BACKGROUND TO THE NEW TESTAMENT In Old Testament times, the kings Saul, David, and _____________ ruled over allSolomon twelve tribes of Israel. Then the nation split into the ten-tribe ____________ kingdom of _________ and the southern kingdom Northern Israel of ________, with the tribe of Benjamin absorbed into the tribe of _________. Judah Judah Assyrians The ____________ conquered the northern kingdom and took most of its inhabitants as __________ into Assyria. Exiles Next, the ______________ took control of the Middle East from the Assyrians, conquered theBabylonians _____________ kingdom of Judah, and took most of its inhabitants as exiles into _____________. Southern Babylonia Persians The ___________ then took control from the Babylonians and King ________ Cyrus let exiled peoples, including ______, return to their native lands if they wished. Some Jews did. Others did not. Under the Persians there began the __________________ period, sometimes called “the _________ __________ ________ years”Inter-Testamental because of a _____ Fourhave survived).Hundred in Biblical record (though non-biblical records Silent gap Alexander ______ __________ The Great During this gap, ______________ came from Greece and conquered the Middle East by inflicting successive _________- Macedonia defeats on the __________ at the battles of Granicus (334 B.C.), Issus (333 Persians B.C.) and Arbela (331 B.C.). 400 Years of Prophetic Silence Ezra The Gospels Nehemiah 70 Years 400 Years Haggai Zechariah Malachi John the Baptist from page 24 of Survey of the New Testament, by Paul Benware The Historical Background to the New Testament I. The Political Background A. The Persian Period - 538 B.C. B. The Greek Period - 333 B.C. C. The Egyptian Period – 323 B.C. D. The Syrian Period – 204 B.C. E. The Maccabean and Hasmonean Period – 165 B.C. F. The Roman Period – 63 B.C. to Christ II. The Religious Background A. The Pharisees and Sadducees B. The Scribes C. The Essenes D. The Herodians E. The Zealots F. The Synagogue G. The Sanhedrin H. The Temple Head of Gold (Nebuchadnezzar) BABYLON (605-539 B.C., Daniel 2:37-38) Belly of Bronze GRECOMACEDONIAN (Established by Alexander the Great; 331-168 B.C., Daniel 2:39) The Image of Daniel, Chapter 2 Chest and Arms of Silver MEDO-PERSIAN (Beginning with Cyrus the Great; 539-331 B.C., Daniel 2:32,39) Feet and Toes of Iron and Clay STRONG AND WEAK GOVERNMENTS OF THE ENDTIME (476 A.D. to present; Daniel 2:41) I. The Political Background A. The Persian (Medo-Persian) Period - 538 B.C. The Persian rule over Palestine continued until Alexander the Great and his Greek Cyrus the Great, the first king of Persia empire in 333 B.C. This was the 2nd empire Daniel mentioned by ___________. This means that the Jews were under the Persian rule at Malachi the end of ___________ and remained under them for the first 60 years of the Inter-Testament Period. ________________ Darius II, king of Persia 423 to 405 I. The Political Background B. The Greek (Greco-Macedonian) Period – 333 B.C. 20 Alexander the Great, at ______ years of age, transformed 10 years. He is spoken of by the face of the world in _____ Daniel in his prophecy in Daniel 7:6; Daniel 8:1-7 and 21-23. Alexander's conquests caused the rapid spread Hellenism (Greek culture). This culture permeated life of ___________ everywhere, including Palestine. Greek became the common language; this factor had a significant impact on New Gospel the spread of the _________ of Jesus Christ in ______ Testament ___________times. The 4 Kingdoms of The Greek Empire after 301 B.C. I. The Political Background C. The Egyptian Period - 323 B.C. This was the longest of the six periods in the Inter-Testament Period. The death of Alexander the Great resulted in Judea falling into the hands of the first Ptolemaic ruler, _________ Ptolemy Soter (Ptolemies were the line of Greek kings over Egypt ________). The second Ptolemy (Philadelphus) founded the Alexandrian _______________ library and the famous Septuagint translation of the Old Testament was made from the Hebrew Greek __________ to the __________ during this reign. I. The Political Background D. The Syrian Period - 204 B.C. In 198 B.C. Antiochus III, a Seleucid of Syria, defeated the Ptolemies and drove them back into Egypt. Antiochus IV, or high priest Epiphanes (175-163 B.C.) replaced the Jewish ______ Onias III with Onias’s brother Jason, a Hellenizer who started Greek city. making Jerusalem into a ________ Before launching an invasion of Egypt, Antiochus Ephiphanes replaced his own appointee in the Jewish high priesthood with Meneluas, another Hellenizing Jew, who offered to collect for taxes from his subjects in Palestine. Antiochus higher ______ I. The Political Background E. The Maccabean and Hasmonean Period - 165 B.C. – 63 B.C. One day, a royal agent of Antiochus visited Jerusalem and urged an elderly priest named Mattathias to offer a pig as a sacrifice to the efused Greek gods. Mattathias r_________. When another Jew stepped killed him and the royal agent, forward to comply, Mattathias ________ demolished the altar, and f_____ led to the mountains with his five sons and other sympathizers. Thus, the Maccabean Revolt began ______ in 167 B.C. under the leadership of Mattathias’s family. We call this family the Hasmoneans, after Hasmon, great-grandfather of Mattathias, or the Maccabees (which means “the Hammer”), from the name given to Judas, one of Mattathias’s sons who led the rebels in yrians guerrilla warfare to defeat the S_______. I. The Political Background E. The Maccabean and Hasmonean Period - 165 B.C. – 63 B.C. The Maccabees had enough of the excesses of Antiochus Epiphanes. But, this was not just a war against the Greeks it was a c_____ ________, ivil war; the Jews who were loyal to Judaism were fighting other Jews who had become ellenized and who were siding with the Greeks. H__________ Ultimately, the Maccabees expelled the Syrian troops from Jerusalem regained religious freedom, their citadel in ___________, Temple rededicated the _________, and conquered Palestine. I. The Political Background E. The Maccabean and Hasmonean Period – 165 B.C. 63 B.C. The subsequent history of the Hasmonean dynasty (142-37 B.C) power tells a sad tale of internal strife caused by ambition for _________. The political aims and intrigues of the Hasmoneans alienated split into many of their former supporters, the Hasideans, who _______ the Pharisees and the Essenes. Some of the Essenes produced Dead _____ Sea Scrolls from Qumran. The aristocratic and the _______ politically minded supporters of the Hasmonean priest-kings adducees Roman general became the S___________. Finally, the ________ Pompey subdued Palestine (63 B.C.). Throughout New ominated Palestine. Testament history, then, Roman power d__________ I. The Political Background E. The Roman Period - 63 B.C. to Christ Judea became a province of the Roman Empire. When the Maccabean line ended, Antipater was appointed over Judea ______________ Julius Caesar in 47 B.C. Antipater appointed by _________ _________ erod H_______, his son, governor of Galilee. He was appointed king of murdered almost half of his the Jews by Rome in 40 B.C. He ____________ sons own family including his wife and _______. This was the “Herod born the Great” who was king when our Lord was ________. This is the political background of the Jews during the 400 year period. Antipater prepared the list of seven man-made ancient wonders of the world. The list that was initially prepared in 2 A.D. had included the Walls of Babylon on the seventh position. However, The Lighthouse on the Pharos Island near the Alexandria port gained the seventh position in the list of the ancient Seven Wonders of the World. This Lighthouse was 122 metres (400 feet) tall and the light at the peak was reflected via the convex glass and could be seen by the ships sailing even at a distance of 450 kilometres. The Historical Background to the New Testament II. The Religious Background A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. The Pharisees and Sadducees The Scribes The Essenes The Herodians The Zealots The Synagogue The Sanhedrin The Temple II. The Religious Background A. The Pharisees and Sadducees Moses The Pharisees held that the Oral Law was given orally to _________, prophets and then to the men of to Joshua, to the elders, to the ___________ nterpreters of the the Great Synagogue. The Pharisees were the i____________ Oral Law. The Sadducees rejected all this, holding to only “the law,” meaning the entateuch They denied the spirit world of a _______, ngels P___________. resurrection from the dead (Acts 23:8) while the immortality, and _____________ Pharisees affirmed all of these doctrines. Pharisee means “separatists,” and Sadducees means “righteous ones ______.” II. The Religious Background B. The Scribes Babylonian Captivity, there developed a From the time of the ______________ new line of scribes who were not just transcribers or secretaries _______________, but a new body of men who became the criptures expounders, guardians and teachers of the S___________. They became a distinguished order in the nation. They must be Pharisees distinguished from the priests and the ____________, but this does not mean that they were alike or even together in function. orruption Our Lord denounced the scribes because of their c___________ iousness and outward p___________ (Matthew 23:13-18). II. The Religious Background C. The Essenes The Essenes originated during the days of the Maccabees. igid They were known for their strict, r_______ lifestyle; a lifestyle far more burdensome than the one created by the harisees P__________. Although they aren’t mentioned by name in the the New Testament, some believe that John ______ Baptist ___________ may have had some contact with them. II. The Religious Background D. The Herodians political The Herodians were more of a ___________ party than a religious sect. They accepted Hellenization and desired the political power and worldly benefits that came to loyal erod’s family. Because they both supporters of H________ considered Jesus an enemy, the Herodians united with the Pharisees to bring charges against Him. ____________ II. The Religious Background E. The Zealots The Zealots were Palestinian groups who advocated to ome violently overthrow R_______. They were responsible for a number of revolts in the first century, and it was their activity that brought about the terrible Roman wars of A.D. Jerusalem was destroyed and tens of 66-72 in which _____________ killed thousands of Jews were __________. II. The Religious Background F. The Synagogue Old _____________, Testament There is not a word about synagogues in the ______ but as soon as we start the New Testament we find them everywhere. The Captivity but it seems to have synagogue did not exist before the ___________ originated during that time – when the Jews totally turned away from dolatry i__________. There was no longer a Jewish _________ Temple and they longed for the reading of the Scriptures. This is the way the synagogue came into being. The priestly synagogue was congregational and not _________. The institution of preaching had its beginning in the synagogue. It was from this background that the early Christian church, as organized by the apostles, took its main worship form of __________. The titles given to the New Testament church leaders: Deacons are all carried over from the synagogue. Elders, Bishops, _________ II. The Religious Background G. The Sanhedrin There is another Jewish institution called the Sanhedrin, which in religious New Testament times was the supreme civil and ____________ tribunal of the Jewish nation. It had the idea of a council or governing _____________ body and also included the idea of a court. The Great Sanhedrin was something like a Jewish “supreme court.” It was the Great Sanhedrin that found itself in conflict with Jesus _________. Members attempted to arrest Him on several occasions; they desired to kill Him; they participated in His arrest; they broke their own laws and code of ethics in their trial of Him; Scripture for their actions. and they are held accountable by ___________ II. The Religious Background H. The Temple The Temple was the focal point of Jewish religion and worship blood sacrifices were ___________. This is where the __________ feasts of the Jews were celebrated. made and the _________ Solomon The Temple in Jerusalem was originally built by King ___________. Herod the Great, but The Temple of Christ’s day was rebuilt by ________ Romans it was destroyed in A.D. 70 by the __________. The Herodian Temple complex had 3 courts: the large outer “court of the women Gentiles,” “the court of the _________,” and the “court of Israel.” Israelite women could enter the inner court area, but could not go Israel Levites formed a police force into the court of ________. The _________ to stand guard at the gates and constantly patrol the courts.