Chapter 4 Section 5 Southeast Asia Amanda York & Nina Humphrey Southeast Asia is…. • A place where different cultures have coexisted since the days of the Roman Empire. • Dominant influences: India and China and adapted art from these influences • Coastal areas were Indianized in the first century. • Hindu and Buddhist rulers developed a government called “cult of the godking.” • The king thought himself to be much like a Hindu god. • The king was the main model for society. • Climate is thick with forest, mountains and tropical heat. • Home to widely diverse people. • People speak over 250 dialects and languages. Countries and Art Review Question # 3 • List seven countries in Southeast Asia and a type of art created in each area. – Cambodia- Khmer Art – Laos- Religious Buddhist architecture. – Thailand- Thai potters created cealadon glazes. – Vietnam- Bronze weaponry, bronze utensils and royal objects – Malaysia- Produced distinctive mosques – Indonesia- Cosmic Mountain, Borobudur – Java- Buddhist architecture Dominating religion: Buddhism – Intermixed with Hindu traditions. – All images had a strictly Cambodian facial features. – Ex. (fig. 4-54) Buddha Enthrone, 10th century. Khmer. Bronze. Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth, Texas. • Here Buddha is placed with a creature in which devours and reproduces time • Buddhist Influence affects mostly area of Burma, Thailand. • Declined in Java with the fall of the Shailendras in 856. • Dominated the cultures of Burma, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Thailand and Vietnam. • Chedis is a Buddhist Stupa Thailand… -Buddha is one of the most popular icons – 12th century-art and architecture was a high point. – The first Thai Kingdom originated in the late 1200’s at Sukothai. – Architecture and sculpture ideas came from the Khmers and the Dvaravati kingdom. – Large artwork of Buddha formed with clay, brick, and stucco and then covered with gold leaf. – Thai potters created cealadon glaes. – The covered box, (4-56) is an example of the designs and taste of the traditions of the Thais. – Bangkok was Thai capital in 1782. • Architecture blended Asian and European influences from western nations. • The Royal Palace is a European influence. Thailand Timeline • • C.550 AD-700 AD…Dvaravati Period C.700 AD-100 AD…Hindu-Javanese Style • • 1022 AD-1250 AD…Cambodian 1250 AD-1378 AD…Dominance, Sukhotia Period • 1378 AD-1767 AD…Ayuthia Period Thailand stoneware • Background: covered box. Sawankhaloke kilns, Thailand, 14-15 centuries • Bottom Corner: Thailand stoneware, 15-16 centuries Review Question # 4 • How does the Royal Palace in Bangkok combine the architecture of Thailand and the West? • Ideas about architecture and sculpture came from the Khmers and remnants of the Dvaravati Kingdom. • The Palace shows a European influence in the base, arches, columns and windows. The roof is distinctively Thai. Cambodia – Khmer empire was during the 800’s. – The greatest empire was during 12 & 13th century in now what is called Cambodia. – Each Khmer ruler made his own national temple called a wat. – Wats portray divine images of the ruler and then later served their mausoleums (tomb). – Wats reflect Hindu influence in tall stone towers mounted with sculptures of local religious heroes. – Examples of god-king temples • Angkor Wat (fig. 4-52): built in 1150- Dedicated to Vishnu • Tower Of Bayon, Angkor Thom, 12-13th centuries, Cambodia • Features the head of King Jayavarman VII (fig. 4-53)’ Angkor Wat Cambodia • Located in northeast Cambodia • capital of the Khmer (Cambodian) empire from the 9th to the 15th century AD in the period of the classic ear of Cambodia history Cambodia Timeline • C. 550 BC-150 BC Bronze age • C. 150 BC-600 AD Dong Son Culture Funan (Bronze) • 600 AD -802 AD Early Khmer Style Chen-la • 802 AD-897 AD Koulen • 877 AD-1002 AD First Angkor Period • 1002 AD-1201 AD Second Angkor Period • 1201 AD-1437 AD Siamese Dominance Sack of Angkor Tower of Bayon Temple • Built in the late 12th century to early 13th • Built of sandstone • Detraction possible due to rain, plants, and settlements Review Question #1 • In what modern country was the Khmer empire located? Why did each Khmer ruler construct a wat? • -Cambodia • -Each Khmer ruler constructed a wat to perpetuate themselves and their power and also served as a tomb for when they die. Indonesia – Made up of five main islands – Buddhism reached political height with the Shailendia Kingdom in the 9th century. – 7 wonders of the ancient world in the artificial cosmic-mountain known as Borodudor. • Borobudor – Bass relief carvings, symbolically represent the cosmos » The low levels represent hell and eternal punishment. The images are very grotesque. » The next five layers represent humanity’s adventures » Sculptures show body proportions, and movement of figures. Buddha Enthroned Borobudur •A giant Buddhist monument constructed in the 9th century AD •Located in Indonesia •There is a Buddha in each of the wells at Borobudur that is guarded by bells Review Question # 2 • Describe Borobudur in Java. Why did the Shailendras cover the lower levels of this stupa with dirt ramparts? • - Borobudor – Bass relief carvings, symbolically represent the cosmos » The low levels represent hell and eternal punishment. The images are very grotesque. That’s why they covered them. » The next five layers represent humanity’s adventures » Sculptures show body proportions, and movement of figures. Vietnam, Laos, Malaysia – Vietnam became independent from China, then the Chinese influence carried over to Laos which resulted in Buddhist architecture. – Thail and Lao traditions: • Wat Xieng Thong is an example of culture blends. – In 9th and 15th centuries Islam spread in Malaysia and Indonesia • Mosques were produces – Bronze weaponry, bronze utensils and royal objects. – Musicans played the gamelon: drums, wooden instruments and gongs all made with geometric abstract patterns. – Portuguese, Dutch and British settlers arrived in Southeast Asia in 16th century. • Incorporated western ideas into art and architecture. – British and Dutch funded support for local sultans As a result, they devoted much time reviving traditional art. Wat Xieng Thong • Location: Prabang, Laos • Name means Temple of the Golden City • Build c. 1560 by King Setthathirat Review Question # 5 • What is an Indonesian batik? How is it made? • Artists produced bronze weaponry and printed fabrics. These fabrics are called batik and made from wax stencil dyeing processes. Review Question # 6 • Describe the instruments found in an Indonesian gamelon. • Instruments found in Indonesia are: An orchestra of drums, wooden wind instruments and sets of bronze gongs. All highly ornamented with geometric and curvilinear abstract patterns.