Consistent and
Predictable
Consequences
Idaho SWPBIS Training Institute
Responding to Infractions
& Error Correction
Reinforcement &
Punishment
Punishment:
• Decreases the likelihood of behavior
o Positive punishment
o Negative punishment
Question
I praised Mrs. Jones in front of the rest
of the staff for the work she did as part of
the social committee. Then all of the sudden,
Mrs. Jones stops coming to committee
meetings. Has my praise reinforced or
punished her work?
Proactive Strategies
• Use strategies for encouraging expected
behavior
• Attend to students who display expected
behavior
• Prime and pre-correct for desired behavior
during times problem behavior is likely
• Redirect when early problem indicators occur
Priming & Pre-correction
• Priming: Providing for successful completion
or skill, or engagement in an activity (giving a
piece of the puzzle, answer to the problem, etc.)
• Pre-correcting: Prompting or reminding
students what is expected for a given activity,
time frame, or location (verbal reminders,
posters, hand signals)
Pre-correction:
Set them up for success
• Review how expectations relate to upcoming
activity
• Types of pre-correction:
o Verbal reminders
o Behavioral rehearsals
o Demonstrations of rule-following or socially appropriate
behaviors
• Delivery:
o Presented in or before settings where problem behavior is likely
o Build into classroom routines
Use Pre-correct for
Chronic Errors
• Pre-correct/prompt for desired behavior in
problem context
o
o
o
o
o
Go to problem setting/situation
Get attention of students
Give reminder or opportunity to practice skills
Watch child for demonstration of skill
Acknowledge demonstration
• Provide positive feedback
Responding to Problem
Behavior
Be Proactive First:
• Use strategies for reminding, encouraging
expected behavior
 Pre-Correct:
• Reviewing expectations prior to starting an
activity
Example: “Remember to be Safe, Responsible, & Respectful in
the hallway. We walk in a single file line down the right side
of the hall with zipped lips, and hands and feet to self.”
Pre-Correction Checklist & Plan
1. Context
Students entering classroom immediately after recess
2. Predictable
Behavior
Enter shouting, laughing, and pushing before
complying with teacher direction
3. Expected Behavior
Enter room quietly, go to desks, begin task, keep
hands to self
4. Context
modification
Teacher meets students at door, has them wait to go to
desk to begin entry tasks
5. Pre-Correction
Teacher reminds students before recess of expected
entrance behaviors and reward. Asks students to tell
what expected behaviors are
6. Strong
Reinforcement
All students quiet and working within 1 min. 5/5 days
they will have 5 extra minutes of Friday recess
7. Prompts
Teacher gives signal at the door to be quiet and points
to activity on chalkboard.
8. Monitoring Plan
Teacher uses a watch to measure how long it takes for
all students to get on task and counts how many
students begin their tasks immediately (within 10
seconds)
Responding to
Problem behavior
Direction/request
& Wait Time
(5-10 seconds)
Desired behavior
If, Challenging Behavior
Reinforce!!!!
Specific Praise
Acknowledgement
system
Redirect:
Prompt to expectation
(fit to activity)
Walk away &
Wait 5-10 sec.
If, Desired Behavior
If, Challenging Behavior
Reinforce (light)
Acknowledge
Specific praise
Preplanned Consequence
Redirection
Redirections should be…
• Immediate & brief
• Specific
• “Hands and feet to self” vs. “stop that”
• Phrased in classroom vocabulary
• “Joey, please use walking feet”
• “Joey, Jenny Stack & Rack please.”
• Prompt to desired behaviors
• “Whoa, remember what we practiced, can you
show me what we’ve been practicing?”
• “I’m pretty sure I heard the correct answer, but I
couldn’t tell because there was no hand raise.”
• “Who has a quiet hand raise?”
• Respectful
• “Can you show me engaged?” vs. “You need to
listen.”
Low Level Challenging
Behavior
Teacher Routine
Desired behavior
Reinforce!!!!
Specific Praise
Acknowledgement
system
Direction/request
& Wait Time
(5-10 seconds)
If, Challenging Behavior
Redirect:
Prompt to expectation
(fit to activity)
Walk away &
Wait 5-10 sec.
If, Desired Behavior
If, Challenging Behavior
Reinforce (light)
Acknowledge
Specific praise
Preplanned Consequence
A comparison of Two
Approaches to Discipline
Coercion
Using threats and
punishment to eliminate
problem behavior
Instruction
Teaching alternative
positive behavior
Why is the approach
typically used?
Coercion
To stop the behavior
annoying the adult by
issuing penalties,
making threats, or
inflicting pain (physical,
mental, or emotional)
Instruction
To correct problems by
teaching appropriate
skills that help the child
develop maturity,
civility, and selfdiscipline
What is the focus of the
teachers or parents?
Coercion
The past or immediate
problem behavior – a
short-term perspective
Instruction
Skills for success in
school and life – a longterm perspective
What is the emotional
context in which the
method is used?
Coercion
The adult is often angry,
hostile, frustrated,
physically tense, and
stressed
Instruction
The adult is calm and
relaxed, with feelings of
care and concern for the
individual’s success and
well-being
What are the potential results
or side effects experienced by
the student?
Coercion
Thoughts or feelings of
fear, guilt, stupidity,
inferiority, lack of
confidence, anger,
hostility, and contempt
Instruction
Thoughts or feelings of
confidence, value, selfworth, and trust in
others, with a desire to
reciprocate the acts of
kindness, care, and
concern
Consistent & Predictable
Consequences
• Give rationale for the rules and consequences
• State the consequences when you first teach
students the rules
• Post rules and consequences and explain and
review regularly (works well in pre-correction)
• Follow through consistently (vs. threats)
Make your response predictable
for you and the student both!
• Make consequences system dependent instead of
teacher dependent
o Helps keep you and the student from escalating
o Makes responding more efficient (lowest possible
disruption to flow of instruction)
• Decide what the consequence for broken rules
will be in advance
Match the intensity of the consequence
to the intensity of the behavior
• Hierarchy for rule violations
o Within classroom (minor, classroom-managed
behaviors)
o Schoolwide (majors; office-managed behaviors)
• Consequences delivered efficiently
o Consistent
o Timely (quickly)
o Tie back to expectations and/or desired behavior
Leveled Consequences
• Define your responses for both desired and
inappropriate behaviors in advance, post them,
and respond CONSISTENTLY
o Specific and leveled consequences for inappropriate
behavior that match the intensity of the behavior
Level
Behavior – Consequence
1
• Out of seat, talk out = loss of point
2
• Repeated small offenses = student makes action
plan at recess
• Swearing = lunch detention
3
• Fighting, vandalism = office referral
Consequences
• Decide in advance what your consequences will
be. Teach them first and be sure to follow
through.
• Match the intensity of your consequence
matches the intensity of the behavior.
• Be systematic in administering your
consequences to minimize the disruption to the
flow of your instruction
Creating a Schoolwide
System of Consistent &
Predictable Consequences
Major Purpose of Schoolwide
System
Improve instruction power of consequences
• Consistent implementation across settings and
staff
Discourage students displaying challenging
behavior
• Predictable effect of poor choices
Basic System Requirements
• Organization
• Consensus
• Training
o Student & Staff
• Materials
Organization
Adults need to clearly know…
• Procedures:
•
•
•
•
When to administer specific consequences
How to administer within a teaching context
When to intensify consequence
How to document infractions
• Materials:
• Referral forms
• Training materials
Organization
Create a framework to make it clear
how adults apply the system
Eg: create a one to one relationship between the
severity of behaviors and an array of consequences
(level 1 behaviors = level 1 consequences)
Pyramid to Success for All
Office Issues
Bus referrals, Truancy, Chronic offender, Threatening student or adult, Fighting,
Refusal to go to or Disruptive in Buddy Room, Sexual harassment, Weapons,
Drug/cigarettes/ tobacco/alcohol, Assault – physical or verbal
Teacher Method for handling student behaviors
Referral Form – send student to office with completed form
Process with student before re-entry
Office Method for handling student behaviors
Proactive: RRKS Review, Parent Contact
Corrective: Loss of Privilege, Saturday detention, Opportunity Center, Suspension, etc.
Team Issues
Repeated minor & major disruptions in multiple classrooms, Throwing things, Hallway/Lockers problems, Attendance,
Repeated disrespect to peers or adults, Cheating, Inappropriate to substitute, Insubordination, Chronic Disruptions
Method for handling student behaviors
Proactive: Parent contact (mandatory), RRKS review, Team conference, Team conference with student, Team conference
with Parents, Team conference with Administrator/Counselor, Triage in the AM with the student, Triage at lunch with the
student, Team Focus, etc.
Corrective: Removal of privilege on team, Recovery Study Hall, Buddy Room, etc.
Classroom Teacher Issues
Out of seat, Talking to classmates, Talking out, Off-task, Violation of class rules, Inappropriate language, Lack of
materials, Gum, Disrespect, Cheating, Tardies, Minor destruction of property
Method for handling student behaviors
Proactive: Positive call to parents, Use praise, Use Rewards, Daily/Weekly Goal sheets, Proximity to instructor,
Provide choices, One-to-One assistance, Pre-correct for transitions/trouble situations, Regular breaks for exercise,
Give a job, RRKS Review, Reward lunch with teacher, etc.
Corrective: One and only one REDIRECT, RRKS Review, Safe-seat, Buddy Room, Think Sheet, Parent Phone call,
Lunch Detention, Recovery Study Hall, Removal of privilege in classroom, etc.
Level I Behaviors
Definition
Examples
• Not following
directions
• DO NOT require
• Talking and engaging
administrator
in off task behaviors
involvement
• Play that is a violation
or
of the behaviors
• DO NOT significantly
outlined in the matrix
violate the rights of
• Minor safety violation
others
• Using inappropriate
or
language (an isolated
• DO NOT appear
incident)
chronic
• Making noises that
disrupt the learning
environment or
violate the matrix
• Talking in the hall
Behaviors that:
Procedure
1. Inform student of
rule violated
2. Describe expected
behavior
3. Contact parent if
necessary
4. Debrief and reteach
schoolwide
behavioral
expectation
•
•
•
•
•
Level I Behaviors
Have we pre-taught to the expectation?
Have I acknowledged the correct behavior?
Have I re-taught the behavior?
If so, then I may apply the following: Warning slip.
I may also apply any of the following consequences or other
appropriate consequence.
Possible Consequences:
Verbal correction
Reflection Form
Time Out
Apology
Loss of Privileges
Loss of Recess
Communication
with Teacher
Level II Behaviors
Definition
Behaviors that:
• Significantly violate
the rights of others
or
• Put others at risk or
harm
or
• Are chronic Level 1
behaviors
Examples
• Arguing with
teacher/talking back
• Throwing
inappropriate object
• Talking out on a
regular basis
• Not following
directions on a
regular basis
• Continued use of
inappropriate
language
Procedure
1. Inform student of
rule violated
2. Describe expected
behavior
3. Compare ODR form
4. Contact parent
5. Submit ODR form to
office
Level II Behaviors
Possible Consequences:
Verbal Correction
Reflection Form
Time Out
Apology
Loss of Privileges
Loss of Recess
Behavior Contract
After School
Detention
Level III Behaviors
Definition
Behaviors that:
• Violate school policies
or
• Violate state policies
or laws
or
• Are chronic Level II
behaviors
or
• Require administrator
involvement
Examples
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Purposefully hitting others
Throwing inappropriate
objects at others
Self-inflicting wounds
Spitting or biting
Making verbal or written
racial, ethnic, religious,
violent, or sexual slurs
Possessing a weapon or a
look-alike weapon
Sexually inappropriate
behaviors
Bullying
Profanity (real or implied)
Fighting
Vandalism
Theft
Reference Definition of Behaviors
Procedure
1.
Informs student of rule
violated
2. Describe expected behavior
3. Complete ODR form
If necessary:
4. Send student to office with
ODR form and attach any
relevant documentation
forms if possible
or
Incident may require
immediate removal from
class to office. Call office
to alert; follow up with a
written description of the
event on an ODR form.
5. Parent contact coordinated
between teacher and principal.
Level III Behaviors
Possible Consequences:
Verbal Correction
Reflection Form
Time Out
Apology
Loss of Privileges
Loss of Recess
After School
Detention
Suspension from
School
Parent Escort at
School/Events
Restitution
Parent Contact
Team Activity
1. Brainstorm common examples of student
misbehavior
2. Organize behaviors into levels
3. Assign a set of consequences to each level
of behaviors
Documenting Challenging
Behavior
• Documentation of challenging behavior
indicates a student’s response to basic
supports.
o Used to document a pattern of student behavior
o Office Discipline Referral (ODR)
Students are commonly sent to office WITHOUT
documentation.
Typical Office Referral
ODR
Effective ODRs are…
• Fast and easy to fill out (a minute or less)
• Support system of consequences
• Support consistent use of consequence
system by adults
• Creates clear and easily summarized
data
ODRs should no longer be viewed as a
consequence.
They are only data (same as an AIMSWEB probe)
Consensus
Faculty and staff should be provided
the opportunity to inform design and
procedures. Do this as a whole school
staff process.
Following an ODR –
Effective Administrator
Response
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Overview of Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports