate the following:
• "Look at Mrs. Jones" - PCS of eyes;
• "Sit on chair" - PCS of a child sitting in a chair;
• "Shhh, be quiet" - PCS of a face with its finger to
lips indicating "Shh";
• "Don't hit" - international "no" drawn on top of
PCS of a child hitting another child; etc.
80
Expressive Communication
• Picture point communication board
system: In order to communicate the
child points to various visual
representations (e.g., photos, PCS,
objects, etc.) located on a
"communication board" .
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Expressive Communication
• Picture Exchange Communication System
(PECS): The child approaches and gives a
picture of a desired item (photo, PCS,
object, etc.) to a communicative partner in
exchange for that item.
–
–
–
–
–
Break Cards
Choice Cards
All Done Cards
Topic ring/Topic Wallet
Relating past events
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PECS Resources
• Pyramid - http://www.pecs.com
• About - http://webclipart.about.com/
• Picture Dictionary www.enchantedlearning.com/Dictionary.html
• CARD FL http://card.ufl.edu/visual.htm
83
Writing &
Technology
Quantity & Quality
Organization
Word Choice
Coherence
Write: Outloud -
donjohnston.com
• Improves content &
quality
• Acquire mechanics &
conventions skills
• Oversee development,
monitor progress, &
target skill development
• Progress Monitoring Analyze word count,
sentence structure,
number of sentences
and vocabulary
85
Co: Writer - donjohnston.com
• Word Window integrates
with any text
application, moving
along seamlessly as
students write.
• Word choices appear
Always or only As
Needed
• Word Wall stimulates
ideas and generates
words related to a topic
as students compose
and revise
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AlphaSmart - alphasmart.com
• Word Processor
• AlphaQuiz, an integrated
classroom quiz solution
with quiz design, delivery,
automated grading,
reporting, and analysis
• Beamer, an application for
sharing text files wirelessly
between other Neos and
devices
• KeyWords, a complete
keyboarding and typing
tutor
87
Reading
Technology-based Solutions
Reading for Comprehension
• Read 180
– Whole Group Direct Instruction
– Small Group Direct Instruction
– Read 180 Software Interaction
– Modeling and Independent Reading
– Whole Group Wrap-Up
– Built-In Progress Monitoring
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Don Johnston -
donjohnston.com
• Start-to-Finish Series
– Literacy Starters - vocab and decoding
– Library - background knowledge
– Core Content - comprehension
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Visual Connections
• United Streaming
– Background knowledge
– Building context
– Making connections
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Text-to-Speech
• Free text-to-speech software
• Customize font and background
color
• Reads text via Windows clipboard
from any program (copy/paste)
• Control reading from system tray
• Reads e-mail emoticons such as :)
or :(
• Adjustable voice speed (rate)
• Low vision color option
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Text-to-Speech
• NaturalReader is a Text to
Speech software with natural
sounding voices. This easy to
use software can convert any
written text such as MS Word,
Webpage, PDF files, and
Emails into spoken words.
NaturalReader can also
convert any written text into
audio files such as MP3 or
WAV for your CD player or
iPod.
http://www.naturalreaders.com/
93
Digitized Text
• BookShare - 33,450 books and 150 periodicals that are
converted to Braille, large print or text to speech audio files.
New $32 million dollar grant from US Department of
Education to enhance access to books in a digital DAISY
Format.
– http://www.bookshare.org/
• Gutenberg Project 



over 20,000 titles
http://www.gutenberg.org/
Free books to download
Text-based for computer and hand held devices
Increasingly digitized audio books for MP3 Players
• The Online Books Page - over 25,000 titles
– http://onlinebooks.library.upenn.edu/
94
Text-to-Speech
• Premier Accessibility Suite
–
–
–
–
http://www.readingmadeez.com
Text-to-speech software
Audio output - multiple voices
Highlights text as it speaks
• Texthelp - Read and Write Gold
–
–
–
–
http://www.texthelp.com
Text-to-speech software
Audio output - multiple voices
Highlights text as it speaks
95
Text to Speech Books
• www.tarheelreader.org provides a collection of
free, easy-to-read and accessible books on a
wide range of topics. Books can have text to
speech and be downloaded.
• Accessible Online Bookshelf can be found at
http://alltogether.wordpress.com/2008/08/07/acc
essible-books-launcher/
96
Audio Books
Audio Book Accommodations
• Text Book Publishers
• Web-based Supports
– Audible Books
• Audible.com
• Amazon.com
– Local Libraries
– State of KS Library
• http://skyways.lib.ks.us/KSL/
97
Audacity
• Developing Audio Books
– NE KS District.
– Teachers have recorded all 3rd, 4th, and 5th grade
Language Arts Reading Materials.
– Recordings and Narration.
– Connects with classroom activities.
– Audacity is one of several applications.
98
Reading Software
A Few Considerations
Categories for Book Sources
• MEville WEville
• Beginning literacy and
communication development
are addressed while
supporting student
development of self and a
sense of belonging within a
community of learners.
100
MEville WEville
• This curriculum is organized into 3
parts with 5 specific lessons in each
part.
• Unit 1 - Me -- Who Am I
• Unit 2 - My Family -- Who is My
Family
• Unit 3 - My School -- Who is At My
School?
101
MEville Weville ablenetinc.com
• Learning New Words: Students identify
new words and develop expressive
language skills through saying words,
singing songs and using words in highinterest motivational activities.
• Vocabulary Activities: Students practice
using the vocabulary words in engaging
activities designed with repetition and
variety to promote the understanding of
each word.
102
MEville Weville - Sample
Lesson
• Word Wall Words: Students learn high
frequency words, needed in reading and writing,
through activities such as clap/chanting, writing
and word identification.
• Literacy Lessons: Students engage in lessons
using literature books and real life experiences to
practice choice making, direction following and
giving a personal response.
• Writing Lessons: Students make decisions
about individual and group writings and express
themselves through book making and other
structured writing projects.
103
The Attainment Company
Early Literacy Skills Builder
• ELSB is a research-based and
language-rich literacy curriculum for
children ages 5 to 10 with moderate to
severe developmental disabilties. It
incorporates systematic instruction to
teach both print and phonemic
awareness.
http://www.attainmentcompany.com/featured/
elsb/
104
Early Literacy Skills Builder
• Seven Levels of Instruction
• Each Level comes with a series of resources and
very specific teacher directed instruction.
• Direct Instruction
• Systematic Instruction
–
–
–
–
–
Scripted Lessons
Least-prompt strategies
Teachable objectives
Built-in lesson repetition
Ongoing assessments
105
My Own Bookshelf softtouch.com/
• Increase literacy
experiences
• Listen to and read
stories independently
• Improve control and
attending skills
106
Simon Sounds It Out donjohnston.com
• Allow students to work at multiple
levels and move at their own pace.
• Emergent readers develop core wordattack skills, developing readers learn
familiar sounds and word families.
• Classrooms receive repetitive practice
making words with onsets and rimes
at their own pace.
Qui ckTime™ and a
TIF F (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see t his pict ure.
107
Clicker - cricksoft.com
• Clicker is a writing
support and
multimedia tool - it
enables you to write
with whole words,
phrases or pictures!
• Templates
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Read, Write, Think
• Picture Match is designed to give new
readers practice with identifying
beginning-letter and short- and longvowels sounds through a simple, fun
game
109
Read, Write, Think
• The Stapleless Book is designed to
allow users to create with ease an
eight-page book simply by folding
and cutting.
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Read, Write, Think
• What’s in the Bag? invites primary
students to play with vocabulary
common to their environment.
111
Read, Write, Think
• Word Build & Bank provides a simple,
engaging way for students to
generate dozens of different words
by first choosing an ending (for
example -an, -ed, -at, -op) and then
adding a beginning letter or blend.
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