Everyone is gifted….but some people never open the package. • How did humans advance during the Paleolithic era? Neanderthal Man: 250,000-30,000 years • • • • • Advanced stone tools Used clothing Buried dead Lived in caves cave art ? (2012) CroMagnon / modern Man: 35,000- present time • Sewing needles, buttons • Snug boots; hooded parkas, pants w/ leggings • Fish hooks & harpoons • Bows and arrows • Flint tools and weapons • Lamps / animal fat • Why are the discoveries of Jarmo and Jericho a problem for historians? Marshland and swamps… What makes “a way of life” a civilization? • • • • • • • • • Writing system Several cities Organized economy Specialization of jobs Social classes Legal code Religion Art and architecture Central government The Assyrian capital at Nineveh Ashurbanipal King of Assyria (669-631 BCE) Cuneiform tablet Sir Henry Rawlinson The Behistun Rock Cuneiform tablets Mesopotamia: the rise of civilization • How did Mesopotamia get its name How was Mesopotamia transformed around 3000 BC? Religion was the central force: • • • • • • Explained the workings of nature Eased the fear of death Justified rules and morality United people in a common view Bolstered the authority of rulers Promoted creativity in art, literature and science How did Mesopotamians define the purpose of man’s existence? • What were the functions of a temple priest? (administrator) Why did a mood of uncertainty and anxiety pervade the Mesopotamian psyche? • • • • Frequent floods and droughts Windstorms Invasions The gods were unpredictable The Standard of Ur • King Gudea of Lagash C. 2150 bc • The inscription describes a temple dedicated to the goddess Geshtinanna • How did King Sargon earn a place in our history books? Third Dynasty of Ur…Ur-Nammu, 2113-2096 BC The ancient Sumerians were very smart people: • • • • • • • • • Cuneiform Law codes Literature Schools Numbering system Kiln-dried bricks & pottery Lunar calendar Potter’s wheel The wheel • • • • • • • • • The wheelbarrow Sailboats Bronze tools and weapons The plow Frying pans Razors Cosmetic sets Shepherd’s pipes harps Why were King Hammurabi’s law codes obeyed?