Data? –TPOT’s and BIR’s
Why? How Do I Use It?
Annette Hahn
Teaching Pyramid
Consultant/Coach,
Trainer
[email protected]
Objectives
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Understand purposes for use of the
Teaching Pyramid Observation Tool
(TPOT)
Assess how well teachers are
implementing the Teaching Pyramid
model through use of the TPOT
Summarize and evaluate the results of
the TPOT on the TPOT Summary
Objectives
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Understand challenging behavior has
meaning for the child.
Know children use behavior to access
something or someone (obtain/request) or
avoid something or someone
(escape/protest).
Use Behavior Incident Reports to determine
the function or purpose of challenging
behavior.
TPOT
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What is it?
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Used as a way to determine how well
teachers are implementing the pyramid
Meant to be an ongoing tool, not a one
time event
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Can be a pre/post measure
Can supplement other tools (e.g., ECERS…)
The Teaching Pyramid
Individualized
Intensive
Interventions
Social Emotional
Teaching Strategies
Designing Supportive Environments
Building Positive Relationships
CSEFEL
TPOT
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Benchmarks of Quality
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Program-wide adoption of fidelity tool
Identifies strengths and areas for
implementation
Captures growth in fidelity of
implementation
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Using the TPOT
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Observations
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Conducted for a minimum of 2 hours
Must observe centers or free play and at
least one teacher-directed activity
Focus on observation is lead teacher’s
behavior
Interviews
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For those practices that cannot be
observed in a 2-hour observation
Format of the TPOT
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Three types of items
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Environmental items (items 1-7) – yes/no
based on observation
Ratings of practices (items 8-22) – ratings
based on observation and/or teacher
report
Red Flags (items 23-38) – yes/no based on
observation
Environmental Arrangement
Items
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Clear boundaries
Move easily around room
Lack of large open spaces
Adequate number of centers
Materials support play
Preparation of centers
Classroom rules
Items based on observations
and/or teacher report
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Schedules
Transitions
Conversations
Promoting Engagement
Behavior Expectations
Providing Directions
Social Skills
Expressing Emotions
Problem Solving
Friendship Skills
Persistent Problem Behavior
Communication with Families
Involving Families
Relationships with Adults
Items are scored based on
teacher report
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Supporting children with persistent problem
behavior
Communication with families to promote
involvement
Involving families to support social emotional
development and addressing problem
behavior
Strategies to build collaborative teaching with
other adults
Red Flag items 23-38
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Represents issues
related to teacher
training, support, or
program practices
Indicated areas for
immediate training
Scored as yes/no
TPOT Practice Activity
TPOT Practice Activity
TPOT Table Activity
Summarize Results
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Use Teaching Pyramid Observation Tool
(TPOT) Summary
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Strengths
Emerging Skills
Professional Development needs
Challenging Behavior
Basic Assumptions
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Challenging behavior usually has a message- I
am bored, I am sad, you hurt my feelings, I
need some attention.
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Children often use challenging behavior when they
don’t have the social or communication skills they
need to engage in more appropriate interactions.
Behavior that persists over time is usually working
for the child.
We need to focus on teaching children what to do
in place of the challenging behavior.
Tom Herner (NASDE President,
Counterpoint 1998, p.2)
“If a child doesn’t know how to read, we teach.”
“If a child doesn’t know how to swim, we teach.”
“If a child doesn’t know how to multiply, we teach.”
“If a child doesn’t know how to drive, we teach.”
“If a child doesn’t know how to behave, we…….....
……….teach? ………punish?”
“Why can’t we finish the last sentence as automatically
as we do the others?”
Children who are identified as hard to
manage at ages 3 and 4 have a high
probability (50:50) of continuing to have
difficulties into adolescence (Campbell &
Ewing, 1990; Egeland et al., 1990; Fischer,
Rolf, Hasazi, & Cummings, 1984).
Changing Our View
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Take the problem away from the
child and ask:
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Why is this behavior happening?
What changes can I make to
prevent the problem from occurring
and teach the child new skills?
Understanding Challenging
Behaviors
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Form vs. Function
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Form
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What does the behavior look like?
Function
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What is the purpose of the behavior from the
child’s perspective?
Forms of Challenging Behavior
Aggression
Tantrum
Noncompliance
Hitting
Scratching
Kicking
Biting
Throwing things
Pinching
Threatening
Screaming
Crying
Whining
Cussing
Refuses to
respond to a
request
Passive when a
request is made
Forms of Challenging Behavior
Social
Withdrawal
Self Injury/
Others?
Repetitive
Primarily plays
Scratching self
alone
Biting self
Hitting self
Doesn’t respond Rocking back
to peers
and forth
attempts to play Spinning objects
Challenging Behavior Works
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Children engage in challenging behavior
because “it works” for them.
Challenging behavior results in the child
gaining access to something or
someone (i.e., obtain/request) or
avoiding something or someone (i.e.,
escape/protest).
Functions of
Challenging Behavior
Attention
Tangible/
Activity
Sensory
Stimulation
Obtain
Adult
Peer
Toys/Items
Food
Activity
Sensory
Stimulation
Escape
Adult
Peer
Toys/Items
Food
Activity
Sensory
Stimulation
Behavior Equation
Trigger
Joey is asked to
come to circle.
Teacher provides
physical prompt to
move him to
group.
Behavior
Joey resists,
cries, and hits
teacher.
Maintaining
Consequence
Teacher moves
away from Joey
and allows Joey to
select a different
activity.
Setting Event
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Event that occurs at another time that
increases the likelihood the child will
have challenging behavior. Setting
events serve to “set the child up” to
have challenging behavior.
Behavior Equation
Setting
Event
Trigger
Quan
approaches
computer and
sees child
working on
program.
Behavior
Quan moves
his picture to
indicate that
he is next.
Quan
observes and
waits for his
turn.
Maintaining
Consequence
Child leaves
computer and
Quan sits
down and
begins
working.
Behavior Equation
Setting
Event
Quan was up
most the night
with an
asthma attack.
He arrives at
school looking
sleepy and
with dark
circles under
his eyes.
Trigger
Quan
approaches
computer and
sees child
working on
program.
Behavior
Maintaining
Consequence
Quan hits
child and
pushes his
body on the
child’s chair.
Child leaves
computer and
Quan sits down
and begins
working.
What is the function?
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Sevon, a 3 year old hits the teacher and says
“no” when give a puzzle to complete. The
teacher removes Sevon from the table and
places him in a chair away from the group.
Franz, a preschooler with Downs Syndrome,
cries when the teacher is passing out popcorn
and accidentally skips him. The teacher quickly
gives him some popcorn.
What is the function?
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Christina, who has autism, rocks back and
forth when there is free play in the
classroom. The class ignores her.
Mary, a 4 year old, “smarts off” to her
teacher and the entire class laughs.
Kirby, who is 3 years old, runs to the play
area when his teacher tells him it is time to
sit at the table. The teacher says “no” and
brings Kirby back to the table.
Observation Vignette
Observation Vignette
What is the function?
Setting
Event
Trigger
Behavior
Function:
Maintaining
Consequence
Behavior Incident Report
Procedure
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Complete all areas of the form for each
instance of problem behavior using the
instructions provided for completing the
Behavior Incident Report
Behaviors that……
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Cause injury to self, or others
Cause damage to the physical environment
Interfere with learning new skills
Socially isolate a child
Behavior Incident Report
Procedure
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The BIR is completed for any behavior
that is perceived as challenging.
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Look at the situation in which the
behavior occurs
Identify and describe the challenging
behavior
Identify what events, people, activities,
are associated with the behavior
Share Information
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Use Bar Graph or other visual to display TPOT
Summary results
Tabulate BIR’s.
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Define the behavior
Identify factors related to the behavior
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When, where the behavior occurs
Persons the behavior occurs with
Activities and time related to the behavior
Identify the functions/outcomes for the behavior
October
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Next Steps for TPOT
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Develop a Professional Development Plan based
on the TPOT Summary needs of the teaching team
Use the Fidelity Checklist to determine the degree
to which interventions are carried out as planned
Next Steps for BIR’s – Facilitating the
Development of a Positive Behavior Support
Plan
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Learn how to use a team work approach in
conducting a functional behavioral assessment,
developing a hypothesis, creating a behavior
support plan and monitoring outcomes.
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Teaching Pyramid Observation Tool (TPOT) Why and …