Chapter Twelve
The Noble Profession
What Is a Professional?
There are four generally accepted
features of all professions:
 A specialized body of knowledge
 A rigorous and extended course
of study that leads to licensure
 Training that allows individuals to
make complex decisions often
without the consultation of others
 A set of ethical standards of
A Body of Specialized
 Knowledge
of our content area
 General pedagogical knowledge
 Knowledge of the nature of learning
Course of Study That Leads to
A balanced curriculum of colleges, schools
and departments of education including:
General education courses
Specialty courses in your content area
Professional courses
Education field experiences or internships
Student teaching or clinical experience
Praxis exams
The Ability to Make Autonomous
Teachers make over a thousand decisions in
a typical day, including:
Determining disciplinary strategies
Selecting the appropriate instructional
Explaining an evaluation decision to a parent
And many others!
Ethical Practices
 The
teaching profession embraces a clear
set of ethical practices
 Many of these are outlined by the NEA
and the AFT
The New Accountability: The
Praxis Examinations
 The
Praxis exams were formally
introduced in 1992
 These exams represent a new generation
of teacher assessment
 The exam series has three primary
components – Praxis I, II and III.
Praxis I
Designed to measure your academic skills and
focuses on reading, writing, and mathematics.
 Typically you will take the Praxis I during your
sophomore year
 This exam is administered as a paper and pencil
exam (PPST) or in a computer-based format
 Used as a criterion to formally enter the teacher
education program.
Praxis II
Consists of two components: the PLT and
Specialty Exams
Principles of Learning and Teaching (PLT) assesses your pedagogical knowledge derived from
courses such as Educational Foundations
The Specialty Exam - measures your knowledge of
an area of expertise such as Special Education, or K12 Art. It has a traditional, multiple-choice section
and a “constructed response” component.
Praxis III
This is not an exam, but rather an evaluation of
your performance in the classroom as a teacher.
 You will be evaluated on the basis of criteria that
represent the four domains of practice. These
Organizing Content Knowledge for Student Learning
Creating an environment for Student Learning
Teaching for Student Learning
Teacher Professionalism
Professional Support Networks
for Teachers
 We
have a vast network of professional
organizations at the local, state, regional
and national level
 These networks provide you with
professional information, support,
consultation, comradery, and even job
School Support Staff
Fellow teachers
School Psychologist
Speech and Hearing Therapists
Reading Specialists
Special Education Teachers
School Social Workers
Professional Organizations
 Specialty
Child Centered
Subject Centered
 International
 National teacher organizations and unions
Specialty Organizations: Child
Centered - Examples
 Association
for Childhood Education
International (ACEI)
 National Association for the Education of
Young Children (NAEYC)
 National Middle School Association
 Council for Exceptional Children (CEC)
Specialty Organizations: Subject
Centered - Examples
International Reading Association (IRA)
National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS)
National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE)
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM)
National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)
American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages
American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation
and Dance (AAHPERD)
Music Teachers National Association (MTNA)
National Art Education Association (NAEA)
International Organizations
 Perhaps
the best known of these is Phi
Delta Kappa International (PDK).
 PDK is an “umbrella” organization that
publishes a wide array of professional
Phi Delta Kappan Journal
News, Notes and Quotes
Sponsors grants, awards, workshops,
educational meetings and trips
National Teacher Organizations
and Unions
 There
are two large teacher organizations
NEA (National Teacher organization)
AFT (American Federation of Teachers)
National Education Association
The oldest and largest teacher organization
 Organized as the National Teachers Association
in 1857, it became the NEA in 1886
 Boasts a membership of about 2.3 million
 Encourages students to join the organization
with membership in the student NEA (SEA)
NEA Initiatives
Legislative Action Center - you can read about
current pending legislation that effects
 Publications - NEA Today, Thought & Action,
Higher Education Advocate, The NEA Almanac
of Higher Education, Tomorrow’s Teachers, This
Active Life, Education Statistics
 Events - This section describes upcoming
events, such as the national meeting for the
NEA, state meetings, etc.
NEA Initiatives (Continued)
NEA Read Across America - This project, with
the IRA (International Reading Association) is
celebrated on Dr. Seuss’s birthday. Teachers
and others read aloud to children on this day.
 Help for Parents -Through the NEA website, parents can get ideas on how they
can help their children learn in school.
 Online resource for educators.
NEA – Student Membership
- NEA Today – monthly
newspaper, Tomorrow’s Teachers – annual
magazine for students
 Current research
 Workshops and Conferences
 Leadership training
 Guidance for teaching diverse students
 Opportunities for networking
 Publications
American Federation of Teachers
 The American
Federation of Teachers,
AFT is proud of its status as a labor
 It was founded in 1916 with John Dewey
as the organization’s first official member
 It plays an important role in fighting for
higher wages and better working
conditions for all teachers
AFT Initiatives
 Meetings
and Conferences
 Legislative Action Center - allows you to
link to pending legislation that effects
education and has links to legislators.
 Publications
Inside the AFT
American Educator
Public Service Reporter
American Teacher
AFT Initiatives (Continued)
 The
Parent Page - provides assistance for
parents who want to help their children
with schoolwork and other helpful sites.
 Web Resources & Local Web Sites - links
to resources that are valuable for
 Teacher Salary Survey - gives
comparative information regarding teacher
Professional Folios and
Professional folios and portfolios have become
an important part of the evaluation process.
 The folio is a collection of all the documents,
products and information that demonstrate your
professional development.
 The professional portfolio is a specialized
selection of folio materials that will highlight your
professional development.
Portfolio Contents
 Philosophy
of Education Statement
 Resume
 Photographs
of your school, students,
classroom, projects, etc.
 Lesson Plans (five or more and include
one that uses technology)
 Samples of student work for each lesson
 Reflections on each lesson plan
Portfolio Contents (Continued)
 Student
Teacher Forms: i.e., Student
Teacher Responsibility Sheets, Student
Time Records
 Evaluations of your teaching performance
from your cooperating teacher and college
 Other activities that you participated in
such as faculty meetings, PTA, etc.
 Video tapes of lessons
Creating Your Folio
 Background
and Experiences
 Awards and Recognitions
 Teaching Performance
 Student Outcomes
Life-long Learning
 Professional
development is a long-term
 It involves years of formal education,
clinical experiences (student teaching),
and evaluation of your progress.
 In addition it requires lifelong learning at
the university level, in the classroom and
through the process of self-reflection
through journaling.
Your Professional Journal
 A reflective
journal is both the process and
the product of recording your experiences
and insights.
 Your reflective journal can help you
understand more fully your professional
 As part of your teacher education program
you may be required to begin a reflective
Getting Your First Teaching
 Prepare
your resume and professional
 Attend job fairs offered by your college or
other universities in your area.
 Make contacts in your student teaching
Interviewing Tips
Relax but focus on the interview, write a thank you note
later that evening.
Smile and be polite but don’t gush.
Make eye contact but do not stare at the interviewer.
Shake hands firmly at the beginning and end of the
Be positive about your student teaching experience and
your school, do not criticize or be negative.
Put a positive “spin” on previous experiences and work
Answer all questions in a positive manner.
Interviewing Tips (Continued)
Be prepared to discuss your “philosophy of
education.” Practice you answer and even role
play with a fellow student.
 Be ready to discuss how you would handle
discipline in the classroom. Focus on
“preventative discipline.”
 Understand the important issues in education
such as “phonics” or how you might use
technology for instruction.
 “Think on your feet.” You may be asked a
personal question that you were not expecting.
National Board Certification NBPTS
The pinnacle achievement in our profession is
National Board Certification
 There are five “core propositions” upon which
the overall NBPTS assessment is based
Commitment to students
Knowledge of their subject matter
Effective classroom management skills
Systematic instructional practices
Direct membership in the learning community

Chapter Twelve