15
Chapter
Basic
Organizational
Communication in
the Internet Age
Dimensions of the
Communication Process
 Interpersonal
Communication
 Organizational Communication
 Communication in the Computerized
Information Age
Communication
Exchange
of information
Transmission of information
Understanding of information
15-2
Figure 15-1
A Perceptual Model of Communication
Sender
Encodes
Ideas or
Thoughts
Receiver
Creates
Message
Transmitted on
medium
Encodes
Ideas or
Thoughts
Creates
Message
Noise
Creates
Meaning
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Decodes
Message
Transmitted on
medium
Creates
Meaning
Decodes
Message
© 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
15-3
Process Barriers to Effective Communication
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
Sender barrier
Encoding barrier
Message barrier
Medium barrier
Decoding barrier
Receiving barrier
Feedback barrier
McGraw-Hill
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15-4
Personal Barriers to Effective Communication
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
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Ability to effectively
communicate
Way people process and
interpret information
Level of interpersonal trust
between people
Stereotypes and prejudice
Egos
Poor listening skills
Neutral tendency to
evaluate or judge a
sender’s message
Inability to listen with
understanding
© 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
15-5
Other Barriers to Effective Communication

Physical barriers the
distance between employees
can interfere with effective
communication

Semantic barriers encoding
and decoding errors—involve
transmitting and receiving
words and symbols—fueled
by the use of jargon and
unnecessary words
McGraw-Hill
© 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
15-7
Table 15-1
Communication Styles
Communication
Style
Description
Nonverbal
Behavior Pattern
Verbal Behavior
Pattern
Assertive
Pushing hard
without attacking;
permits others to
influence
outcome:
expressive and
self-enhancing
without intruding
on others

Good eye
contact
 Comfortable,
but firm posture
 Strong, steady,
and audible
voice
 Facial
expressions
matched to
message
 Appropriately
serious tone
 Selective
interruptions to
ensure
understanding

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Direct and
unambiguous
language
 No attributions
or evaluations of
other’s behavior
 Use of “I”
statements and
cooperative
“we” statements
© 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
15-8
Table 15-1 cont.
Communication Styles
Communication
Style
Description
Nonverbal
Behavior Pattern
Verbal Behavior
Pattern
Aggressive
Taking advantage
of others;
expressive and
self-enhancing at
others’ expense

Glaring eye
contact
 Moving or leaning
too close
 Threatening
gestures
 Loud voice
 Frequent
interruptions

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Swear words and
abusive language
 Attributions and
evaluations of
others’ behavior
 Sexist or racist terms
 Explicit threats or
put-downs
© 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
15-9
Table 15-1 cont.
Communication Styles
Communication
Style
Description
Nonverbal
Behavior Pattern
Verbal Behavior
Pattern
Nonassertive
Encouraging
others to take
advantage of us;
inhibited; selfdenying

Little eye contact
 Downward glances
 Slumped posture
 Constantly shifting
weight
 Wringing hands
 Weak or whiny
voice

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Qualifiers
 Fillers
 Negaters
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15-10
Nonverbal Communication

Nonverbal
Communication
messages sent outside of
written or spoken word

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Experts estimate
65 to 90% of
every conversation
nonverbal
© 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
15-11
Tips on Improving Nonverbal Communication
Skills





Maintaining eye contact
Occasionally nodding the head in
agreement
Smiling and showing animation
Leaning toward the speaker
Speaking at a moderate rate, in a quiet,
assuring tone
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© 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
15-12
Nonverbal Actions to Avoid





Looking away or turning away from
the speaker
Closing your eyes
Using an unpleasant voice tone
Speaking too quickly or too slowly
Yawning excessively
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© 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Active Listening
Receiving
all messages and paying
attention to them
Understanding and remembering
the message
Responding by showing interest
and rephrasing
15-15
Table 15-3
Gender Differences in Communication
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
Men less likely to ask for information or directions
In decision making, women are more likely to
downplay their certainty; men are more likely to
downplay their doubts
Women apologize even when they have done nothing
wrong. Men avoid apologies as signs of weakness or
concession
Women accept blame as a way of smoothing
awkward situations. Men ignore blame and place it
elsewhere
Women temper criticism with positive buffers. Men
give criticism directly
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© 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
15-16
Table 15-3 cont.
Gender Differences in Communication
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
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Women insert unnecessary and unwarranted “thankyou’s” in conversations. Men avoid thanks altogether
Women ask “What do you think?” to build consensus.
Men perceive that question as a sign of incompetence
and lack of confidence
Women give directions in indirect ways
Men usurp (take) ideas stated by women and claim
them as their own. Women allow this process to take
place without protest
Women use softer voice volume to encourage
persuasion and approval. Men use louder voice
volume to attract attention and maintain control
© 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Choosing the proper media
richness – potential informationcarrying capacity of the medium
 Determined by
 Information
Feedback – immediate to slow
 Channel – combined visual/audio to limited visual
 Type – personal or impersonal
 Language source – body, natural, numeric

 Media
differ by
 Information richness
 Demands on sender’s and receiver’s time
 Paper trail
15-18
Hierarchical Communication
Hierarchical Communication exchange of

information between managers and employees

Managers provide five types of
information through downward
communication





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Job instructions
Job rationale
Organizational procedures and practices
Feedback about performance
Indoctrination of goals
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15-19
Hierarchical Communication Cont.

Employees in turn communicate
information about





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Themselves
Co-workers
Problems
Organizational practices and policies
What needs to be done and how to do it
© 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
15-22
Key Terms Associated with Information
Technology

Internet a global network
of computer networks

Intranet an organization’s
private internet that uses
firewalls to block outside
internet users from accessing
confidential information

Extranet an extended
intranet that connects internal
employees with customers,
suppliers, and other strategic
partners
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15-23
E-Mail

Electronic Mail (E-Mail) uses
the internet/intranet to send
computer-generated text and
documents
McGraw-Hill
© 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
15-24
Benefits of Email
1)
2)
3)
4)
Reduces the cost of
distributing information
to a large number of
employees
Increases teamwork
Reduces the cost and
time associated with
print duplication and
paper distribution
Fosters flexibility
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© 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
15-25
More Key Terms Associated with Information
Technology

Video Conferencing uses

Collaborative
Computing uses computer
video and audio links to
connect people at different
locations
software and hardware to link
people across a room or
across the globe
 Telecommuting involves
receiving and sending work
from home to the office by
using the phone and a
computer link
McGraw-Hill
© 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
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