MAKING INCLUSION WORK
By:
John M. Iannacone
Supervisor of Special Education – middle schools
1
AGENDA
 Welcome
 Introductions
 PowerPoint presentation
 Summary / Wrap-up
 Questions & Concerns
2
Outcomes
 Brief understanding of Special Education Law &
inclusion
 Responsibility & Implementation
 Specially Designed Instruction & Practical
application of . . .
 Framework for success
 Paraprofessional support and responsibilities
 Behavioral Support & Strategies
 General knowledge of the Prompt Hierarchy
 Tips on communication
3
Special Education Laws &
Regulations
4
Inclusion & the Law
FEDERAL
 “Inclusion” does not appear in IDEA.
 What the law does say:
– Right for FAPE – Free Appropriate Public Education with
appropriate supports and services regardless of disability in the
Least Restrictive Environment (LRE -Means that to the
maximum extent possible, each child with a disability must be
educated with children who are not disabled unless the nature
and severity of the disability is such that the education in the
general environment with the use of supplementary aids and
services can not be achieved satisfactorily).
– Right of all children to a continuum of services to meet their
individual needs.
– All students must have access to the regular education
curriculum – to the maximum extent possible.
5
Inclusion & the Law (cont.)
Pennsylvania
 Basic Education Circulars (PA Code) – see handout
 Gaskin vs. Pennsylvania Department of Education
 Highlights of settlement (settled June 24, 2005)
– Class action lawsuit filed on behalf of 12 students and 11 disabilities
organizations
– PDE failed to assure students with disabilities are included to the
maximum extent possible
– Establishment of Advisory Panel on LRE Monitoring {Monitoring
of inclusion by state appointed committee}
• 9/15 Parents with Disabilities
• 12/15 Selected by organizational plaintiffs
– Changes to IEP and reporting
– LRE Index score (public)
– Corrective action
6
What is Inclusion?
”Inclusion is the word used to describe the right of
all students to shared access to the general
curriculum.”
 A belief that all children . . .
– are included for all or part of the day in the general
education setting with their needs being met.
– will be treated equally.
– are in classrooms or environments designed for success.
– will improve academic, behavior, and social skills with
appropriate supports.
Inclusion: How to Make It Work: Strategies for Success
ati - Appelbaum Training Institute, 2000
7
What Does Inclusion Look Like?







Depending on the student, . . .
Depending on the IEP, . . .
Depending on the level of supports, . . .
Depending on the disability, . . .
Depending on the environment, . . .
Depending on the subject area, . . .
Depending on the grade level, . . .
. . . inclusion will have many different looks.
8
Some Examples of Inclusion
For Learning Support:
 Modifications for S/SS
– Materials, ability grouping, assessments, learn to learn
For Autistic Support:
 Everything listed above – plus
 Social skills training, special grouping
 Behavioral support plan/strategies, use of schedules,
For Students with Down Syndrome:
 Everything listed above – plus
 Extensive curriculum modifications
 Behavioral support plan/strategies
 Peer modeling/buddy system
 1:1 Paraprofessional
9
WHO OWNS THE
RESPONSIBILITY OF
INCLUSION?
EVERYONE
10
Professional Responsibility
“Know” the student
Diagnosis
Learning style
IEP Goals/Objectives
 Related Data Collection
SDI appropriate to your setting
Behavior Plan
11
IEP Responsibilities




All regular education teachers and specialists (along with
Special Education service providers) must READ and
UNDERSTAND the IEP to implement.
Under IDEA, the regular education teacher is listed as
the second member of the team, second only to the
parents.
The regular education teacher must attend IEP meetings,
including meetings on transition planning, disciplinary,
or behavioral matters.
The regular education teacher acts as the curriculum
content “expert” for the grade level or subject.
12
IEP Implementation
 All professionals deliver “special education” to
students identified with disabilities.
 SDI is the responsibility of all staff that come into
contact with a student with an IEP.
 Professionals CANNOT REFUSE to implement
the IEP because the provisions do not fit the
teacher’s instructional or classroom management
style. Differentiation is critical.
 Professionals CANNOT REFUSE to implement
the IEP because of an opinion that content will be
compromised.
13
IEP Implementation
 Any modifications/adaptations noted in SDI must
be implemented in all education settings, including
minors.
 Regular education teachers must be prepared to
modify curriculum materials and expectations to
implement IEP, under the guidance of the special
education teacher.
 Behavior plans are implemented in all settings
(including regular education) and data must be
collected to evaluate its success.
 If charting is necessary as indicated in SDI, it most
often must be done in all settings.
14
IEP Progress
 Regular education teachers MUST document
progress or lack of progress toward completion of
IEP goals where appropriate.
 Keep work samples, grade book, communication
journal, correspondence, calendar of contacts or
consultation w/parent & special ed teacher.
 Where modifications of curriculum materials are made,
keep samples.
 Keep copies of student tests & other forms of
assessment.
 Keep copy of IEP
 Keep copies of charts when required, even if sent home.
15
Tackling
Inclusion
Where Do We Begin?
Attitude
Providing
for
Successful Inclusion
16
Formula for Success
Integration + Supports (knowledge) = Inclusion
 Philosophy – acceptance of all students
–

Hope/positive attitude
Focus on the Child – not the disability
Three “Cs” – for the TEAM
1. Commitment
2. Communication
3. Collaboration (with common goals)
17
Preparation (for the entire team)
 BEGINS with knowledge about the student - *IEP
•
•
•
•
•
•
Present Educational Levels
Strengths, weaknesses, needs
*SDI - Specially Designed Instruction
Goals & Objectives (SHOULD IF they APPLY to your SUBJECT)
*Behavior Plan
*Prompt Hierarchy (VERY IMPORTANT-SHOULD KNOW)
– Evaluation Reports / other reports
– Know the disability (characteristics)
 Initial Planning – prior to start of school year
*Understanding is key! It is a must!
18
Planning & Collaboration
Teamwork - The most important resource you can have to ensure success.
YOU ARE VITAL . . .ALL TEACHERS, REGULAR & SPECIAL EDUCATION,
WORKING TOGETHER TO SUPPORT STUDENTS IN ACHIEVING THEIR
POTENTIAL in the general education environments
 Team Planning
– Time commitment necessary
– Including: General Ed. Tch., Case Manager (Special
Ed. Tch., Specialists, Therapists, Paraprofessionals,
others?
– Weekly communication
 Team Collaboration - Use Your Resources!
– Set time required
• (20-30 min. max planning sessions if meeting weekly)
– Open communication
19
Steps toward Success . . .
 Include. .
.
– Adaptations
– Accommodations
– Modifications
20
ACCOMMODATIONS
 Devices and techniques that assist a student in
participating (accessing) in instruction and
assessment.
*Curriculum is not altered.
 Used to minimize the impact of a disability or
deficiencies in specific academic areas.
– Large print books/text; Pencil grips; larger pencils;
Communications devices; Preferential seating; FM or
Sound system; Special chair/desk; Separate location of
testing; Separate location to read/work; Slant Board;
computer for writing; stamps
21
ADAPTATIONS
 Options or adjustments made to instruction,
materials, performance, and or tests to
provide the student with the opportunity for
success in the general education curriculum
– Study guides; Manipulatives;
Graphic/information organizers; Oral reading of
test directions; Reading of assessment
questions; Rewording of directions; Extended
time; Word bank; Small group instruction;
Reteaching
22
MODIFICATIONS
 Changes made in curricular content, learning
outcomes, goals and objectives, expectations in the
general education curriculum
 Used to remediate deficiencies in specific academic areas
by bringing the curriculum in closer alignment with a
student’s present levels of educational performance
– Reduced number of objectives/expectations; Vocabulary reduced;
Length of assignment; Replacement of traditional reading
curriculum w/functional sight vocabulary; Different learning
outcomes; Learn to learn behaviors; Self advocacy skills; Word
bank (reduced/limited); Focus on key concepts; Focus on secure
skills; Writing Lab; *SOAR
23
Framework
Determining Curriculum Support
Questions for the TEAM
What does the student’s IEP say?
– Goals & objectives?
– Present Educational Levels? (Reading, Writing,
Math)
– SDI?
2. What type of success does the team want the student
to achieve?
3. What is the team’s focus for the student?
– Process?
– Task completion?
1.
4.
What does the team have to do for the student
to achieve success?
24
Framework cont.
Questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
What is the outcome of the
lesson/activity?
What are the expectations
of the other students?
What is the connection to
the student’s IEP?
What other factors need to
be considered?
–
–
Time, space, environment,
assistance
Physical, cognitive (IEP)
Task Analysis
1.
2.
What are the steps of the
activity?
Which steps is the student
able to do independently?
3.
Which steps will the student
be able to do with supports?
4.
What SDI and specific
modifications are necessary
for each step for the student
to be successful in the
activity (as determined by the
team)?
25
Best Practices . . . Effective
Programming for All Students
 Best Practices provides the format,
environment, & overall support that
will promote success & independence
for all students.
 Best Practices address all students,
including those who are not identified
and do not have IEPs.
 Best Practices meets the unique needs
of all students.
26
Best Practices cont. - Not SDI
 Supports provided by the teacher to the class no matter if all do not
need the support – is not a modification – just good teaching.
Examples:
– Chunking of information; study guides; visual models/schedules
on student desks or tables; breaking large tasks into separate
smaller/shorter ones; provide prepared outlines or questions
prior to reading a story; Discuss pictures in detail; Allow for
previewing of books/stories
– consistent with schedule; Transition warnings – or cues; timers;
buddy checks; table captains/checkers; physical or verbal cues
for attention; random calling of student names; provide for
frequent movement
– Have students repeat directions to you/another student
– Creative teaching – games, multi-sensory activities, role playing
– Use color coding to organize materials; keep location of
materials, bins, etc. in consistent locations
27
When SDI is Needed.
 Have the team look for ways to incorporate SDI with minimal
interruptions
– Non-beeping timers, seating location,
– (Slow auditory processing) - limit calling student (or group) last – vary
between first or second
 Utilize other students – buddy system
 Get creative with scheduling – implement SDI at less intrusive times
– When other staff is available
– Small group/one to one instruction
 Students with more severe cognitive delays and/or behavioral needs
– Parallel curriculums
– Prompting and the prompt hierarchy, possibly the most important 2
items/issues when working with students with Autism.
28
Support
Staff
29
“The Paraprofessional”
– “The paraprofessional has become the
backbone of inclusive education . . . and is
frequently serving as a child’s primary support
in the many different educational settings.”
• Council For Exceptional Children, Sept/Oct 2001.
– Paraeducator – someone who works “alongside” an educator
30
Professional Responsibilities of the
Paraprofessional
 Knowledge
– Be familiar with student’s Individualized Education
Program (IEP)
• Placement (will include inclusion time)
– Time spend in general education environment
• Present Educational Levels
– Strengths and weaknesses
– Reading and math levels
• Goals and Objectives
– Including expected levels of achievements
– Evaluation methods
31
Paraprofessional
Responsibilities cont.
 Knowledge cont.
– Services (OT, PT, S&L)
– Technology
• Programs, computer access
– Behavior plan
• Successful strategies, techniques
– Understand terminology
– Understand disability
– Ask questions?
32
Paraprofessional
Responsibilities cont.
 Additional duties may include:
– Reinforcing learning experiences in the general
educational environment
– Participating in regularly scheduled meetings
– Assisting directly or indirectly with therapists’
strategies
– Administering certain assessments
– *Advocating for the student
– Assisting other students
• Primary focus to student assigned to . . . However if the teacher
is working with the student . . . Then assist with other students,
clerical, etc.
33
Specific duties of a 1:1
Paraprofessional
 More than 50% of your time is going to
be spent on the following activities.
– Providing 1:1 instruction
– Creating, preparing and/or modifying
materials
– Implementing behavior management plans
– Collecting data
– Providing personal care assistance including physical accommodations.
34
Don'ts for Paraprofessionals
 Do not modify content of curriculum material
unless specifically told to do
 Do not provide a SDI unless specified in the
IEP
 Do not modify content of an assessment
 Do not communicate with parents except in
case of emergency unless specifically
instructed to do so
 Do not alter behavior plans
35
Paraprofessional - Summary
 In Summary, what paraeducators do:
– “Teaching kids to care for themselves.”
• Exceptional Parent, July 2003, Vol. 33.
 Job is a delicate situation
– When do you push, when do you pull? Knowing when
to step back . . .
• Goal: Independence
 100% of the time they will be working at
motivating your students
36
Behavior Supports
and
Strategies
37
A-B-C’s of Behavior
 A=Antecedent
– What happens before the behavior that sets the occasion for the
behavior to occur or not occur.
 B=Behavior
– What an organism does (thinking, breathing, talking and behaving)
 C=Consequence (also a reinforcement)
– An event that follows a response and changes the future probability
of a behavior's occurrence
– Can be positive or negative
38
How Does This Help Us?
 As teachers, it is your responsibility to
SHAPE behavior…ALL BEHAVIOR.
 Using your Antecedents
– “Complete this worksheet”
 Using your consequences
– “Good Job completing your worksheet”
39
Positive Behavior Support
Behavior Plan Focus &
 Positive Behavior Support
– An applied science that uses educational and behavioral methods
to enhance quality of life and decrease problem behaviors.
– PBS requires that services and programs are responsive to the
preferences, strengths, and needs of individuals with challenging
behavior
 Replacement Skills: teach new skills to the individual
with challenging behavior(s). Individuals frequently need
to learn alternative, appropriate responses that serve the
same purpose as the challenging behavior.
 Frequent reinforcement of pro-social behaviors on a
consistent basis.
40
Prompt Hierarchy
“A systematic method of assisting a student when he
or she is learning a new skill.”
 Prompting procedures can involve verbal,
physical, or gestural prompts that are
systematically faded until the student is
independently able to complete a task.
 Use Decreasing Prompt Hierarchy to teach new
skills
 Use Increasing Prompt Hierarchy when fostering
independence.
41
A-B-C’s of Prompting
*Teacher provides a direction
**Teacher provides a direction, TA or teacher provides
an individualized prompt directly after instruction
*Student does not follow direction
**Student attempts to complete task.
*Teacher provides individual instruction
(ATTENTION)….for what behavior?
**Teacher/TA provides consequence for attempts
42
Prompt Hierarchy
Decreasing (new skills)
 FULL PHYSICAL
ASSIST (FPA)
 PARTIAL PHYSICAL
ASSIST (PPA)
 MODELING (M)
 DIRECT VERBAL
(DV)
 GESTURE (G)
 INDIRECT VERBAL
(IV)
 INDEPENDENT (I)
Increasing (independence)
• INDEPENDENT (I)
• INDIRECT VERBAL
(IV)
• GESTURE (G)
• DIRECT VERBAL (DV)
• MODELING (M)
• PARTIAL PHYSICAL
ASSIST (PPA)
• FULL PHYSICAL
ASSIST (FPA)
43
FULL PHYSICAL ASSIST
Prompt
 Hand-over-hand assistance to complete the
targeted response. This is usually used when the
target response is motor in nature. For example, a
full physical assist might entail putting your hand on
the student's hand and moving the student's hand
through the action of writing his or her name. If the
student is learning to jump up and down, providing
a full physical assist would mean physically lifting
the student up and down in a jumping motion.
44
PARTIAL PHYSICAL ASSIST
Prompt
 Partial physical assist is less intense or
intrusive than a full physical assist. If full
physical assist is hand-over-hand, the
partial physical assist can be visualized as
providing minimal supportive guidancetouching the wrist to stabilize handwriting
& encouraging the student to jump without
actually lifting his or her body off the
ground are two examples of providing
PPA. If the student doesn't need handover-hand assistance, start here.
45
MODELING
Prompt
 Modeling is simply showing the student
what you want him or her to do. You do
not physically touch the student. In
order for modeling to work, the student
must know how to imitate another
person's actions. If a student has good
imitation skills, start here.
46
DIRECT VERBAL
Prompt
 This is a direct statement of what we expect
the student to do or say usually broken down
into more simplified terms than the initial
instruction. Example: teacher says, "put your
materials away." Individual prompt would be
"Put each pencil in the box, good, now your
eraser, good.” This level of prompt requires
that the student be able to follow your
direction.
47
GESTURE
Prompt
 Pointing, facial expression, mouthing
words silently or otherwise indicating
with a motion what you want the student
to do.
48
INDIRECT VERBAL
Prompt
 An indirect verbal prompt tells the
student that something is expected but
not exactly what.
– Example: "What next?" "Now what?"
– Example: “I like what Joey is doing.” This
actually pairs the indirect verbal with modeling.
49
INDEPENDENT
 The student is able to perform the task
on his or her own with no prompts or
assistance from you.
So what about a prompt hierarchy…Why bother?
INDEPENDENCE
50
Communication – case by case
 Normal communication procedures
– Your comfort level
 HOWEVER - If there is a log,
daily/weekly data sheets, behavior charts
– Should be discussed & decided by school IEP
team who writing, reporting, email, phone
– *Suggestion – stay clear of logs, limit
communication by paraeducators to a
minimum.
*Examples available
51
Communication
(With parents)
 *Communication with parents should be done by the
Special or general education teachers
– However . . . If instructed to do so . . .
 2 forms
– 1. Daily in form of log/journal or communication sheet
• Education related – specific to daily routine, schedule, activities related to goals/objectives
• Educational language
• Positive in nature (focus on positive) – non critical
– 2. Direct contact with parent (pick-up)
• Limited if any (only telephone in emergencies)
• Education related – specific to daily routine, schedule, activities
52
Language for Communication
(with parents)










Negative action or reaction
Non-cooperative
Uncooperative in group
Non-responsive in group
Refusal to complete, attempt
Non-participation
Making verbal threats
Making physical threats
Refused to make choice
Inappropriate choices
 Refusal to verbalize, transition
 Inappropriate language, words,
speech
 Inappropriate behavior
 Noncompliance in group
 Physical behavior – hitting,
grabbing
 Aggressive behavior
 Negative talk
 Non-positive speech
53
Communication
(With Teachers)
 Special Education Teacher
– Team model (IEP team) – Chain of
communication
• Special Education Teacher (Case manager), general
education teachers, therapists, educational assistants
and/or paraprofessionals, parents, student
• Communication should be clear, concise, honest,
and frequent
54
Communication
(With or for Student with Parent)
 Student
– Establish trusting relationship
– Positive should be 3 to 1 at least
• Motivational
• Direct, clear, concise
– Be mindful of last word
• Not compromising (unless specified in behavior plan)
 Inclusion Meetings
– Determine frequency (consult supervisor if necessary)
– Set time and dates for year if possible
– Keep to 30 minutes – have agenda, keep notes
• See format for meeting notes
55
Data Collection &
Progress Monitoring
 Document (and date) all adaptations,
accommodations, & modifications
 Keep work samples (make copies)
– Attach checklists detailing supports
 Report card – follow normal routine
 Case managers are responsible for quarterly
progress reports pertaining to goals & objectives
 Vital – be clear when collecting data!
– Data sheets, checklists, behaviors, etc.
56
Hierarchy of Supports
(School team)
 General Education Teachers
 Special Education Teachers (Case





Manager)
Special Education Department Chairs
Child Study Teams
Instructional coaches and coordinators
Building-based administrators
Special Education Supervisors
57
Teamwork Redefined
****************************************************
*
Ensuring Success
 Must have a high degree of interdependence
geared toward achievement of common goals
 Team must have a balance of consistent effort
from all levels.
 Partners in implementing the supplemental aides
and services necessary for the student to achieve
some degree of success, including the therapists
(OT, PT, S&L).
58
59
Descargar

A Team Approach