Everyone is gifted….but some people
never open the package.
• How did humans advance during the Paleolithic era?
Neanderthal Man:
250,000-30,000 years
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Advanced stone tools
Used clothing
Buried dead
Lived in caves
cave art ? (2012)
CroMagnon / modern Man: 35,000- present time
• Sewing
needles,
buttons
• Snug boots;
hooded
parkas, pants
w/ leggings
• Fish hooks &
harpoons
• Bows and
arrows
• Flint tools and
weapons
• Lamps /
animal fat
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Why are the discoveries of Jarmo and Jericho a problem for historians?
Marshland and swamps…
What makes “a way of life” a civilization?
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Writing system
Several cities
Organized economy
Specialization of jobs
Social classes
Legal code
Religion
Art and architecture
Central government
The Assyrian capital at Nineveh
Ashurbanipal
King of Assyria
(669-631 BCE)
Cuneiform tablet
Sir Henry Rawlinson
The Behistun Rock
Cuneiform tablets
Mesopotamia: the rise of civilization
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How did Mesopotamia get its name
How was Mesopotamia transformed around 3000 BC?
Religion was the central force:
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Explained the workings of nature
Eased the fear of death
Justified rules and morality
United people in a common view
Bolstered the authority of rulers
Promoted creativity in art, literature and
science
How did Mesopotamians define the purpose of man’s existence?
• What were the
functions of a
temple priest?
(administrator)
Why did a mood of uncertainty and anxiety pervade the
Mesopotamian psyche?
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Frequent floods and droughts
Windstorms
Invasions
The gods were unpredictable
The Standard of Ur
• King Gudea of
Lagash
C. 2150 bc
• The inscription
describes a temple
dedicated to the
goddess Geshtinanna
• How did King Sargon
earn a place in our
history books?
Third Dynasty of Ur…Ur-Nammu, 2113-2096 BC
The ancient Sumerians were very smart people:
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Cuneiform
Law codes
Literature
Schools
Numbering system
Kiln-dried bricks & pottery
Lunar calendar
Potter’s wheel
The wheel
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The wheelbarrow
Sailboats
Bronze tools and weapons
The plow
Frying pans
Razors
Cosmetic sets
Shepherd’s pipes
harps
Why were King Hammurabi’s law
codes obeyed?
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Mesopotamia: the rise of civilization