HCS12 Overview
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Version # : 1.0
Date: 12-March-2002
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product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2001.
8 & 16-Bit Microcontroller
Division
Main Features:
• 16-bit HCS12 CPU
– Upward compatible with HC11/ 12
instruction set
– Interrupt stacking and programmer’s
model identical to HC11/ 12
– 20-bit ALU
– Instruction pipe
– Enhanced indexed addressing
• SIM (System integration module)
– MEBI (Multiplexed External Bus
Interface)
– MMC (Module Mapping Control)
– INT (Interrupt control)
– BKP (Breakpoints)
– BDM (Background Debug Mode)
• Clocks and Reset Generator (CRG)
- low current oscillator, PLL,
reset, clocks, COP watchdog,
Real time interrupt, clock monitoring
• Memory
– Split Gate Flash EEPROM (paged)
– Split Gate EEPROM
(word write, 2 word erase)
– zero wait state RAM
• Peripherals
– Enhanced Serial Communications Interface (SCI)
– Serial Peripheral interface (SPI)
– 1M bit per second, CAN 2.0 A, B msCAN
module (with paged message buffers)
– Universal Serial Bus 2.0 (USB) interface
– Byte Data Link Controller (BDLC)
– Inter-IC Bus (IIC)
– 10-bit Analog-to-Digital Converter
– Standard 8 channel Timer
– Enhanced Capture Timer (ECT)
– PWM module
– Stepper Motor controller
– LCD controller
and more on the way!
• On-chip Voltage Regulator
– 2.25 to 2.75V Digital Supply Voltage generated
using an internal Voltage Regulator
– 4.75V to 5.25V Analog and I/O Supply Voltage
• Technology: 0.25 micron CMOS
– 50 MHz CPU equivalent to 25MHz bus
operation (66/33MHz in design)
HCS12 Technical Training
Module 1 – System Overview, Slide 2
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MC9S12DP256
HCS12 Technical Training
Module 1 – System Overview, Slide 3
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HCS12 Building Blocks
4K
BYTES
EEPROM
12K
SRAM
256K
FLASEEPROM
PWM
8
CHAN
ECT
SCI
8
0
CHAN
SCI
1
Internal Bus
CRG
BKP INT
SPI 2 SPI 1
or
or
PWM PWM SPI 0
CH CH
4-7
0-3
HCS12 CPU
SIM
CM BDM
PLL
ms
CAN
4
or
IIC
ms
CAN
3
ms
CAN
2
ms
CAN
1
ms
CAN
0
or
BDLC
PIM
MMI
VREG
ATD
1
MEBI
PIT
ATD
0
• HCS12 CPU Core
& System
Integration Module
• Support Modules:
Vreg & Clocks and
Reset Generator
• Memories: Flash,
RAM, EEPROM
• Peripherals:
Comms interfaces,
ATD, Timer, etc.
HCS12 Technical Training
Module 1 – System Overview, Slide 4
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HCS12 Documentation
Device User Guide
MC9S12DP256 Device User Guide
(9S12DP256UG/D)
HCS12 V1.5 Core User Guide
(S12CPU15UG/D)
Block User Guides
PIM_9DP256 Block User Guide
(9S12DP256PIMUG/D)
FTS256K Block User Guide
(S12FTS256KUG/D)
EETS4K Block User Guide
(S12EETS4KUG/D)
CRG Block User Guide
(S12CRGUG/D)
ECT_16B8C Block User Guide
(S12ECT16B8CUG/D)
ATD_10B16C Block User Guide
(S12ATD10B16CUG/D)
SCI Block User Guide
(S12SCIUG/D)
SPI Block User Guide
(S12SPIUG/D)
PWM_8B8C Block User Guide
(S12PWM8B8CUG/D)
MSCAN Block User Guide
(S12MSCANUG/D)
VREG Block User Guide
(S12VREGUG/D)
Watch out for the Rev Number of each Guide - there is a list in the Device User Guide of
which rev was appropriate when the device was created.
Click here to learn how to receive up-to-date technical documentation
Useful Engineering Bulletins
EB386
HCS12 D-Family Compatibility Considerations
EB376
A comparison of the MC9S12DP256 (mask set 0K36N) versus the HC12
HCS12 Technical Training
Module 1 – System Overview, Slide 5
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[1Mb]
[6Mb]
[6Mb]
CPU Core
(Programming Model)
HCS12 Technical Training
Module 1 – System Overview, Slide 6
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Core Features (1 of 2)
• HCS12 has identical programmers model to M68HC11/M68HC12
•
•
•
•
•
•
No new registers
•
No changes in interrupt stacking order
•
Muxed and non-muxed external interfaces
Possible to reuse existing software source code
-
Note: timing loops change due to new clock frequency,
-
Byte counts and instruction cycle times.
-
Almost all peripheral drivers will require updating
Performance improvement when using new instructions
Reduced interrupt latency
Increased math speed
Increased performance
•
Instruction Queue data to increase performance
•
Instructions execute faster while remaining deterministic
HCS12 Technical Training
Module 1 – System Overview, Slide 7
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Core Features (2 of 2)
• HC11 instruction set with extra instructions designed with compilers in mind:
• New instructions and addressing modes to support high level languages.*
• Added
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Stack pointer and program counter offset indexed addressing
11 math instructions
Long branch instruction (16 bit offset)
Move instruction (memory to memory)
Min / max functions
Bit manipulations for entire memory map
Exchange / transfer
Table look-up and interpolate function
Looping construct
Fuzzy logic instructions
* MC68HC12 and HCS12 have Identical Instruction Set.
HCS12 Technical Training
Module 1 – System Overview, Slide 8
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HCS12 Programmers Model
68HC11 = 68HC12 = HCS12 Programmers Model
7
5
PPAGE *
0
A
0
7
B
0 8-Bit Accumulators A and B
or 16-Bit Double Accumulator D
15
D
0
15
X
0 Index Register X
15
Y
0 Index Register Y
15
SP
0 Stack Pointer
15
PC
0 Program Counter
7
 Source code compatible
 Identical stack frame
0
S X H I N Z V C Condition Codes Register
 * PPAGE used by CALL &
Return To Call (RTC).
(paged HC(S)12 only)
HC05 / HC08 / HCS12
Carry/Borrow (From MSB)
Overflow
Zero
Negative (MSB = 1)
I-Interrupt Mask
Half Carry (For BCD)
X-Interrupt Mask
STOP Disable
HC08 / HCS12
HCS12 Technical Training
Module 1 – System Overview, Slide 9
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Condition Code Register
S
X
H
I
MASKING BITS
N
Z
V
C
ARITHMETIC BITS
• Reflect results of instruction execution.
S - Disables STOP instruction when set.
C - Carry/Borrow from MSB
unsigned arithmetic
X - Masks XIRQ request when set.
- set by hardware reset, cleared by software.
V - 2's complement overflow indication
signed arithmetic
- set by unmaskable XIRQ
I - Masks interrupt request from all
Z - Zero result
IRQ level sources ( both external and internal )
N - Negative ( follows MS Bit of result )
when set.
- set by unmasked I level request
or unmasked XIRQ
H - Half Carry from bit 3 to bit 4
ADD operations only
HCS12 Technical Training
Module 1 – System Overview, Slide 10
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HCS12 Serial Interface Features
• 2 SCI Interfaces
SCI0
RxD0
TxD0
• Up to 3 SPI interfaces
• SCI is Asynchronous Communication Port
SCI1
RxD0
TxD0
•13-bit break support
• SPI is a Synchronous High Speed Communication Port
• Modular Architecture allows future expansion
SPI0
MISO
MOSI
SCK
SS
SPI1
MISO
MOSI
SCK
SS
SPI2
MISO
MOSI
SCK
SS
• SCI & SPI are similar to MC68HC11 with enhancements
• pins may be configured as general purpose I/O
• Loop mode operation for debugging
• SCI & SPI have single-wire function
D
D
R
S
P
O
R
T
S
HCS12 Technical Training
Module 1 – System Overview, Slide 11
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RxD
TxD
RxD
TxD
MISO
MOSI
SCK
SS
MISO
MOSI
SCK
SS
MISO
MOSI
SCK
SS
MC9S12 Enhanced Capture Timer
• 16-bit main timer with 7-bit Prescaler
• 8 IC/OC channels, 4 IC channels buffered
• 16-Bit modulus Down-Counter with 4-bit prescaler for:
•periodic interrupt time base
•control IC/PA register latch
• 4 8-Bit or 2 16-bit pulse accumulators with 4 8-bit buffer registers
• independent Interrupt sources: 8 IC/OC, Timer OF, 3 PA, MC
• 4 inputs with selectable Delay Counters to filter out spurious signals
load Register
Bus
Clock
Prescaler
16-Bit Free-running
Main Timer
Prescaler
16-Bit Modulo
Down-Counter
0
Pin
Logic
CH1
Reset
COMPARATOR
Delay
Counter
CAP./COM. Register
Pulse Accumulator
Hold Register
Hold Register
HCS12 Technical Training
Module 1 – System Overview, Slide 12
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Control
Bits
New: Port Integration Module PIM
Standardized interface between peripheral
modules and I/O pads for all ports except
A,B,E,K.
Port control function within standard peripheral
modules has been removed
Standard Port features:
User Defined "electrical"
characteristics on a pin by pin basis:
o
SDA
IIC
SDL
RxCAN
CAN4
TxCAN
PortM
RxB
BDLC
TxB
RxCAN CAN0
TxCAN
RxCAN CAN1
TxCAN
RxCAN CAN2
TxCAN
RxCAN CAN3
TxCAN
RxD
TxD
RxD
SCI1 TxD
SDI/MISO
SDO/MOSI
SPI SCK
SS
PortP
PW0
PW1
PW2
PW3
PW4
PW5
PW6
PW7
Inter.L.
PT0
PT1
PT2
PT3
PT4
PT5
PT6
PT7
PP0
PP1
PP2
PP3
PP4
PP5
PP6
PP7
PortS
Timer
PortJ
PM0
PM1
PM2
PM3
PM4
PM5
PM6
PM7
IOC0
IOC1
IOC2
IOC3
IOC4
IOC5
IOC6
IOC7
PWM
PortH
PJ0
PJ1
PJ6
PJ7
Interrupt
Logic
PH0
PH1
PH2
PH3
PH4
PH5
PH6
PH7
PortT
PIM
PS0
PS1
PS2
PS3
PS4
PS5
PS6
PS7
SCI0
– reduced drive
– wired-or mode
– pull-ups /downs*
(* Here certain precautions are taken such as if the CAN
is enabled pull-up is allowed but pull-down is blocked
-> High Flexibility
• Port registers relocatable in
memory map -> High Flexibility
HCS12 Technical Training
Module 1 – System Overview, Slide 13
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)
IIC Features
• Compatible with I2C Bus standard
• Multi-master operation
• Software programmable for one of 256 different serial clock
frequencies
• Software selectable acknowledge bit
• Interrupt driven byte-by-byte data transfer
• Arbitration lost interrupt with automatic mode switching from
master to slave
• Calling address identification interrupt
• Start and stop signal generation/detection
• Repeated start signal generation
• Acknowledge bit generation/detection
• Bus busy detection
• Low power modes support
• Shared with msCAN 4
HCS12 Technical Training
Module 1 – System Overview, Slide 14
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msCAN Bus
Up to 5 msCAN Modules (msCAN)
• 3 Tx message buffers each Automatically
Mapped
• 5 Background Rx Buffers
• Programmable I/O modes
• Maskable interrupts
• Programmable loop-back for self test
operation
• Independent of the transmission medium
(external transceiver is assumed)
• Open network architecture
• Multimaster concept
• High immunity to EMI
• Short latency time for high-priority messages
• Low power sleep mode, with programmable
wake up on bus activity
Note: msCAN 0 is multiplexed with BDLC
msCAN 4 is multiplexed with IIC.
HCS12 Technical Training
Module 1 – System Overview, Slide 15
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BDLC CONTROLLER (J1850)
• SAE J1850 Compatible
• 10.4Kbps VPW bit format
• Digital noise filter
• Collision detection
• Hardware CRC generation & checking
• Receive and Transmit Block mode supported
• Supports 4X receive mode (41.6 Kbps)
• Digital loopback mode
• In-frame Response (IFR) Types 0, 1, 2, and
3 supported
• Power-Saving Stop and Wait modes with Automatic
Wakeup on Network Activity
• Interrupt Generation with Vector Lookup Table
HCS12 Technical Training
Module 1 – System Overview, Slide 16
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Analog to Digital Converter
• 8/10 Bit Resolution.
• 7 usec, 10-Bit Single Conversion Time.
• Sample Buffer Amplifier.
• Programmable Sample Time.
• Left/Right Justified, Signed/Unsigned Result Data.
• External Trigger Control.
• Conversion Completion Interrupt Generation.
• Analog Input Multiplexer for 8 Analog Input Channels.
• Analog/Digital Input Pin Multiplexing.
• 1 to 8 Conversion Sequence Lengths.
• Continuous Conversion Mode.
• Multiple Channel Scans.
HCS12 Technical Training
Module 1 – System Overview, Slide 17
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PWM FEATURES
- 8 INDEPENDENT PWM CHANNELS WITH
PROGRAMMABLE PERIOD AND DUTY CYCLE.
- 8-BIT 8-CHANNELS OR 16-BIT 4-CHANNELS.
- DEDICATED COUNTER FOR EACH CHANNEL.
- FLEXIBLE CLOCK GENERATION
( A, B, SA AND SB ) THAT COVERS WIDE
RANGE OF FREQUENCIES.
- PERIOD AND DUTY CYCLE ARE DOUBLE
BUFFERED.
- ALLOWS FOR IMMEDIATE PWM UPDATE.
- POLARITY IS SOFTWARE SELECTABLE.
- PROGRAMMABLE CENTER OR LEFT-ALIGNED
PWM OUTPUT.
- EMERGENCY SHUT DOWN
HCS12 Technical Training
Module 1 – System Overview, Slide 18
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HCS12 Device Identification
The part ID is located in two 8-bit registers PARTIDH and PARTIDL. The
read-only value is a unique part ID for each revision of the die.
The coding is as follows:
Bit 15-12: Major family identifier
Bit 11-8: Minor family identifier
Bit 7-4: Major mask set revision number including FAB transfers
Bit 3-0: Minor - non full - mask set revision
The device memory sizes are located in two 8-bit registers MEMSIZ0 and
MEMSIZ1.
HCS12 Technical Training
Module 1 – System Overview, Slide 19
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MC9S12 Clocks & Reset Gen (CRG)
EXTAL
CRG
CQC
OSC
PLL
CM
RTI
COP
CGEN
POR
RGEN
XTAL
VDDPLL
XFC
VSSPLL
RESET
Registers&Control
Internal
BusInterface
•Crystal oscillator (OSC)
Colpitts with translated GND (as per HC12D- Family)
or traditional Pierce configurations
•Crystal Monitor (CM)
same as on HC12D-Family
•Clock Quality Checker (CQC)
ensures valid clock for operation
•Phase Locked Loop (PLL)
same as on HC12D-Family
•Self Clock Mode with internal oscillator
•System Clocks Generator (CGEN)
simplified clock chain:
•Core clock = PLLCLK or OSCCLK
•Peripherals clock = PLLCLK/2 or OSCCLK/2 (25%
duty)
•ECLK = PLLCLK/2 or OSCCLK/2 (50% duty)
no Slow Mode Clock
•System Reset Generator (RGEN)
same Reset functionality as on HC12D-Family:
Reset by POR, COP, ext. Reset, Clock Monitor
•Real Time Interrupt (RTI) - slightly different divider chain
•Watchdog (COP) - slightly different divider chain
• LOW POWER OSCILLATOR
• SUPPORTS OPERATION UP TO 33 MHz
HCS12 Technical Training
Module 1 – System Overview, Slide 20
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MC9S12 Low Power Modes:
Power Saving Design Features:
• Low power Oscillator design (Engineered to avoid power-wasting harmonics)
• User Configurable Low Power Peripheral modes
RUN Mode (full operation):
• 65 mA max - However peripherals automatically shut down if not in use
WAIT Mode (CPU sleeping):
• Peripheral modules can be configured in power conservation mode
• 40 mA max with all modules enabled
• 5 mA max with only Real Time interrupt enabled
STOP Mode (All modules stopped - Osc etc):
• 30uA * Typical
Pseudo STOP Mode (All modules stopped):
• 350uA * Typ - However Osc runs in low power mode enabling wake-up as fast as in WAIT mode
*At 27oC.
HCS12 Technical Training
Module 1 – System Overview, Slide 21
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HCS12 Resets
• POR (power-on reset)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Special delayed reset to allow oscillator to stabilize. Does not replace LVI
function.
Thresholds: Releases when Vdd2.5 goes above 2.07V, Active when Vdd2.5
goes below 0.97V.
Clock quality check window is 50K self-clock cycles
If oscillator amplitude and freq. are sufficient for 4096 cycles to be
detected during a quality check window reset is exited using the
XTALclock.
Up to 50 quality check windows can occur if oscillator is slow to start.
After 50 unsuccessful cycles Self Clock Mode is entered.
POR bit can be checked for cause of last reset.
POR bit can only be cleared by software.
HCS12 Technical Training
Module 1 – System Overview, Slide 22
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MC9S12 - System Integrity...
Crystal Monitor Function:
• Detects crystal failure and takes user-specified action - bad clock detect.
Clock Quality Checker:
• Performs a window check on the oscillator to ensure that the MCU only executes
from a stable clock - good clock detect.
•Self Clock Mode:
• Limited operation still possible even with temporary crystal problem
• allows controlled shut-down in event of oscillator failure
• allows for slow start-up of crystal oscillators
Flexible Watchdog:
• Can be used as “windowed w/dog” - (eg refresh only between 75-100% of period)
- further reduces possibility of code run-away
• Independent from PLL (clocked directly from crystal) - secure even if PLL fails
Further Reading:
• AN2201/D: “ Low Battery Cranking Pulse in Automotive Applications”
(This app note shows how the HCS12 and SBC devices can be used together in a cost efficient manner for Automotive conditions).
HCS12 Technical Training
Module 1 – System Overview, Slide 23
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BDM Development Tools
BDM on MC9S12:
• Low cost serial real-time emulation and debug
• Single step, Run, or Trace the application code
• On-chip hardware for multiple breakpoints
• Replaces expensive emulator or bus analyzer
• Works at full operating voltage and frequency range
• Non-intrusive - no cumbersome emulator cables
• In-circuit FLASH programming
HCS12 Technical Training
Module 1 – System Overview, Slide 24
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MC9S12 0.25u Flash - the Best in the Industry:
Highly Flexible Flash:
• 5 volt FLASH - no external charge pump required
• Market-leading Flash Granularity - 512B Flash Erase / 2B Program
- Virtual EEPROM implementation possible for EE extension
• 4 independently programmable Flash Segments
- Can erase one block whilst reading another
High Speed Programming:
• Fast Flash Page Erase - 20ms (512bytes)
• Can program 16 bits in 20us
• Total Program Time for 128K Code down to:
<5 seconds!
(App note AN2204 "Fast NVM Programming for the MC9S12DP256" is now published)
Efficient End Of Line Programming Possible
HCS12 Technical Training
Module 1 – System Overview, Slide 25
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HCS12 Power Supplies
• Vddr:
• Vdd1,2:
• Vddpll:
• Vdda:
• Vrh:
• Vddx:
Supplies regulator and Ports A,B,E,H - connect to 5V
and bypass with 100 nF
Outputs from 2.5V regulator. Supply core - bypass with
47-220 nF depending upon EMC results.
Output from 2.5V regulator. Supplies Osc. and PLL bypass with 22-100 nF
Supply to A/D. Connect to 5V and bypass with 22-100 nF
Reference for A/D. Connect to 5V and bypass with 10 nF
Supply for all ports except those supplied by Vddr.
Connect to 5V and bypass with 47-220 nF. Add 10 uF if
big loads are switched.
HCS12 Technical Training
Module 1 – System Overview, Slide 26
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HCS12 Power Supplies
HCS12 Technical Training
Module 1 – System Overview, Slide 27
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HCS12 Technical Training
Module 1 – System Overview, Slide 28
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