XML & varieties, e.g.
By: Shawn Ramdass,
Saji Abraham &
Billy Santamorena
XML & varieties, e.g.
• What is the Origin and the
perspective goals of XML?
• What is the meaning XML?
• What are the Benefits of XML?
• What are the parts that make
XML work?
• What are the different flavors of
• What are some examples of
Origin and Goals
XML was developed by an XML Working Group (originally known as
the SGML Editorial Review Board) formed under the auspices of the
World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) in 1996. It was chaired by Jon
Bosak of Sun Microsystems with the active participation of an XML
Special Interest Group (previously known as the SGML Working
Group) also organized by the W3C. The membership of the XML
Working Group is given in an appendix. Dan Connolly served as the
WG's contact with the W3C.
The design goals for XML are:
XML shall be straightforwardly usable over the Internet.
XML shall support a wide variety of applications.
XML shall be compatible with SGML.
It shall be easy to write programs which process XML documents.
The number of optional features in XML is to be kept to the absolute
minimum, ideally zero.
XML documents should be human-legible and reasonably clear.
The XML design should be prepared quickly.
The design of XML shall be formal and concise.
XML documents shall be easy to create.
Terseness in XML markup is of minimal importance.
This specification, together with associated standards (Unicode and
ISO/IEC 10646 for characters, Internet RFC 1766 for language
identification tags, ISO 639 for language name codes, and ISO 3166
for country name codes), provides all the information necessary to
understand XML Version 1.0 and construct computer programs to
process it.
The meaning of XML
• XML is a meta language, which
is a fancy way of saying that is
a language used to create other
markup languages.
• At this point in the presentation
it may sound like you are
learning another foreign
language, in fact it is a foreign
language if you never heard of
The meaning of XML
• Just as some Americans and Foreigners are
apprehensive about the proliferation of spoken
languages of their native tongue, some web
developers who have yet to use XML are fearful of
its role future of the Web.
• XML is actually the complements of HTML or in
simple words XML is in many ways a parent of
HTML, as opposed to a rival sibling.
• XML is not a replacement to HTML or competitor ,
in fact the best way to compare XML to HTML is to
remember that XML establishes a set of strict rules
that a markup language must follow.
• HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language
• XML stands for eXtensible Markup Language
The Benefits of XML
Platform independent
Unlimited extensibility
Widespread adoption
In fact this all seems to good to be
true, you might say. While no
technology can solve all of our
• XML goes a long way to make
programs easier to integrate with
other programs, and allows a
method of interaction between
The Implementation of
• At this point you should
understand how XML
complements HTML, but you
still don’t know how it works in
practical scenario.
The Parts of XML
The Documentation
Five Commandments of XML
XML Documentation
• An element is used to describe or contain
a piece of information; elements form the
basis of all XML documents.
• The documentation is similar to HTML with
the use of tags, however the tags can be
custom made according to the user.
• Also there is no specific way of viewing
XML as how a HTML uses a Web browser
like internet explorer, netscape, etc.
A typical Example of XML
The Apartment
2. <apartment>
3.<room type=“bedroom”>
4. <furniture type=“dresser”>
<belonging type=“t-shirt”
color=“navy” size=“L”/>
<belonging type=“watch”/>
XML’s Five
1. Tag names are case sensitive
2. Every opening tag must have a
corresponding closing tag
(unless it is abbreviated as an
empty tag)
3. A nested tag pair cannot
overlap another tag
4. Attribute values must appear
within quotes.
5. Every document must have a
Some Examples of XMLbased Language
WML-Web pages for mobile devices
XMLNews-news stories
CDF-Web channels
OSD-descriptions of software
MathML-mathematical equations
RELML-real estate listings
VoxML-voice response scripts
3DML-three dimensional virtual words
VoiceXML-Tellme, and Ascent Technology
www.VoiceXML.org –Tutorial and other information

XML & varieties, e.g. VoiceXML