Russian Revolution
1900-1905
Anna Ryan, Brendan Wu, Jocelyn Ng & Kailene
Chen
8-6
Describe the land and people of Russia in the 1900’s
Russia’s land is huge. The land was quite useless, only 5%
was used for farming because of the cold climate.
In the 1900’s about 125 million people lived in the Tsar
Nicholas’s empire, less than half were Russians.
Because there were many different types of people
living in Russia they all had their own languages, and
their own customs. People were not evenly spread out
throughout the country; most of the people lived on
the 5% of the land that was good for farming. The
majority of people were peasants (4 of 5). The capital
of Russia was St. Petersburg.
Russian Empire, 1900
Who was Czar Nicholas II? Describe his leadership
style.
Czar Nicholas II was the last Emperor of Russia. He was an
autocrat, which means he does not have to share his power
with anyone. Even thought he didn’t have so share his power,
he hired thousands of civic workers because of the mass
population of Russia. Czar Nicholas did not allow anyone to
question his decisions or challenge his power. His secret police,
the Okhrana censored literature, spied on political groups and
arrested anyone who criticized the government. If workers or
peasants disobeyed the orders or refused to work, the Cossacks
would kill anyone who doesn’t escape. The prisoners he
captured would be sent off to the cold lands of Siberia.
Czar Nicholas II
Cossack
How were the Land and People of Russia Divided by Class
and Wealth?
In the early 20th century, the majority of the Russian people
lived in poverty. Starving and illiterate, many of them
were peasants, not being able to easily own their own
land. The rest were factory workers who worked for
starvation wages in factories in Russia’s major cities.
The tiny Russian upper class was fabulously rich. Although
they exploited them, most the bottom class looked up
upon their rulers. The aristocrats ruled over a massive
lower class with no rights and depended on that
proletarian mass to support their extravagant lifestyles.
Russian Aristrocrat
Russian Peasant
Who was Karl Marx and how did his ideas divide
Russia?
Karl Marx was a German socialist who was considered as
one of the most important socialist of all time.
In his life, he wrote a book called Communist Manifesto
and influenced a Russian man named Lenin to bring a
great revolution to his native Russia. Lenin introduced
the idea of communism to Russia but not everyone
agreed. Different groups including the liberals and the
socialists were formed and Russia split up supporting
Lenin’s idea or not supporting his idea.
Karl Marx
Glossary
Word
Definition
St. Petersburg
Capital of Russia during the 1900’s
Siberia
Northern region where prisoners were sent for hard labor
Autocrat
A monarch who doesn’t have to share power
Cossacks
Mounted soldiers who beak up mobs and kill people
Okhrana
A secret force set up by the Czar who spy, censor, and arrest people who criticize the
government
Karl Marx
A German writer who wrote the Communist Manifesto
Communist
A society in which people work and are paid for their abilities
Liberals
Property owning Russians who are loyal to the Czar
Sources Cited
Information:
Russia in the War and Revolution – Russia 1900-24
Leaders of the Russian Revolution
http://www.encarta.com
From Tsar to Stalin (movie)
Pictures:
http://images.vector-images.com/102/g604_russia_empire.gif
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b1/Hammer_and
_sickle_transparent.svg/604pxHammer_and_sickle_transparent.svg.png
http://www.arco-iris.com/George/images/cossack_nikitin.jpg
http://images.encarta.msn.com/xrefmedia/aencmed/targets/maps/mhi/T0450
91A.gif
http://www.russiannobility.org/images2/Nickolas2.jpg
http://www.reversespins.com/notovich.jpg
http://cache.viewimages.com/xc/3162918.jpg?v=1&c=ViewImages&k=2&d=41
CAE2DF95708CE269B694CC56A9F87EA55A1E4F32AD3138
http://www.corbis.com
1905-1917
Russian Revolution
By:
Avril Koblitz
Jason Woo
Oliver Bech
Stephanie Young
8-6
What was Bloody Sunday and why
did it happen?
January 1905 crowd of 200,000 workers marched to the Tsars Winter
palace in St. Petersburg to petition for better working conditions. The
workers were lead by Father Gapon who was the leader of a the
workers organization, and sympathized with the poor workers. The
workers carried religious icons and pictures of Nicholas to show their
peaceful intent. The authorities were nervous and over reacted by
opening fire on the crowds and killed more than 500 workers, and
injured thousands more. Lenin was happy to hear of this days news of
the breakdown of law and order. This massacre became known as
“Bloody Sunday”.
What changes in the Tsar’s
government followed by Bloody
Sunday
After the events on Bloody Sunday, riots and strikes led by
workers and peasants were persistent. On September
1905, a general strike occurred in the whole country,
making Tsar Nicholas II issue a document called the
October Manifesto in October 1905, declaring the creation
of the Duma, an elected parliament by the people. But the
first 3 Dumas were controlled by the tsar completely. The
Bolshevik leader Lenin watched the whole country going
through these affairs from his exile in Switzerland. Lenin
and his Bolsheviks would later successfully overthrow
autocracy and introduce communism in the country.
How did World War I affect Russia
and the Tsar
Most important was the 15.5 million young men who were
drafted as soldiers and went to war. This more than halved
the number of people available to work in factories. Russia
also depended on trains to supply food and raw material.
But the lack of workers made all the coal mines close. This
caused starvation for a lot of soldiers. Russia’s money also
lost value.
The Tsar slowly lost power and the trust of people during
the war. The people felt abandoned when Tsar Nicholas
left the people to go and help command troops. This left
Alexandra in control of Petrograd. Alexandra was
completely under the influence of Rasputin. The Tsar lost
power after the war during the October Revolution.
What were the causes of the
Feb/March Revolution?
In 1917, protest rallies were organized by socialists. About
385,000 workers went on strike. This caused
transportations and newspapers to be unavailable. Troops
had been sent by the Tsar, but they refused to attack the
strikers. By February 28, all of the Tsar’s troops had
surrendered and his ministers had been arrested. Tsar
Nicholas II had agreed to abdicate and give up his throne
To his brother, Grand Duke Michael.
Vocabulary
Word
Definition
Bloody Sunday March for better working
conditions, ending bloodily
Vladimir Lenin The leader of the Bolshevik and
Marxist
Duma
Elected parliament of the people
October
Document that Tsar issued on
Manifesto
October of 1905
Abdicate
To step down from power
Bolshevik
Member of Russian majority or
socialist party
Bibliography
Information
• “leaders of the
Russian Revolution”
• “Russia in war and
revolution”
• “encarta.com”
Pictures
Corbis.com
Russian Revolution
1917-1918
Class: 8-6
Name: Maura Dentino, Diana Redza,
Jacques Van Anh, Hoi Fung Ma
Who was Alexander Kerensky and what problems
did his Provisional Government face?
When the Tsar’s government fell,
Alexander Kerensky, a young
man raised in the village of
Simbirlse, accepted the post of
Minister of Justice in the newly
established Provisional
Government, which faced many
problems. Many Russians were
upset with the way it handled the
war and many soldiers wanted to
stop fighting. However, Kerensky
wanted to continue fighting in the
war. Many were influenced by the
Soviet and many were formed in
other towns. As the Bolsheviks
gained popularity, Kerensky
became Prime Minister but
shortly after, his government fell.
What were the causes of the Nov/Oct Revolution?
The Provisional Government
took care of Russia until
elections could be held, but were
not confident enough and since
soldiers deserted, they delayed
elections, losing support. Also,
they failed to give the peasants
their land, who then took control
of their farming land, causing
countryside violence which
delayed harvest and started food
shortages. On the other hand,
the Bolsheviks gained support.
Lenin, together with Trotsky and
Stalin, made the slogan: “Peace,
Bread, and Land”, knowing
people wanted all three points.
However, the Provisional
suppressed demonstrations and
arrested a few leading
Bolsheviks, therefore Lenin
started the Bolshevik revolution.
Who was Vladimir Lenin and how did he come to power?
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (Lenin)
was one of Russia’s greatest
historical figures, born on April
20th, 1870. The book Das
Kapital, by Karl Marx influenced
him to fight for communism. He
brought everyone who disliked
the current government type to
bring about a revolution. He
called his allies and himself
Bolsheviks. During their first act
they marched peacefully, yet,
many died. The Bolshevik then
invaded Petrograd’s Winter
Palace which dethroned the king.
He was later elected President of
the Soviet of People’s
Commission because of his
popularity. He also created an
army called the Red Guards.
What immediate actions did Lenin take following
the Oct/Nov Revolution?
After the Oct/Nov revolution, Lenin set up a government called Sovnarkom,
the council of people’s commissars. Being chairman, Lenin had the power
to make many decrees to create a better Russia. The most popular decrees
were backing off from the war with Germany and less work hours for
workers to have rest on Sunday. Lenin made these decrees so Russia can
slowly recover from the political and economical damage the war caused.
The decrees made Lenin extremely popular, turning him into Russia’s hero
but with a price of selling one third of Russia’s population to Germany for
the peace treaty with Germany.
Vocabulary
Word
Definition
Alexander Kerensky
Leader of the Provisional Government
Vladimir Lenin
Leader of the Bolsheviks
Petrograd
Modern-day Moscow
Provisional
providing or serving for the time being only
Red Guards
The army of the Bolsheviks
Treaty
a formal agreement between two or more states
Works Cited
•
•
•
•
•
http://www.encarta.com
http://library.thinkquest.org/C0112205/leading.events.html
Russia in War and Revolution
From Tsar to Stalin (video)
Leaders of the Russian Revolution
Images cited
•http://www.dreamsaddict.com/Orpheus/Images/History/Kerensky.jpg
•http://www.marxists.org/subject/bolsheviks/bolsheviks.jpg
•http://www.flickr.com/photos/sergei1971/2126397038/
•http://library.ulster.ac.uk/images/Karl%20Marx.jpg
•http://www.corbis.com
Russian Revolution
1918-1924
Ciera Rife, William Pettersen
Joey Cheung 8-6
What opposition did Lenin face
during the Civil War? How did he
win the war?
During the Civil War, Vladimir Lenin faced the White Army or the Mensheviks.
The Mensheviks were his biggest opposition. Lenin was the leader of the
radical socialists’ Bolshevik party as well as Trotsky. The Red Army which
Lenin was a part of, gradually started to win the civil war. After the revolution,
Lenin was head of the new Soviet government that formed in Russia. He
became the leader of the USSR upon its founding in 1922. Lenin held the
highest post in the Soviet government until his death in 1924, when Joseph
Stalin assumed power.
Red Army
How did Lenin try to fix Russia’s
Problems following the Civil War?
After the war things were put in to
place with a set of rules called the
War Communism. There was a
revolt of sailors against the War
Communism. The War Communism
was not what the Bolsheviks
promised after the war. So Lenin
decided that there had to be a
change in policy so that there were
no more uprisings. He made the
New Economic Policy (NEP), which
stated that; peasants could sell their
own crops. Peasants that increased
their food production pay less tax.
Factories with less than twenty
workers would not be nationalized,
and people could use money again.
Lenin
Who was Joseph Stalin and how
did he differ from Leon Trotsky?
Following Lenin’s death in 1924, two
of his followers, Stalin and Trotsky,
wanted to succeed to his position and
become the USSR leader. Both
claimed to want equality and change
yet both had different things in mind.
If Trotsky would have come to power,
the ideals of a world wide communist
revolution would unfold. Trotsky
looked not only at the present but also
the future development of
communism. However, Stalin became
Lenin’s successor, betrayed the ideals
of Marxism and replaced the Tsar
with a new dictator. During the “Red
Terror”, Stalin used the Cheka created
and censored an industrialized Soviet
Union yet neglected the reasons for
evolution in the first place, for
equality.
Stalin
Trotsky
Glossary
Word
Definition
Reds
“Bolsheviks” led by Lenin and Trotsky
Whites
“Mensheviks” led by Martov
Cheka
Russian Secret Police
War Communism
Term for the economic and social polices from
RSFSR
New Economic
Policy (NEP)
A policy of temporary economic liberalization in
the USSR
Red Terror
Campaign of terror in RSFS against party and
suspected opponents of Stalin
USSR
Soviet Union
Works Cited
Information
• Russia in War and Revolution - Josh Brooman
• Leaders of the Russian Revolution – Fred
Newman
• www.encarta.com
• From Tzar to Stalin
Pictures
• www.google.com
Russian Revolution
1924-1941
8-6
Horace Hou, Christopher Liu, Manami
Masayama, Simon Wu
What impact did Stalin have on
agriculture and Russia’s farmers?
After Lenin died, the economic
growth started to decline and the
peasants weren’t producing enough
crops. Instead of giving the
peasants economic incentives to
grow crops, Stalin made a policy
that forced them into state-owned
collective farms. Also, he intended
to liquidate the kulaks as a social
class and was sent to another place.
Because his plan required money,
he decided to use up all the
resources he could from the
countryside. This nearly collapsed
the agriculture in the countryside
in Russia and deaths of millions of
peasants from famine.
Russian farmers at work in
a collective game.
What Impact did Stalin have on industry
and Russia’s industrial workers?
Stalin's influence on the industry
and its workers were greatly admired
at the start. Stalin introduced the 5year plan, it was great, the workers
loved it and were excited to start the
task they had. Even tough they had
to increase their production at least
double they still did it. In the first 5year plan Stalin changed the length
and made it shorter by 1 year
because the workers were working
harder than he expected. After the
change the workers were angered
and in the 2nd 5-year plan they
weren't as interested as before.
Promoting the 5 year plan
How did Stalin deal with the
opposition to him or his leadership?
With time, Stalin took control of
party members to know about
everything. Then using his power he
got alliances and purged his
oppositions with his secret police
(NKVD). In the secret police there is
also a organization called Gulag
which is in charge of the slave labor
camps. In 1929 he was the new
leader in Russia. Stalin joined the
Rightists, Trotsky wanted to continue
Lenin’s plan for the New Economic
Policy. Stalin disliked the plans, but
soon got the members respect. Once
he got the respect he voted out
Trotsky. Once he got rid of them he
ended the NEP with the help from
the members.
Their leader Stalin
How did Stalin promote himself and still
maintain his popularity with the Russian
people?
Everyone knew that Stalin was a leader.
They could hardly fail to know it,
because picture and posters of Stalin
was everywhere! His main tool that
made him so popular was his wide use
of propaganda. Every shop displayed his
bust. In offices, factories, and in the
corner of the street was pictures of
Lenin and Stalin. There are also many
Streets, towns, buildings named after
him. The newspapers referred to him as
‘Man of Steel’, ‘Iron Soldier’ and many
other similar names. His name was
mentioned everywhere. It also appeared
in films, plays, poems, stories, and
novels!
A poster of Stalin with
people admiring him
Vocabulary
Vocabulary Word
Definition
Collectives
made of a group of people in a group
Kulak
A wealthy peasant who owns land and hires workers
Famine
Extreme shortage of food, could lead to deaths.
Five-year Plan
A plan for economy or industry in which goals are
set and reached in 5 years.
Gulag
System of forced labor camps in the Soviet Union
Purges
To eliminate politicians or others that are
considered undesirable.
Propaganda
Information that is spread for promoting a cause.
NKVD
Stalin’s secret police organization.
Bibliography
Information
Stalin and the Soviet
Union (Book)
http://encarta.msn.com
Pictures
http://images.google.com
Russian Revolution
1939-1953
Class 8-6
Janita Zhang, Sang Woo Chun & Ryan Moore
Describe Russia’s relationships with
other countries prior to WWII
Before World War II
many countries did not want
to be involved with the USSR.
The Nazi-Soviet pact was
signed by Russia and
Germany to remain neutral in
the event of war and to divide
up territories. In 1941 a
neutrality pact was signed by
Russia and Japan as
insurance in case they would
be attacked. Once Stalin lead
the Comintern, an alliance of
Communist country designed
to make sure they obeyed
Soviet rule, Russia became
really good friends with
several countries including
China.
Signing the Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact
Stalin signing the Nazi-Soviet pact
What impact did WWII have on Russia
and Stalin’s power?
WWII changed the Russian
army’s reputation from an average
army to the superpowers. The
scorched earth policy used by the
Soviet people during the war caused
more death and destruction than ever
before suffered. Stalin instituted a
policy of isolation from the West known
as the Iron Curtain. This prevented
Russians from traveling and involved
rigid censorship therefore limiting the
freedom of the people. In order to
solidify authority, Stalin worked at
building up a feeling of nationalism by
glorifying past heroes.
Even though many groups of
people thought Stalin was a cruel
leader, he is still Russia’s well known
famous leader of all times. He Stalin
solidified Russia thus having part in
what Russia is today.
1941 Joseph Stalin calls for a scorch
earth policy in broadcast.
The Iron Curtain divided up Europe.
What actions did Stalin take following WWII
to rebuild and extend Russia’s power?
To direct task of reconstruction,
Stalin announced a fourth Five-Year Plan
which was that of complete military
armament. Massive amounts of money and
resources were pumped into the defense
industry. Through Stalin, as the head of the
Comintern, directed the Soviet Union from
a backwards country to a first rate industrial
and military power. With all the uproar in
Europe and the thunder heads of war
gathering, Stalin turned his attention
towards modernizing the Red Army. Stalin
ordered one of the largest military build ups
and defensive programs that the world had
ever seen. Under the fourth Five-Year Plan,
Preparations were made by reconstructing
a modern defense industry, military aviation,
an up-to-date navy, civil-defense training for
the whole population.
Stalin modernized the Russian Red Army turning it into
a bigger and stronger army.
Glossary
Word
Comintern
Definition
Nazi-Soviet Pact
An agreement signed August 1939 between Germany
and Russia to remain neutral in the event of war and to
divide up territories. The pact ended when Germany
invaded Russia in 1940.
Neutrality Pact
April 1941, Japanese signed a neutrality pact with the
USSR as insurance against an attack from that direction
if they were to come into conflict with Britain or the US.
When Germany invaded Russia, Japan broke the pact
and joined the West.
Scorched Earth Policy
A policy of destroying crop or buildings, especially by
burning, or of removing anything that might be useful to
an advancing enemy in wartime.
Reconstruction
The reconstruction of the fourth Five-Year Plan put great
emphasis on building up heavy industry and the
transport system, and not much emphasis on consumer
goods.
Iron Curtain
A policy of isolation setup by the USSR after WWII that
involved rigid censorship and restrictions on travel.
An alliance of Communist countries designed to make
sure they obeyed Soviet rule.
Works Cited
Information
Pictures
"MSN Encarta : Online Encyclopedia,
Dictionary, Atlas, and Homework." 2000.
Microsoft. <http://www.encarta.msn.com>.
"Corbis: stock photography and digital
pictures." Corbis Corporation.
<http://www.corbis.com>.
Brooman, Josh. Stalin And The Soviet
Union; The USSR 1924-53. Longman
Twentieth-Century History Series.
"Google Image Search." 2000. Google.
<http://images.google.com/>.
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Russian Revolution 1900-1905