Engaging Families and Family Organizations
Suzanne Bronheim, Ph.D.
National Center for Cultural Competence
Georgetown University Center for Child & Human
Development
Outreach vs Engagement
• Outreach—we have something and we know
something that families need
• Engagement—both we and families have
something and know something that the
other needs
Slide Source:© 20102 - National Center for Cultural Competence
Why bother?
•
•
•
•
Better programs and outcomes
Multiple perspectives
“On-the-ground” input
Everyone learns—in implementing and
improving complex systems we have to learn
our way to solutions
Slide Source:© 20102 - National Center for Cultural Competence
What does engagement look like?
• Family involvement at all levels of the process
– Design (from before the beginning)
– Implementation (families as trainers, staff)
– Evaluation (defining success, determining the best
ways to maximize family input, encouraging other
families to participate)
Slide Source:© 20102 - National Center for Cultural Competence
Poll Question
• How would you describe your current
involvement with families and family
organizations
– A. None
– B. Outreach
– C. Engagement on at least one level (planning,
implementing, evaluating)
– D. Engagement on all levels
Culture
Culture is an integrated pattern of human behavior which includes but is not
limited to:
roles
values
rituals
communication
languages
relationships
courtesies
thought
beliefs
practices
customs
manners of
interacting
expected
behaviors
… of a racial, ethnic, religious, social, or political group; the ability to transmit
the above to succeeding generations; dynamic in nature.
Slide Source: The National Center for Cultural Competence, 2007
Slide Source: National Center For Cultural Competence ©2011
What are we doing now? Poll
• Current mechanisms in the system
– PTIs
– CPRCs
• How are you working with them?
–
–
–
–
A. No ongoing relationship
B. Occasional joint programs/projects
C. Families as co-trainers
D. Joint development of grants, projects with specific goals
and activities defined
– E. Joint implementation of evaluation activities
– F. Joint development of and implementation of evaluation
activities
Slide Source:© 20102 - National Center for Cultural Competence
Poll Question
• My experiences in engaging families and
family organizations has been:
– A. Typically successful, helpful and fulfilling
– B. Sometimes successful, helpful and fulfilling
– C. Rarely successful or helpful and also frustrating
What gets in the way?
• Culture of your organization and staff—values
and beliefs
– This isn’t what I learned in school*
– Experts go to school and get degrees
– System is so complex no one outside can really
understand
– We know what families want and need—it is our
job
– We are doing a great job already
*Source: Essential Allies, Institute for Family Centered Care
Slide Source:© 20102 - National Center for Cultural Competence
What gets in the way?
• Culture of your organization and staff—values
and beliefs
– If we give families a forum, they will make
unreasonable demands.*
– Collaboration takes time and I am already
overwhelmed
– Families, particularly diverse families have enough
to deal with—we shouldn’t burden them*
– PTIs and CPRCs are “on the other side”
*Source: Essential Allies, Institute for Family Centered
Care
Slide Source:© 20102 - National Center for Cultural Competence
What gets in the way?
• Organizational policies and structures
– Rules about payment
– No resources for interpretation and translation
– Requirements for being an expert
– Limits on outsider input
– No food
Slide Source:© 20102 - National Center for Cultural Competence
What gets in the way?
• Culture of family organizations—values and
beliefs
– Collaboration takes time and we are overwhelmed
and underfunded
– What’s the point—they won’t listen anyway
– Not confident about what contribution they can make
– Not clear on what systems wants/needs
– Child’s needs sometime take focus—work flexes
– They just want us as a rubber stamp
Slide Source:© 20102 - National Center for Cultural Competence
What gets in the way?
• Culture (values and beliefs), Needs (language
access) of culturally diverse families
– I should not challenge authority—professionals are above
me
– Experiences of discrimination and bias—I have no power
– Experiences of trauma with government—engagement is
dangerous
– Immigration issues even if documented—keep off the
radar
– Need for language access supports
– Literacy issues in participation
Slide Source:© 20102 - National Center for Cultural Competence
How can we succeed?
• As individuals and within program spend time
reflecting on attitudes and values related to
family engagement—what gets in the way
• Create opportunities to know each other
better
• Start with smaller projects that address
common issues/needs to build trust
Slide Source:© 20102 - National Center for Cultural Competence
How can we succeed?
• Develop policies and structures that support
engagement at all phases—be a champion in
your agency
• Get regular feedback from families about the process
of partnership and the outcomes –services and
supports
Slide Source:© 20102 - National Center for Cultural Competence
How can we succeed?
• Create structures that support successful
partnership
– Provide family members with ways to learn the
system and the issues before bringing them to the
table
– Address literacy and language access needs
– Create committees, task forces that are at least
30% family members—better to be 50%
– Reimburse family/youth for participation
or expenses
Slide Source:© 20102 - National Center for Cultural Competence
How can we succeed?
• In partnership with family organizations develop
specific goals and objectives for engagement
• Identify what you can bring to the partnership
• Learn what your PTI or CPRC can bring
• Develop with them goals for adding knowledge
and skills for you and for them
• Know what they can do that you cannot (e.g.
educating legislators, gathering families for
evaluation efforts, etc.)
Slide Source:© 20102 - National Center for Cultural Competence
Succeeding with culturally diverse
families
– Examine and know own cultural values
– Incorporate ways to learn about family and cultural beliefs,
values and concerns related to the focus of the partnership
– Include cultural considerations in all program
development, program evaluation
– Know natural support networks in community served
Slide Source:© 20102 - National Center for Cultural Competence
Concept of Cultural Brokering
The act of bridging, linking or
mediating between groups or
persons of different cultural
backgrounds for the purpose of
reducing conflict or producing
change (Jezewski, 1990).
Source: Bridging the Cultural Divide: Health Care Settings: The Essential Role of Cultural Broker
Programs, NCCC, 2004
Slide Source:© 2012 - National Center for Cultural Competence
Definition of Cultural Broker
a go-between, one who
advocates on behalf
of another individual of group
(Jezewki & Sotnik, 2001).
Source: Bridging the Cultural Divide: Health Care Settings: The Essential Role of
Cultural Broker Programs, NCCC, 2004
Slide Source:© 2012 - National Center for Cultural Competence
Who is the cultural broker?
liaison
cultural guide
mediator
catalyst for change
Source: Bridging the Cultural Divide: Health Care Settings: The Essential Role of
Cultural Broker Programs, NCCC, 2004
Slide Source:© 2012 - National Center for Cultural Competence
Characteristics & Attributes of a Cultural Broker
trust & respect of the community
knowledge of values, beliefs & health and mental
health practices of cultural groups
understanding of traditional & indigenous wellness
and healing networks in diverse communities
experience navigating health and mental health care
delivery & support systems
Adapted from: Bridging the Cultural Divide: Health Care Settings: The
Essential Role of Cultural Broker Programs, NCCC, 2004
Slide Source:© 2012 - National Center for Cultural Competence
Who can fulfill the role of cultural broker?
Cultural brokers may be any of the
following:
youth
outreach & lay health worker
peer mentor
advocate
community member
administrator
teacher, educator
Adapted from:”Bridging the Cultural Divide: Health Care Settings: The Essential
Role of Cultural Broker Programs, NCCC, 2004
Slide Source:© 2012 - National Center for Cultural Competence
Identifying and Working with Cultural Brokers
• Identify the following in the community:
– Current contacts—individuals
– Current contacts—organizations
– Credibility of contacts
– Potential cultural brokers
– Concerns or issues community may have with
your organization
Slide Source:© 20102 - National Center for Cultural Competence
Questions/Comments
• Contact information:
Suzanne Bronheim
National Center for Cultural Competence
[email protected]
http://nccc.georgetown.edu
Slide Source:© 20102 - National Center for Cultural Competence
Resources Used in Presentation
• Essential Allies: Families as Advisors, Institute
for family-Centered Care
• Bridging the Cultural Divide in Health Care
Settings: The Essential role of Cultural Broker
Programs on the NCCC website
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Reaching out to families from diverse backgrounds