Subsaharan Africa
• Map Test 2: March 1
– Middle America
– South America
• Review
• Finish Urban Brazil
• Subsaharan Africa
– Major qualities, physiography & climate
– Development: indigenous & colonial
– Medical geography & disease
Midterm Grade Distribution
Average = 64.8%
14
C
12
Frequency
10
8
6
4
2
0
F
D
D+
C-
C
C+
B-
Letter Grade
B
B+
A-
A
A+
BRASILIA
President Juscelino Kubitscheck Bridge

Forward capital

1957-60

What is the contested
territory?

Plano piloto –
modernist utopia
Growth Pole Theory
• Promote growth in the hinterland
• Concentrated investment
• Urban “pole de croissance”
• Industrial focus
 Create jobs in depressed areas
 Reduce uneven concentrations of wealth
 Decentralize industry
• “Ripples” of development
– Spread effects
– Backwash
São Paulo




Inland
Industrial centre
Business capital
25 million
São Paulo’s success story
Fazendas
Immigration
Skilled labor
 Relative location
 Minas Gerais
 Power
Santos
Itaipu Dam
Southern Cone
TRANSITION ZONES
• An area of spatial change where peripheries of
two adjacent realms or regions join
• Marked by a gradual shift (rather than a sharp
break) in the characteristics that distinguish
neighboring realms
Introduction to Africa
• Plateaus & basins, arid steppe, savannah & rain
forest, great lakes, generally low fertility soils
• Dozens of countries and hundreds of ethnic
groups, linguistically and culturally fragmented
• Subsistence cultivation & mineral extraction
• Political boundaries, a colonial ‘legacy’
• Dislocated peoples and refugees
• Underdevelopment, poverty, corruption, unstable
governments, environmental & health problems
AFRICA’S
PHYSIOGRAPHY
PLATE BOUNDARIES
CLIMATE
VEGETATION
EARLY KINGDOMS
THE ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE
COLONIALISM
• European colonial objectives
– A port along the West African coast
– A water route to Asia
– 1500’s- human resources: slaves
– Limited penetration
– 1850- European industrialization
• Increased demand for mineral resources
• Need to expand agricultural production
BERLIN CONFERENCE
1884
• 14 States divided up Africa without
consideration of cultures
• Superimposed boundaries
-- Unified regions were ripped apart
-- Hostile societies combined
-- Migration routes were closed off.
• By 1950: political fragmentation.
COLONIAL POLICIES
• Great Britain: “Indirect Rule” (Ghana, Nigeria,
Kenya, Zimbabwe)
– Indigenous power structures left intact
– Local rulers made representatives of the crown.
• France: “Assimilationist” (Senegal, Mali, Ivory
Coast, etc.)
– Enforced a direct rule: Promotion of French
culture through language, laws, education and
dress (acculturation)
COLONIAL POLICIES
• Portugal: “Exploitation” (GuineaBissau, Angola, Mozambique)
– First to enslave and colonize
– Last to grant independence
– Rigid control: raw resource oriented
• Belgium: “Paternalism” (Rwanda,
Congo (Zaire), Burundi)
– Exploitation of resources
– Ruthless treatment of indigenous African
labourers
Colonial Legacy
• Hundreds of languages
• Intertribal antagonism (e.g., Rwanda)
• Low level of development is linked to
colonization
– Transportation facilities
• Interior to coastal ports
• Terrain is difficult
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SUBSAHARAN AFRICA I - University of Lethbridge