History of psychiatry.
Disorders of sensations and
Lyudmyla T. Snovyda
"A psychiatrist is a fellow who asks you a lot of
expensive questions your wife asks for nothing"
- Joey Adams
Psychiatry 
The term psychiatry, coined by Johann Christian Reil in 1808,
comes from the Greek “psyche” (soul or mind) and “iatros"
(healer or doctor)
Psychiatry is a medical specialty which exists to study, prevent,
and treat mental disorders in humans. Psychiatric assessment
typically involves a mental status examination and taking a case
history, and psychological tests may be administered. Physical
examinations may be conducted and occasionally neuroimages
or other neurophysiological measurements taken. Diagnostic
procedures vary but official criteria are listed in manuals, the
most common being the ICD from the World Health
Organization and the DSM from the American Psychiatric
Connection with other
specialities 
Those who practice psychiatry are different than most other
mental health professionals and physicians in that they must be
familiar with both the social and biological sciences. The
discipline is interested in the operations of different organs and
body systems as classified by the patient's subjective
experiences and the objective physiology of the patient. While
the focus of psychiatry has changed little throughout time, the
diagnostic and treatment processes have evolved dramatically
and continue to do so. Since the late 20th century, the field of
psychiatry has continued to become more biological and less
conceptually isolated from the field of medicine.
Connection with other
specialities 
While the medical specialty of psychiatry utilizes
research in the field of neuroscience, psychology,
medicine, biology, biochemistry, and pharmacology, it
has generally been considered a middle ground
between neurology and psychology. Unlike other
physicians and neurologists, psychiatrists specialize in
the doctor-patient relationship and are trained in the
use of psychotherapy and other therepautic
communication techniques. Psychiatrists can
therefore prescribe medication, order laboratory
tests, utilize neuroimaging in a clinical setting, and
conduct physical examinations.
Ancient times
Starting in the 5th century BC, mental disorders, especially
those with psychotic traits, were considered supernatural in
origin. This view existed throughout ancient Greece and Rome.
Early manuals written about mental disorders were created by
the Greeks. In 4th century BC, Hippocrates theorized that
physiological abnormalities may be the root of mental disorders.
Religious leaders and others returned to using early versions of
exorcisms to treat mental disorders which often utilized cruel,
harsh, and other barbarous methods.
Ancient times
Middle Ages
The first psychiatric hospitals were built in the medieval Islamic
world from the 8th century. The first was built in Baghdad in
705, followed by Fes in the early 8th century, and Cairo in 800.
Unlike medieval Christian physicians who relied on
demonological explanations for mental illness, medieval Muslim
physicians relied mostly on clinical observations. They made
significant advances to psychiatry and were the first to provide
psychotherapy and moral treatment for mentally ill patients, in
addition to other forms of treatment such as baths, drug
medication, music therapy and occupational therapy. In the 10th
century, the Persian physician Muhammad ibn Zakariya Razi
(Rhazes) combined psychological methods and physiological
explanations to provide treatment to mentally ill patients. His
contemporary, the Arab physician Najab ud-din Muhammad, first
described a number of mental illnesses such as agitated
depression, neurosis, and sexual impotence (Nafkhae
Malikholia), psychosis (Kutrib), and mania (Dual-Kulb).
Middle Ages
In the 11th century, another Persian physician Avicenna
recognized 'physiological psychology' in the treatment of
illnesses involving emotions, and developed a system for
associating changes in the pulse rate with inner feelings, which
is seen as a precursor to the word association test developed by
Carl Jung in the 19th century.Avicenna was also an early
pioneer of neuropsychiatry, and first described a number of
neuropsychiatric conditions such as
insomnia, mania, nightmare, melancholia,
dementia, epilepsy, paralysis, stroke,
vertigo and tremor.
Middle Ages
Psychiatric hospitals were built in medieval Europe from the
13th century to treat mental disorders but were utilized only as
custodial institutions and did not provide any type of
treatment.Founded in the 13th century, Bethlem Royal Hospital
in London is one of the oldest psychiatric hospitals. By 1547 the
City of London acquired the hospital and continued its function
until 1948.
Early modern period
In 1656, Louis XIV of France created a public system of
hospitals for those suffering from mental disorders, but as in
England, no real treatment was being applied. Thirty years later
the new ruling monarch in England, George III, was known to
be suffering from a mental disorder. Following the King's
remission in 1789, mental illness was seen as something which
could be treated and cured.
Early modern period
By 1792 French physician Philippe Pinel introduced humane
treatment approaches to those suffering from mental disorders.
William Tuke adopted the methods outlined by Pinel and that
same year Tuke opened the York Retreat in England. That
institution became known as a model throughout the world for
humane and moral treatment of patients suffering from mental
disorders. It inspired similar institutions in the United States,
most notably the Brattleboro Retreat and the Hartford Retreat
(now the Institute of Living).
19th century
Universities often played a part in the administration of the
asylums. Due to the relationship between the universities and
asylums, scores of competitive psychiatrists were being molded
in Germany. Germany became known as the world leader in
psychiatry during the nineteenth century. The country
possessed more than 20 separate universities all competing with
each other for scientific advancement. However, because of
Germany's individual states and the lack of national regulation
of asylums, the country had no organized centralization of
asylums for psychiatry.Britain, like Germany, also lacked a
centralized organization for the administration of asylums. This
deficit hindered the diffusion of new ideas in medicine and
19th century
In the United States in 1834, Anna Marsh, a physician's widow,
deeded the funds to build her country's first financially-stable
private asylum. The Brattleboro Retreat marked the beginning
of America's private psychiatric hospitals challenging state
institutions for patients, funding, and influence. Although based
on England's York Retreat, it would be followed by speciality
institutions of every treatment philosophy.
In 1838, France enacted a law to regulate both the admissions
into asylums and asylum services across the country. By 1840,
asylums as therapeutic institutions existed throughout Europe
and the United States.
19th century
However, the new and dominating ideas that mental illness
could be "conquered" during the mid-nineteenth century all
came crashing down. Psychiatrists and asylums were being
pressured by an ever increasing patient population.
Overcrowding was rampant in France where asylums would
commonly take in double their maximum capacity. Increases in
asylum populations may have been a result of the transfer of
care from families and poorhouses, .
19th century
but the specific reasons as to why the increase occurred is still
debated today. No matter the cause, the pressure on asylums
from the increase was taking its toll on the asylums and
psychiatry as a specialty. Asylums were once again turning into
custodial institutions and the reputation of psychiatry in the
medical world had hit an extreme low.
20th century
The 20th century introduced a new psychiatry into the world.
The different perspectives of looking at mental disorders began
to be introduced. The career of Emil Kraepelin somewhat model
this hiatus of psychiatry between the different disciplines.
20th century
Kraepelin initially was very attracted to psychology and ignored
the ideas of anatomical psychiatry. Following his acceptance for
a professorship of psychiatry, and later his work in a university
psychiatric clinic, Kraepelin's interest in pure psychology began
to fade and he introduced a plan of a more comprehensive
psychiatry.Kraepelin also began to study and promote the ideas
of disease classification for mental disorders, an idea introduced
by Karl Ludwig Kahlbaum.
20th century
The initial ideas behind biological psychiatry, stating that these
different disorders were all biological in nature, evolved into a
new idea of "nerves" and psychiatry became a sort of rough
neurology or neuropsychiatry. Following Sigmund Freud's death,
ideas stemming from psychoanalytic theory also began to take
root. The psychoanalytic theory became popular among
psychiatrists because it allowed the patients to be treated in
private practices instead of asylums. However the progress of
psychiatry by the 1970s turned psychoanalytic theory into a
marginal school of thought within the field.
20th century
ECT was "discovered" when Ugo Cerletti, psychiatrist, visited a
Rome slaughterhouse to see what could be learned from the
method that was employed to butcher hogs. In Cerletti's own
words, "As soon as the hogs were clamped by the [electric]
tongs, they fell unconscious, stiffened, then after a few seconds
they were shaken by convulsions.... During this period of
unconsciousness (epileptic coma), the butcher stabbed and bled
the animals without difficulty....
20th century
"At this point I felt we could venture to experiment on man, and
I instructed my assistants to be on the alert for the selection of
a suitable subject."
Cerletti's first victim was provided by the local police - a man
described by Cerletti as "lucid and well-oriented." After surviving
the first blast without losing consciousness, the victim
overheard Cerletti discussing a second application with a higher
voltage. He begged Cerletti, "Non una seconda! Mortifierel"
("Not another one! It will kill me!")
Ignoring the objections of his assistants, Cerletti increased the
voltage and duration and fired again. With the "successful"
electrically induced convulsion of his victim, Ugo Cerletti brought
about the application of hog-slaughtering skills to humans,
creating one of the most brutal techniques of psychiatry.
20th century
Lobotomy is a surgical practice where parts of the frontal lobes
are intentionally destroyed. Violent criminals calm down, highly
depressed people don't seem so depressed any longer, and
manics finally mellow out. But they wander aimlessly, drool
uncontrollably, and have very little left of whatever "personality"
they once had. If the goal is calm, quiet, and "nice" people,
then it's a roaring success.
20th century
This period of time saw the reemergence of biological
psychiatry. Psychopharmacology became an integral part of
psychiatry starting with Otto Loewi's discovery of the first
neurotransmitter, acetylcholine. Neuroimaging was first utilized
as a tool for psychiatry in the 1980s. The discovery of
chlorpromazine's effectiveness in treating schizophrenia in 1952
revolutionized treatment of the disease, as did lithium
carbonate's ability to stabilize mood highs and lows in bipolar
disorder in 1948. While psychosocial issues were still seen as
valid, psychotherapy was seen to be their "cure." Genetics were
once again thought to play a role in mental illness. Molecular
biology opened the door for specific genes contributing mental
disorders to be identified. By 1995 genes contributing to
schizophrenia had been identified on chromosome 6 and genes
contributing to bipolar disorder on chromosomes 18 and 21
– the most elementary stage, which reflects separate quality of
subject, which is acting in right moment to sensory organs.
Classification :
According to modality:
Interoceptive – give signal about condition of our inner world:
warm, cold, hunger, uncomfortability. These sensastions don’t
have localisation, outside proection, closely connected with
emotional processes.
Exteroceptive – 5 sensation organs: smell, taste, sight,
hearing, tactile.
Proprioceptive – information about body position, movement
in space, everything which makes body scheme.
– Anesthesia – absence of 1 or more type of
sensation. Analgesia – loss of pain sensation ( at
acute psychopathological diseases.) Patients, who
commit suicides: they cut their organs – at such
moment they don’t feel anything. After some time
everything comes back with recreation of psyche. (
At deep depression, progressive paralysis, brain
syphillis, convulsive disorders(hysteria), anaestesia
dolorosa depresia – absense of sensation).
Hyperesthesia – subjective increasing of sensation.
Hyperalgesia – increasing of pain sensastion
(depression,espessially light).
– Optical hyperesthesia – daily light blind a man.
Acustical h-sia – changes of perception threshold. Light sound
percept as strong one even to pain. This is sign of exhaustion,
asthenic conditions.
Taste, smell – complains on increasing of these sensations. It
could be at normal conditions.
Skin sensations – tactile and temperature. Touch to a body is
Paresthesia – distortion sensations.
– psychosomatic sensation. It has such signs:
 .Polymorphism of sensations (pain, heartburn,
 .Sign which differentiates it from general somatic signs –
there are complains, but they don’t have any localization,
intensity, patients cannot explain them.
It has matter during mask depression diagnostic: sen.-as cardiovascular, central – neurotic, abdominal, skin- underskin, bone –
They could be: permanent, episodical, as attack (sen.- crisis).
Accompanied with panic, vegetative disorders. They begin with
simple sen., after that they become very hard.
Elementary sen.- those, which doesn’t have sensor modality
(“my sole is trembling”).Simple sen. – concrete modality –
pain, parasthesias.
Senesthesia – various disorders of
movement, which has subjective character,
which are not confirm with objective
investigations (“my legs and arms are not
listening to me”).
Sinesthesia – appear as a result of action of
different sensation organs “colored music”.
Smell calls some other sensation. Name of
the person- some color etc.
- reflection of object in general.
Classification: splitting, illusions, pseudohallucinations,
hallucinations, eydetysm, disorder of sensor synthesis,
Double - loss of capacity of whole object formulation. He
percept normally object, but couldn’t join it together. Ex.- tree –
it’s separately leaves, trunk etc. At infectious diseases.
Illusions – false perception of real existent object.
Affective ill.- affect of fear, anxious, horror, connected with
special emotional condition.
Verbal ill.- words, phrases are percept in place of real.
Pareydolia – optical illusions with fantastic content. Various
objects which don’t have forms are seen in various pictures.
- Hallucination – perception without object,which acts on
sense organs.
Simple – photopsias. Complex – have subject content –
zoological, demanomanic, antropomorphic(close people, dead
people, body pieces, inner organs), panoramic- ground, atomic
Simple – sounds.
Complex – comment, imperative, stereotypical – during some
time they hear same words or phrases.
Optical illusion
Optical illusion
Optical illusion
- Smell, taste – when they don’t take food.
Skin – tactile(touching,pressure, insects under skin, hair in the
Interoceptive, visceral – inside of the body animals, different
Kinestetical – feel, like fingers are compressed in a fist, run
Vestibular – feeling of falling, lifting.
Symptom of twin – feeling of body splitting.
Hypnogogic – in condition of falling asleep.
Hypnopompic –in condition of getting up.
Affectogenic h.- in condition of strss, affect.
Inductive – they have collective character. There is inductor
and the person to whom induct. If we separate them we
S-m Lippman, s-m Ashaphenburg, s-m Reyhardt.
PSEUDOHALLUCINATIONS. At first was described by
Candinskyy in 1890.
Pequliarities :
 .False objects, which are experience, such as going in
space ”see by mind, by inner eye, i can see by brain,
hear by inner ear”.
 .They have obusive character, appear suddenly, agains
patients will. Feeling of self activity accompanied by
someones action.
 .They don’t have objective reality, don’t mix with reality.
 .Difference between real and pseudohallucination.
As a rule, at pseudoh. We can see changes in behavior –
apsence of signs on outside world.
There are some objective signs: they watching or listening to
smth, close ears, nose, touch smth. They hide somewhere,
looking for smth, catching smth, run somewhere- real.
In pseudoh. – absence of attention on surrounding.
Hallucinoids – rudimentary display of visual
h. Prestage of real h. Patients have some
critics to them. It’s not h.-on, but it’s not
Eydetysm(eidetic memory) – Man capacity to
hold for a long time some object, pictures. As
a rule visual, but could be auditorial and
tactile. Phenomenal visual memory.
Depersonalization – is a nonspecific feeling that a person has
lost his or her identity, that the self is different or unreal. People
may be concerned that body parts do not belong to them.
People may have an acute sensation that their body has
drastically changed.
Derealization – is the false perception by a person that the
environment has changed. For example, everything seems
bigger or smaller, or familiar surroundings have become
somehow strange and familiar.
(psychosensorial disorders) – perception disorder of form,
size, objects, oneself. On abolition from illusion there is no
disorder of identity of subject.
Metamorphosias – perception disorder of form and size. They
are bigger – macropsia or smaller – micropsia.
Dysmehalopsia – twisted.
Paliopsia – on abolition of 1 object – there a lot of them.
Disorders of body scheme – autometamorphopsia.
Macropsia – increasing (Huliver), micropsia –decreasing
Disorders of time perception – increasing of time speed(at
manic patients), decreasing of time speed(at depressive
–Thank you for your
Lyudmyla T. Snovyda
First psychotropic drug –
chlorpromazine(aminazine) was offered in
1952. by French scientists Delay and
Deniker. It was beginning of
psychopharmacotherapy era, which took
first place and leave other methods
There are 3 classes:
1. Neuroleptics:
1а) N.mainly with sedative action:
aminazine,thizercine, sonapax, neuleptil,
chlorptotyxen, leponex;
1 b) N. Mainly with antipsychotic action :
triphtazine, mazheptil, phrenolon, haloperidol,
eglonil, rispolept, clopixol, fluonxol, ziprexa
(olanzapine), solian (amisulpirid) ;
1c) N.with long action :phtorphenazyn-dekanoat
(moditen-depoe), semap, orap, haloperidoldekanoat.
2а) T.mainly with sedative action: elenium,
nozepam, nitrazepam, phenazepam, amizil,
meprotan, tranqsen;
2b) T. with stimulate action : trioxazine, rudotel,
seduxen, gydazepam, grandaxyn
3. Antidepressants:
3а) a. With mainly sedative action : amitriptyline,
phtoracezine, pirazidol, azaphen, oxydiline,
cypramil, cypralex, zoloft;
3b) a.with mainly stimulate action: melipramine,
nuredal, transamine, indopan, prozac.
1. Neuroleptics (first generation
Useful for the treatment of
schizophrenia;schizoaffective disorder;delusional
disorder,alcohol hallucinosis and
psychosis;dementia and delirium;psychosis
occuring secondary to intoxication with
cocaine,stimulants,cannabis or anabolic
steroids,autism;mental retardation when
complicated by stereotypies or aggression.
Side effects:sedation,hypotension,and
anticholinergic effects,acute extrapyramidal side
akathisia,dystonia,oculogyric crisis,dysphoria.
1а.Neuroleptics with sedative action:
Aminazine : sedative action, decreasing of motion activity and some
weakening of scelet muscles,strong central adreno- and
cholinolitic action,peripheral adrenolitic action, potention of drug
action, somnolent,analgetics,anticonvulsive preparations;
decreasing of systolic and dyastolic arterial pressure, deppressive
This is one of the strongest sedatives for remove of psychomotor
Indications:different types of psychomotor
excitement(schizophrenia,chronic paranoid and hallucinativeparanoid conditions,MDP,agitation during deppression,fear,
insomnia during psychosis).
Side effects and complications: collapse (at first two hours after
use), weakness, dryness in a mouth,extrapyramidal disorders
(parkinsonism,akathisia,dyskinesia), alergic reactions, токсичний
toxic hepatitis,trombophlebitis,neuroleptic depression.
Average dose – 600-800 mg.
– dragee) 0,025–0,05–0,1. Amp. 2,5% - 1-2-5 ml.
Thizercine – close to aminazine.
Pequliarities:for ability to potentiate action of
drugs and analgetics and for hypotensive action
- in 3-4 times stronger from aminazine.
Antivomiting and cholinolitic action less than at
aminazin.Deppressive effect - minimal.This is
one of most minimal toxic neuroleptics.
Indications and antiindications -same as
AD – 600-800 mg.
dragee 0,025; Amp. 2,5%-1ml.
Sonapax (thioridazine).
Has calming action with moderate stimulative and
soft tymoleptic effect.
Choosing antipsychotic action mainly at alarm,
fear, intensity, which are connected with
Indications:neurosolike conditions.
Ad – 200-600 mg
Dragee - 0,01; 0,025 і 0,1.
More typical neuroleptic than sonapax,cause its
psychotropic action is close to aminazine and is
characterized with slowing action without stimulative
Indications:first of all -different psychopatic
conditions,disorders of behavior.
In literature this preparation is known as “behavior
corrector”.At the same time its not helpfull for
psychomotor excitement ,but good for removing
anger,tension, irritability,explosivity.
AD– 30-50 mg.
capsules по 0,01. Drops inside 4% solution, 1 drop.=1mg.
Chlorprotyxen (truxal)
Most typic neurolepric and for psychotropic
activity is close to tysercin.Its therapeutic effect
consist of slow action without
deppession,moderate antipsychotic and choose
sedative influence on psychomotor excitation.
Its direct action on hallucinations and delusions
is very close to aminazine,but it is less toxic.
AD– 200 – 400 mg.
tab. 0,015; 0,025 і 0,05;
amp. 2,5 % - 1 ml.
Leponex (clozapine, azaleptine)
One of the last neuroleptics.
Indication - same as aminazine,tizercine,chlorprotyxen all types of excitement.
Pequliarity - practically full absence of extrapyramide
side effects.
AD – 200-600 mg.
tab. 0,025 і 0,1; amp. 2,5%-2 ml.
1b.Neuroleptics of antipsychotic
Tryphtasine(stelasine) – it has:
neuroleptic effect + moderate stimulate component
strong general antipsychotic influence
choosing antipsychotic action on productive
psychosymptomacy:delusions,hallucinations,syndrome of
psychic automatism.
Comparing to aminazine,tryphtazine has bigger influence
on productive psychosymptomacy(in 10 times).
Ad – 30-100 mg.
tab. 0,005 і 0,01; amp – 0,2% - 1 ml.
One of the most strong antipsychotic preparations.
Especcially is used at catatonic-hebephrenic disorders.
For strenght of antipsychotic action we can compare it only
with insuline-shock therapy.
But it has strong extrapyramide disorders.
Ad – 20-150 mg.
Tab. 0,001 і 0,01;
amp. 1% - 1 ml.
 for antivommitin action in 10 times stronger tahn
aminazine(is included in soldier apothek;
 has stimulative effect,thats why is indicated at
stupor and substupor,apatho-abulic
 choosing action on hallucinative0delusional disorders
and especcially verbal hallucinosis.
Ad–30-80 mg
tab. 0,004; 0,006; 0,01.
One of the most active neuroleptics,lowtoxic.
Choosing action on hallucinations,delusions.
Indications:all psychopathological conditions
which have hallucinative-delusional signs.
Side effects: often extrapyramide disorders.
Ad– 10-60 mg
tab. 0,0015; 0,003; 0,005.
amp. 0,5 % - 1 ml.
Rispolept– atypical antipsychotic preparation of new
generation.Is indicated at acute and chronic psychosis
with positive
disorders) and anxious-deppressive disorders. Is
effective in deficit symptomacy during schizophrenia.
Ad - 2-6 mg;
Tab 0,001; 0,002; 0,003; 0,004.
Ziprexa (olanzapine) – new atypical antipsychotic pr.
Has active influence not only on positive
symptoms(delusions,hallucinations)but also
negative(decreasing of emotions,will,language)and
also on depressive symptoms.Rarely has side
Tab. 0,005 і 0,01.
Ad– 15-20 mg
Solian (amisulpirid) – new atypical preparation of
antipsychotic action;is indicated at acute and
chronic schizophrenic disorders,which has
positive and negative symptoms.
Tab. 0,1; 0,2; 0,4.
Ad – 50 – 300 mg.
Positive sides of atypical neuroleptics:
1) Has influence on positive and negative signs of
psychic disorders.
2) Comparing with typical n.-has less
extrapyramide and other disorders.
Negative side:
2)Don’t have depot variants.
 connection of strong choosing action on
hallucinative-delusional symptomacy with good
antipsychotic action;
 restrains progression of process;
 light activisation action;
 some general - sedative action.
Indications - same as triphtazine
Amp. 2,5% - 1 ml on oil.
Dose – 12,5 – 75 mg intramuscle 1 time in 1-3
2. Tranquilizers
Dont have antipsychotic properties, only decrease
fear,obsessions,tension,anxiety and other neurotic
symptomacy.Dont have extrapyramide side effects.
Name”tranguilare” means to make calm.
2 а. Tranquilizers of sedative action:
Mostly have slow, calming influences. It appears as regression of
neurotic,neuroticlike and psychopatholike disorders which run
with irritability,explosivity,anger,fear and anxiety.
Meprotan. Has calming ,light tranguilize,moderate hypnotic and
antiphobic action.
Be carefull to indicate for drivers,cause it can call muscle
relaxation,slow of reaction.
Tab. 0,2; 0,4.
Elenium has:
а) strong slow effect ;
б) strong generaltranquilize action.
Indications: all types of hypersthenic type of
neurotic,neuroticlike,psychopathies with increased
 obsessive-phobic and ipochondric conditions
 convulsive conditions.
Side effects: disturbance of mensis, decrease of libido
and potention.
tab. 0,005; dragee 0,005; 0,01 і 0,025.
Phenazepam–newest preparation of benzodiazepines.
One of the strongest tranquilizators.Has strong action to
obsessions,phobias,ipochondric syndroms whic are
resistant to other tr-s.Has strong sedative action,sleep
effect.Serious anticonvulsive and vegetostabilisative
Tab.- 0,0005; 0,001 і 0,0025.
2 b. Tranquilizers with stimulative
Diazepam. Slow influence of d.shows up only in first
days,then it changes of cheerfulness feeling,some increase
of mood,activity,good work.
Has good regulative action on disturbed vegetative
functions.Has good anticonvulsive action(in 10 times more
than elenium).
Has good effect at asthenodepressive,asthenoipochondric and
other neurotic syndroms(at hyposthenic episodes).
Irreplaceable at status epilepticus,white fever,alcohol
Possible psychological dependance(after 2 months - brake for
3 weeks).
Tab. 0,005; amp. 0,5% - 2 ml.
Ad – 15-45 mg.
Hidazepam – “daily” tranquilizater, has
strong t-tive and anticonvulsive
action,effective for therapy in period of
remission at alcoholic patients.
Tab. 0,02 і 0,05.
Ad - 60 -100 mg.
main action:
antidepressive – main antipsychotic effect and additional
action:sedative or stimulative.
Mechanism of action:
А) tymoleptics(tricyclic a.)remove depression at
patients,make mood better.Dont influence on emotional
sphere of normal
B) tymoanalepticsтимоаналептики (monoamine oxidase
inhibitors(MAO):increase mood not only at sick,but also at
normal people:nuredal,transamin,indopan,iprazid etc.
1) you cant prescribe simultaneous preparations of these
two groups(possible hypertonic crisis,psychomotor
excitation,even death);
2)after usage of MAOi TA you can use only after 14
days,and MAOi after TA - after 2-3 days.
Clinically there are 2 groups:
а) with sedative action (amipryptilin etc).
в) with stimulative action(melipramin etc)
For last years in practic we use 2 new groups:
selective serotonin reuptake
sertralin), cypramil.
Selective noradrenalin reuptake inhibitirs(SNRI)
4. Psychostimulators
Psychostimulators–medicalpreparations,under influence of which psychic
activity is stimulates,mind and psychic work increase,mood becomes
better,decrease feeling of fatique,hunger and thirst, decreasing of sleepy.
Sidnocarb – original preparation,one of the most effective and dangerous
ps-s.Calls stimulation of CNS,which exepts by patient as natural feeling of
cheerfulness,energy,increase of work ability.
Indications: ascthenic conditions,which run with
apathy,ipochondria,decrease of workability,stupor,substupor,and apathoabulic conditions.
Tab. 0,005; 0,01; 0,025.
Ad – 20-30 mg.
5. Nootrops
N. Stimulate protein synthesis and nuclein
acids, has antihypoxia action,normalise
bioenergy in nerve cells at organic injuiries
of CNS or residual organic insufficiency.
Piridito (encephabol) – on basic of vit.
Has stimulate and antidepressive action.
Tab. 0,05; 0,1; 0,2.
Ad – 0,2-0,6
Except metabolic - has anticonvulsive action,increase mind
activity. Little toxic.
Indications: Jacksons
epylepsy,parkinsonism,tremor,neuroleptic syndrom,
stammer at children,polymorphic and small attacs of
Tab. 0,25 і 0,5
Ad. – 1,5-3.0
Pyracetam – makes better memory,facilitate study
process.Very little toxic.Widely use in
capsuls – 0,4; tab. – 0,2; amp. – 20 % - 5 ml
Ad – 2,0-3,0
Thanks for

History of psychiatry. Disorders of sensations and …