Data? –TPOT’s and BIR’s Why? How Do I Use It? Annette Hahn Teaching Pyramid Consultant/Coach, Trainer firstname.lastname@example.org Objectives Understand purposes for use of the Teaching Pyramid Observation Tool (TPOT) Assess how well teachers are implementing the Teaching Pyramid model through use of the TPOT Summarize and evaluate the results of the TPOT on the TPOT Summary Objectives Understand challenging behavior has meaning for the child. Know children use behavior to access something or someone (obtain/request) or avoid something or someone (escape/protest). Use Behavior Incident Reports to determine the function or purpose of challenging behavior. TPOT What is it? Used as a way to determine how well teachers are implementing the pyramid Meant to be an ongoing tool, not a one time event Can be a pre/post measure Can supplement other tools (e.g., ECERS…) The Teaching Pyramid Individualized Intensive Interventions Social Emotional Teaching Strategies Designing Supportive Environments Building Positive Relationships CSEFEL TPOT Benchmarks of Quality Program-wide adoption of fidelity tool Identifies strengths and areas for implementation Captures growth in fidelity of implementation R #9 #8 17) Fl ag s #2 2 #2 1 #2 0 #1 9 #1 8 #1 7 #1 6 #1 5 #1 4 #1 3 #1 2 #1 1 #1 0 en t( ed En vi ro nm Galena am Pre TPOT 9-16-08 8 7 6 5 4 Series1 Series2 3 2 1 0 En on vir R ed ) s #2 2 #2 1 #2 0 #1 9 #1 8 #1 7 #1 6 #1 5 #1 4 #1 3 #1 2 #1 1 #1 0 #9 #8 (1 -7 Fl ag en t m Galena pm Pre TPOT 9-16-08 8 7 6 5 4 Series1 Series2 3 2 1 0 Using the TPOT Observations Conducted for a minimum of 2 hours Must observe centers or free play and at least one teacher-directed activity Focus on observation is lead teacher’s behavior Interviews For those practices that cannot be observed in a 2-hour observation Format of the TPOT Three types of items Environmental items (items 1-7) – yes/no based on observation Ratings of practices (items 8-22) – ratings based on observation and/or teacher report Red Flags (items 23-38) – yes/no based on observation Environmental Arrangement Items Clear boundaries Move easily around room Lack of large open spaces Adequate number of centers Materials support play Preparation of centers Classroom rules Items based on observations and/or teacher report Schedules Transitions Conversations Promoting Engagement Behavior Expectations Providing Directions Social Skills Expressing Emotions Problem Solving Friendship Skills Persistent Problem Behavior Communication with Families Involving Families Relationships with Adults Items are scored based on teacher report Supporting children with persistent problem behavior Communication with families to promote involvement Involving families to support social emotional development and addressing problem behavior Strategies to build collaborative teaching with other adults Red Flag items 23-38 Represents issues related to teacher training, support, or program practices Indicated areas for immediate training Scored as yes/no TPOT Practice Activity TPOT Practice Activity TPOT Table Activity Summarize Results Use Teaching Pyramid Observation Tool (TPOT) Summary Strengths Emerging Skills Professional Development needs Challenging Behavior Basic Assumptions Challenging behavior usually has a message- I am bored, I am sad, you hurt my feelings, I need some attention. Children often use challenging behavior when they don’t have the social or communication skills they need to engage in more appropriate interactions. Behavior that persists over time is usually working for the child. We need to focus on teaching children what to do in place of the challenging behavior. Tom Herner (NASDE President, Counterpoint 1998, p.2) “If a child doesn’t know how to read, we teach.” “If a child doesn’t know how to swim, we teach.” “If a child doesn’t know how to multiply, we teach.” “If a child doesn’t know how to drive, we teach.” “If a child doesn’t know how to behave, we……..... ……….teach? ………punish?” “Why can’t we finish the last sentence as automatically as we do the others?” Children who are identified as hard to manage at ages 3 and 4 have a high probability (50:50) of continuing to have difficulties into adolescence (Campbell & Ewing, 1990; Egeland et al., 1990; Fischer, Rolf, Hasazi, & Cummings, 1984). Changing Our View Take the problem away from the child and ask: Why is this behavior happening? What changes can I make to prevent the problem from occurring and teach the child new skills? Understanding Challenging Behaviors Form vs. Function Form What does the behavior look like? Function What is the purpose of the behavior from the child’s perspective? Forms of Challenging Behavior Aggression Tantrum Noncompliance Hitting Scratching Kicking Biting Throwing things Pinching Threatening Screaming Crying Whining Cussing Refuses to respond to a request Passive when a request is made Forms of Challenging Behavior Social Withdrawal Self Injury/ Others? Repetitive Primarily plays Scratching self alone Biting self Hitting self Doesn’t respond Rocking back to peers and forth attempts to play Spinning objects Challenging Behavior Works Children engage in challenging behavior because “it works” for them. Challenging behavior results in the child gaining access to something or someone (i.e., obtain/request) or avoiding something or someone (i.e., escape/protest). Functions of Challenging Behavior Attention Tangible/ Activity Sensory Stimulation Obtain Adult Peer Toys/Items Food Activity Sensory Stimulation Escape Adult Peer Toys/Items Food Activity Sensory Stimulation Behavior Equation Trigger Joey is asked to come to circle. Teacher provides physical prompt to move him to group. Behavior Joey resists, cries, and hits teacher. Maintaining Consequence Teacher moves away from Joey and allows Joey to select a different activity. Setting Event Event that occurs at another time that increases the likelihood the child will have challenging behavior. Setting events serve to “set the child up” to have challenging behavior. Behavior Equation Setting Event Trigger Quan approaches computer and sees child working on program. Behavior Quan moves his picture to indicate that he is next. Quan observes and waits for his turn. Maintaining Consequence Child leaves computer and Quan sits down and begins working. Behavior Equation Setting Event Quan was up most the night with an asthma attack. He arrives at school looking sleepy and with dark circles under his eyes. Trigger Quan approaches computer and sees child working on program. Behavior Maintaining Consequence Quan hits child and pushes his body on the child’s chair. Child leaves computer and Quan sits down and begins working. What is the function? Sevon, a 3 year old hits the teacher and says “no” when give a puzzle to complete. The teacher removes Sevon from the table and places him in a chair away from the group. Franz, a preschooler with Downs Syndrome, cries when the teacher is passing out popcorn and accidentally skips him. The teacher quickly gives him some popcorn. What is the function? Christina, who has autism, rocks back and forth when there is free play in the classroom. The class ignores her. Mary, a 4 year old, “smarts off” to her teacher and the entire class laughs. Kirby, who is 3 years old, runs to the play area when his teacher tells him it is time to sit at the table. The teacher says “no” and brings Kirby back to the table. Observation Vignette Observation Vignette What is the function? Setting Event Trigger Behavior Function: Maintaining Consequence Behavior Incident Report Procedure Complete all areas of the form for each instance of problem behavior using the instructions provided for completing the Behavior Incident Report Behaviors that…… Cause injury to self, or others Cause damage to the physical environment Interfere with learning new skills Socially isolate a child Behavior Incident Report Procedure The BIR is completed for any behavior that is perceived as challenging. Look at the situation in which the behavior occurs Identify and describe the challenging behavior Identify what events, people, activities, are associated with the behavior Share Information Use Bar Graph or other visual to display TPOT Summary results Tabulate BIR’s. Define the behavior Identify factors related to the behavior When, where the behavior occurs Persons the behavior occurs with Activities and time related to the behavior Identify the functions/outcomes for the behavior October Next Steps for TPOT Develop a Professional Development Plan based on the TPOT Summary needs of the teaching team Use the Fidelity Checklist to determine the degree to which interventions are carried out as planned Next Steps for BIR’s – Facilitating the Development of a Positive Behavior Support Plan Learn how to use a team work approach in conducting a functional behavioral assessment, developing a hypothesis, creating a behavior support plan and monitoring outcomes.