Global Geography (Geog 10)
Geography games
• http://www.sheppardsoftware.com/
India
India
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Population 1.12 billion
Capital: New Delhi
Largest city: Mumbai
Major Cities:
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Bangalore
Delhi
Hyderabad
Kolkata
Mumbai
• India holds two of the world's largest
metropolitan areas.
• Mumbai (formerly Bombay) has over 16
million people and is the world's fifth
largest area
• Calcutta is the tenth largest and has a
population of 12 million.
South Asia - Population
• Densely populated –
more than 7 times the
world average
• 1.6 billion
• ¼ people in the World
India vs. China - Population
• India is projected to overtake China as the
world’s most populous country by 2040
• High growth rate 1.7%
• HIV/AIDS a major wild card
India
• Population: 1 billion
(1/4 of everyone on
planet)
• Only a quarter of
them have access to
clean water
• Half are illiterate
Pre-Monsoon
Post Monsoon
Ganges
• Ganges
Photo credit: Karl Grobl
Photo obtained from: http://www.karlgrobl.com/Ganges/
28 states, 7 territories
States and Territories
• 28 states: Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh,
Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Gujarat,
Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and
Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala,
Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur,
Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Punjab
and Rajasthan.
• 7 union territories: Andaman and Nicobar
Islands, Chandigarh, Dadra, Nagar Haveli,
Daman, Diu, Delhi, Lakshadweep and
Pondicherry.
History of India
• Trade routes
• Vast Empires
• British colony (mid 1800’s – 1947)
– Gandhi
India Today
• World’s 4th largest economy (purchasing
power)
• Problems:
– Poverty and illiteracy
– Malnutrition
– Environmental degradation
Kashmir
Conflict in Kashmir
– 1947 – Creation of the two countries
• Secular, mostly Hindu India
• Muslim nation of Pakistan
– Conflict between Hindus and Muslims in Kashmir
dates back to British rule before partition.
– India and Pakistan are technically still waiting for a
UN decision on where the final border between the
two countries will be.
– Civil war has erupted repeatedly and sporadic fighting
continues along the boundary line. Both India and
Pakistan have nuclear weapons.
Jammu and Kashmir
Languages
• Hindi, Bengali and 13 other (official)
languages, including Telugu, Marathi,
Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam,
Kannada, Oriya, Punjabi, Assamese,
Kashmiri, Sindhi, and Sanskrit.
• Hindustani is widely spoken in the north,
and English is, for the most part, the
language of modern business.
Relgions
• Five major religions
• Hindu (80%), Muslim (13%), others
• Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism
originated here
Slums
• The United Nation's Human Development
Index rates India the third worst in Asia,
just above Bangladesh and Laos; there
are millions of poor living in urban slums.
• Video: Slum Futures (20 min)
Culture
• http://www.mapsofindia.com/culture/indiaculture.html
UNESCO World Heritage Sites
• As of 2007, a total of 851 sites are listed: 660 cultural,
166 natural, and 25 mixed properties, in 142 States
Parties
• A specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert,
monument, building, complex, or city) that has been
nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list
maintained by the international World Heritage
Programme administered by the UNESCO World
Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State Parties
(countries)
• Aims to catalogue, name, and conserve sites of
outstanding cultural or natural importance to the
common heritage of humanity.
UNESCO Sites - India
Cultural
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Agra Fort (1983)
Ajanta Caves (1983)
Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi
(1989)
Champaner-Pavagadh
Archaeological Park (2004)
Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus
(formerly Victoria Terminus)
(2004)
Churches and Convents of Goa
(1986)
Elephanta Caves (1987)
Ellora Caves (1983)
Fatehpur Sikri (1986)
Great Living Chola Temples
(1987)
Group of Monuments at Hampi
(1986)
Group of Monuments at
Mahabalipuram (1984)
Group of Monuments at
Pattadakal (1987)
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Humayun's Tomb, Delhi (1993)
Khajuraho Group of Monuments
(1986)
Mahabodhi Temple Complex at
Bodh Gaya (2002)
Mountain Railways of India
(1999)
Qutb Minar and its Monuments,
Delhi (1993)
Red Fort Complex (2007)
Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka
(2003)
Sun Temple, Konârak (1984)
Taj Mahal (1983)
Natural
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Kaziranga National Park (1985)
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Keoladeo National Park (1985)
Manas Wildlife Sanctuary (1985)
Nanda Devi and Valley of
Flowers National Parks (1988)
Sundarbans National Park
(1987)
The Taj Mahal
• Mausoleum located in
Agra, India, that was
built under Mughal
Emperor Shah Jahan
in memory of his
favorite wife, Mumtaz
Mahal.
• Completed in 1648
Bollywood
• Bombay + Hollywood
• More films than Hollywood
Indian Diaspora
• SE Asians living or born abroad
• Earliest migrations were to eastern Africa
• In the US, citizens and residents of South
Asian origin now form the wealthiest ethnic
group (US census)
• Brain drain
• Many Indians are opposed to diaspora
because of degrading Western influence
on cultures back home
Bangalore (or Bengalūru)
• India’s “Silicon Valley”
• India’s 3rd largest city
• 85% of Indians in the
state of Karnataka do
not have access to a
computer
Outsourcing and Call Centers
• It costs less – $2/hr goes a lot further there
– Labor
– Real estate
– Other costs – warehouse, insurance, etc.
• Less governmental and environmental
restrictions
• There are willing employees – many are
educated
• Downside to US: loss of jobs, decreased pay
and benefits
• Not just manufacturing – computer/services
Outsourcing vs Offshoring
• Short-term contracts with 3rd party
company
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• Moving a business to another country
Benefits to Outsourcing
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Cheaper products
Access to variety of products
Decreased inflation
Businesses have more profits to invest
The Cost of Low Prices
• Ever-cheaper prices have consequences
• We want clean air, clear water, good living
conditions, the best health care in the
world--yet we aren't willing to pay for
anything manufactured under those
restrictions
Caste System
• Ancient system of dividing society into
hereditary, hierarchical categories
• Jati – subcaste or community
– Varna: four main tiers/divisions
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Brahmins – priestly caste
Kshatriyas – warriors and rulers
Vaishyas – landowning farmers and merchants
Sudras – low-status laborers and artisans
– Harijans – so low – no caste (perform tasks no one
else will do)
– Adivasis – also outside caste system – descendents
of region’s ancient original inhabitants
Caste System
• Caste and class not the same
(class=economic status)
• Gandhi (leader during India’s fight for
Independence) began effort to eliminate
untouchability
– India’s constitution now bans caste
discrimination
– Affirmative action program
Video on Caste System
20 minutes
Women in SE Asia
• Status lower than men
– Northwest in Afghanistan across western India and
into Bangladesh
• Most women are in arranged marriage
• Dowry – price paid to husbands family
– Outlawed, but still persists
– Cripples many poor families
• Bride Burning – widower marries again, collects
another dowry
• Female Infanticide – too costly to have
daughters
Improving Women’s Status
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Education
Training
Access to Internet
Radio program in Afghanistan
Organizations
Government – council and parliament
seats reserved for women
Bindi
• Hindu women wear it on
forehead as decoration
• Thought to protect them and
their husbands
• Symbolizes opening of their
“third eye”
• Usually made with vermillion
(mercury)
• Yoga/Aryuvedic principles chakra – thought to prevent the
loss of energy there
• Non- married/non-Hindus now
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Sari
• Long cloth
• Worn wrapped
around and over
shoulder
• Choli – sari blouse
worn underneath
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Human Geography