Supporting Students with Disabilities
within Inclusive Settings
Allegheny Intermediate Unit 3
Adapted from PaTTAN
Pennsylvania Training and Technical Assistance Network
PaTTAN’s Mission
The Pennsylvania Training and
Technical Assistance Network is an
initiative of the Pennsylvania
Department of Education working in
partnership with families and local
education agencies to support
programs and services to improve
student learning and achievement.
PDE’s Commitment to Least
Restrictive Environment (LRE)
Recognizing that the placement
decision is an Individualized
Education Program (IEP) team
decision, our goal for each child is to
ensure IEP teams begin with the
general education setting with the
use of supplementary aids and
services before considering a more
restrictive environment.
District, IU, Preschool, Agency Policy
Your local district’s policies regarding
paraeducator job descriptions, duties, and
responsibilities provide the final word!
Agenda
• Rationale for Inclusive Practices
• Supports to Promote Independence
• Cues and Prompts
• Peripheral Supports
• Facilitating Peer Relationships and
Interactions
Learner Outcomes
Participants will:
• Describe the rationale for educating students
with disabilities in general education settings
• Define the role of the paraeducator in
developing independence of students with
disabilities
Learner Outcomes
Participants will:
• Define and practice support strategies that
increase independence for students
• Identify ways to provide the least intrusive
support in general education settings
• Identify strategies to facilitate relationships
between students with and without disabilities
A Question to Consider
Why educate students with
disabilities in general
education environments?
Special Education
Is a SERVICE
Not a PLACE
The presumption is that IEP teams begin placement
discussions with the consideration of the regular
education classroom with the supplementary aids and
services needed to benefit from educational services
Where Are We Now?
Supports in the General Education Classroom
Classroom Supports
• Differentiating supports when working with a
group
• Adaptations/Accommodations
Supports in the General Education Classroom
Classroom Supports
• Modeling Acceptance
• Using Person First Language
• Practice Disability Etiquette
Supports to Promote
Independence
What can I do to
develop student
independence while
supporting students in
general education
settings?
Supports to Promote Independence
Student
• Is he/she as independent as he might be or
as others?
• Is he/she ready to learn and does he take
charge of his learning?
• Does he/she need prompts? Is there a plan
to fade/reduce prompts?
Supports to Promote Independence
Why Build Independence?
Supports to Promote Independence
The student can:
•Make progress and achieve
•Have membership in the school
community
•Be a lifelong learner
Supports to Promote Independence
How do we build independence?
• Less intrusive supports
• Less audible supports
• Facilitating peer to peer interactions
Less Intrusive
What do we mean by intrusiveness?
Less Audible
What do we mean by less audible?
Supports in the Regular Education Classroom
Matching Supports to Student Needs
* Some Samples
•
•
•
•
•
•
Wait Time
Set Up and Walk Away
Reinforcers
Modeling
Shaping
Fading
Supports in the Regular Education Classroom
Matching Supports to Student Needs
* Some Samples
• Partial Participation
• Cues
• Prompts
Supports in the Regular Education Classroom
• Partial Participation
Supports in the Regular Education Classroom
Cues
• Natural cues are sounds, smells, objects, visual
or tactile representations that are consistently
or predictably present in the environment.
• Emphasized or exaggerated cues are built up
natural cues, but make the cue more obvious
to the student.
Supports in the Regular Education Classroom
Matching Prompts to Student Needs
•
•
•
•
•
Draw attention to the natural cue in some way
Ask a question about necessary action
Give an option
Tell the student what action to take
Physically guide the student through the process.
Supports in the Regular Education Classroom
Reducing Prompt Dependency
• Authentic responses that work
– Watch proximity!
– Limit eye contact.
• Allow time to respond
www.ed.utah.edu
Using Cues and Prompts
Let’s take a closer look
Natural Cue:
It’s 10:00
Math Time
Cues/Prompts
Student will takeout math book
and prepare for lesson
Gesture- Look at the clock or look at the
other students. Point to another student’s
math book or nod your head toward them
Does the
student
perform skill
correctly?
Hint- Ask a question that may lead to the
student figuring out what to do
YES
Intrinsic reinforcer:
Student participates
in math lesson
Does student
make connection
between natural &
intrinsic R
Student
demonstrates
behavior
independently
YES
•
Option/Choice- Do you need to get out
your math book or your writing journal?
NO
Command- Get out your math book
Physical Assistance- Assist to retrieve the
math book
Cueing, Prompting
Natural Cue::
It’s raining
outside
Student will take umbrella when
he/she goes outside
Does the
student
perform the
skill
correctly?
•Draw attention to the natural cue/prompt in
some way “Look it’s raining outside”
•Ask a question about a necessary action
“What do you need to take when it’s raining
outside?”
NO
YES
•Give an option “ It’s raining outside, do you
need to take a broom or an umbrella?”
Intrinsic reinforcer:
Student stays dry
NO
Does student
make connection
between natural
cue, behavior,
and intrinsic
reinforcer?
YES
Student
demonstrates
behavior
independently
•Tell the student what action to take “ It’s
raining outside, take your umbrella”
•Physically guide the student through the
process
Natural Cue::
It’s raining
outside
Modeling
Student will take umbrella when
he/she goes outside
Does the
student
perform the
skill
correctly?
• Point out someone who is doing the
behavior correctly “ Look , Mark has
his umbrella. He is ready for a rainy
day. He won’t get wet.”
NO
YES
Intrinsic reinforcer:
Student stays dry
•Demonstrate the action that needs
to be taken
NO
Does student
make connection
between natural
cue, behavior,
and intrinsic
reinforcer?
YES
Student
demonstrates
behavior
independently
Paraeducator models getting an
umbrella….
Natural Cue::
It’s raining
outside
Shaping
Student will take umbrella when
he/she goes outside
• Break the task/behavior into smaller steps
• Model steps
Does the
student
perform the
skill
correctly?
NO
• Have student complete initial or final step
• Gradually add steps for student to
complete
YES
Intrinsic reinforcer:
Student stays dry
NO
Does student
make connection
between natural
cue, behavior,
and intrinsic
reinforcer?
YES
Student
demonstrates
behavior
independently
Paraeducator begins by asking the student to go
to the window and identify the weather. If the
student reports rain, the paraeducator helps the
student locate his/her umbrella. Gradually the
paraeducator would be doing less and less while
the student gains independence
Wait Time
Natural Cue::
It’s raining
outside
Student will take umbrella when
he/she goes outside
Does the
student
perform the
skill
correctly?
• After questioning/modeling, the
paraeducator allows adequate time
for the student to respond
NO
YES
Intrinsic reinforcer:
Student stays dry
NO
Does student
make connection
between natural
cue, behavior,
and intrinsic
reinforcer?
YES
Student
demonstrates
behavior
independently
After asking the student, “What do you
need on a rainy day?”, the paraeducator
allows the student time to respond
before providing any further cues or
prompts
Intrinsic Reinforcers
Natural Cue::It’s
10:00 Math
Time
Student will takeout math book
and prepare for lesson
Does the
student
perform the
skill
correctly?
For some, completing an activity
like finishing a book, may be
intrinsically reinforcing
NO
When someone responds to our
greeting, we may be pleased
and therefore, increase the rate
of initiating greetings
YES
Intrinsic reinforcer:
Student
participates in
math lesson
NO
Does student
make connection
between natural
cue, behavior,
and intrinsic
reinforcer?
YES
Student
demonstrates
behavior
independently
Focusing on Intrinsic
Reinforcers
Natural Cue::
It’s raining
outside
Student will take umbrella when
he/she goes outside
Does the
student
perform the
skill
correctly?
• Draw attention to the natural consequences of
performing the behavior “ Good for you.You
remembered to use your umbrella. You were able
to stay dry.”
NO
•Ask a question about what natural consequences
resulted from performing the behavior “ Why did
you stay dry? What did you take with you into the
rain that helped to keep you dry?”
YES
Intrinsic reinforcer:
Student stays dry
NO
Does student
make connection
between natural
cue, behavior,
and intrinsic
reinforcer?
YES
Student
demonstrates
behavior
independently
• Pair the intrinsic reinforcer with an extrinsic one
Student receives a sticker every time he is
appropriately dressed for the weather
Student is allowed to participate in free time activities
or a preferred activity because he/she used the
umbrella appropriately
Your Turn
Cues/Prompts
Natural Cue:
Does the
student
perform the
skill
correctly?
NO
YES
Intrinsic reinforcer:
NO
Does student
make connection
between natural
cue, behavior,
and intrinsic
reinforcer?
YES
Student
demonstrates
behavior
independently
Intrinsic Reinforcers
Natural Cue::It’s
Does the
student
perform the
skill
correctly?
NO
YES
Intrinsic reinforcer:
NO
Does student
make connection
between natural
cue, behavior,
and intrinsic
reinforcer?
YES
Student
demonstrates
behavior
independently
Supports in the Regular Education Classroom
Peripheral Supports
• Take notes for student for later review
• Increase prominence of material (color coding;
increase size)
• Provide pictorial/visual cues
• Construct and promote the use of visual
supports (schedules, choice boards, reminder
cards)
Adapted from How to be a ParaPro Starfish Specialty Pub. 2000
Supports in the Regular Education Classroom
Peripheral Supports
• Pair verbal cues with a gesture
• Prepare and monitor use of organizational tools
(calendars, assignment sheets, etc)
• Develop checklist to sequence the steps in a task
• Develop and use adaptations to materials when
needed
Supports in the Regular Education Classroom
Peripheral Supports
• Promote and monitor the use of timers
• Seize opportunities to reduce the intrusiveness
of peripheral support, where appropriate
“Fair does not mean that every
child gets the same treatment,
but that every child gets what
he or she needs.”
Richard D. Lavoie
Supports that Promote Independence
• Less intrusive
• Less audible
• Promote independent participation through
cues and prompts
• Can be peripheral
Strategies to Facilitate Peer
Relationships and Supports
51
Move “Beyond Benevolence”
 Don’t make friendships a big deal
 Respect personal boundaries
 Model behavior
 Merge respect and help
•
Van Der Klift, E. & Kunc, N. (1994). Beyond Benevolence: Friendship and the Politics
of Help. In J. Thousand, R. Villa & A. Neven (Eds.), Creativity and Collaborative
Learning: A practical guide to empowering students and teachers (pp. 391-401).
Baltimore: Paul H.Brookes.
52
Remember!
If the students with disabilities are always
the ones receiving help, it impacts
negatively on the social relationships that
may have developed.
• ALL students should be given the opportunity
to help others.
53
Setting the Stage for Friendship
– Treat all children in the classroom as
capable learners.
– Model acceptance of, and delight in, every
child.
– Structure seating arrangements, playground
and extracurricular activities
– Provide factual information if teasing occurs
54
Setting the Stage for Friendship
 Friendship Clubs – such as structured social skill
lessons or lunch bunch
 Shared Service Learning Experiences
 Cooperative Learning Opportunities
 Extracurricular activities
 Opportunities for children to interact
55
The Most Successful Friendship
Building Strategy:
People with disabilities engaging in a range
of activities in which they have interest, and
making natural connections with people in
their schools, neighborhoods and
communities.
Gee, Kathleen (2004) TASH Connections, Volume 30 (1/2), 3.
56
Strategies to support relationships
• Provide all students the opportunity to help
each other
• Model acceptance of all students regardless of
ability
Strategies to support relationships
• Look for opportunities where students can
interact
• Be attentive to interests and natural
connections
Facilitating Peer Interactions and Relationships
Social, Play, and Leisure Supports
Facilitating Socialization
Social, Play and Leisure Supports
• Use turn markers for games and sports
activities
• Use environmental set-ups to promote social
and communicative behavior
• Use social stories and social scripts
• Set up opportunities
Adapted from How to be a ParaPro Starfish Specialty Pub. 2000
Facilitating Socialization
Social, Play and Leisure Supports
• Be a coach
• Be proactive regarding ways to increase
students’ involvement in activities and games
• Promote peer modeling
Facilitating Peer Interactions
and Relationships
Building Independence
Together we can do it!!!
Whether student’s needs have
been met is reflected not only by
whether they have attained certain
objectives, but by the impact the
educational experiences have had
on their lives.
Michael Giangreco, 1994
Learner Outcomes
Participants will:
• Describe the rationale for educating students
with disabilities in general education settings
• Define the role of the paraeducator in
developing independence of students with
disabilities
Learner Outcomes
Participants will:
• Define and practice support strategies that
increase independence for students
• Identify ways to provide the least intrusive
support in general education settings
• Identify strategies to facilitate relationships
between students with and without disabilities
Contact Information
www.pattan.net
King Of Prussia Office:
Debbie Brown
[email protected]
610-265-7321
Harrisburg Office:
Sharon Leonard
[email protected]
717-541-4960
Pittsburgh Office:
Elaine Neugebauer
[email protected]
412-826-2336
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
Edward G. Rendell, Governor
Pennsylvania Department of Education
Gerald L. Zahorchak, D.Ed., Secretary
Diane Castelbuono, Deputy Secretary
Office of Elementary and Secondary Education
John J. Tommasini, Director
Bureau of Special Education
Patricia Hozella, Assistant Director
Bureau of Special Education
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