Chapter 4 Section 5
Southeast Asia
Amanda York & Nina Humphrey
Southeast Asia is….
• A place where different cultures have coexisted since the days of the
Roman Empire.
• Dominant influences: India and China and adapted art from these
• Coastal areas were Indianized in the first century.
• Hindu and Buddhist rulers developed a government called “cult of the godking.”
• The king thought himself to be much like a Hindu god.
• The king was the main model for society.
• Climate is thick with forest, mountains and tropical heat.
• Home to widely diverse people.
• People speak over 250 dialects and languages.
Countries and Art
Review Question # 3
List seven countries in Southeast Asia and a
type of art created in each area.
Cambodia- Khmer Art
Laos- Religious Buddhist architecture.
Thailand- Thai potters created cealadon glazes.
Vietnam- Bronze weaponry, bronze utensils and royal objects
Malaysia- Produced distinctive mosques
Indonesia- Cosmic Mountain, Borobudur
Java- Buddhist architecture
Dominating religion: Buddhism
– Intermixed with Hindu traditions.
– All images had a strictly Cambodian facial features.
– Ex. (fig. 4-54) Buddha Enthrone, 10th century.
Khmer. Bronze. Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth,
• Here Buddha is placed with a creature in which
devours and reproduces time
Buddhist Influence affects mostly area of Burma,
Declined in Java with the fall of the Shailendras in 856.
Dominated the cultures of Burma, Sri Lanka,
Cambodia, Thailand and Vietnam.
Chedis is a Buddhist Stupa
-Buddha is one of the most popular icons
– 12th century-art and architecture was a high point.
– The first Thai Kingdom originated in the late 1200’s at Sukothai.
– Architecture and sculpture ideas came from the Khmers and the Dvaravati
– Large artwork of Buddha formed with clay, brick, and stucco and then
covered with gold leaf.
– Thai potters created cealadon glaes.
– The covered box, (4-56) is an example of the designs and taste of the
traditions of the Thais.
– Bangkok was Thai capital in 1782.
• Architecture blended Asian and European influences from western
• The Royal Palace is a European influence.
Thailand Timeline
C.550 AD-700 AD…Dvaravati Period
C.700 AD-100 AD…Hindu-Javanese Style
1022 AD-1250 AD…Cambodian
1250 AD-1378 AD…Dominance, Sukhotia Period
1378 AD-1767 AD…Ayuthia Period
Thailand stoneware
• Background: covered box.
Sawankhaloke kilns, Thailand,
14-15 centuries
• Bottom Corner: Thailand
stoneware, 15-16 centuries
Review Question # 4
How does the Royal Palace in Bangkok combine the
architecture of Thailand and the West?
Ideas about architecture and sculpture came from the Khmers and
remnants of the Dvaravati Kingdom.
The Palace shows a European influence in the base, arches, columns
and windows. The roof is distinctively Thai.
– Khmer empire was during the 800’s.
– The greatest empire was during 12 & 13th century in now what is called
– Each Khmer ruler made his own national temple called a wat.
– Wats portray divine images of the ruler and then later served their
mausoleums (tomb).
– Wats reflect Hindu influence in tall stone towers mounted with sculptures
of local religious heroes.
– Examples of god-king temples
• Angkor Wat (fig. 4-52): built in 1150- Dedicated to Vishnu
• Tower Of Bayon, Angkor Thom, 12-13th centuries, Cambodia
Features the head of King Jayavarman VII (fig. 4-53)’
Angkor Wat Cambodia
• Located in northeast Cambodia
• capital of the Khmer (Cambodian) empire from the 9th to
the 15th century AD in the period of the classic ear of
Cambodia history
Cambodia Timeline
• C. 550 BC-150 BC Bronze age
• C. 150 BC-600 AD Dong Son Culture Funan (Bronze)
• 600 AD -802 AD Early Khmer Style Chen-la
• 802 AD-897 AD Koulen
• 877 AD-1002 AD First Angkor Period
• 1002 AD-1201 AD Second Angkor Period
• 1201 AD-1437 AD Siamese Dominance Sack of Angkor
Tower of Bayon Temple
• Built in the late 12th century to early 13th
• Built of sandstone
• Detraction possible due to rain, plants, and
Review Question #1
In what modern country was the Khmer empire
located? Why did each Khmer ruler construct a wat?
-Each Khmer ruler constructed a wat to perpetuate themselves and
their power and also served as a tomb for when they die.
– Made up of five main islands
– Buddhism reached political height with the Shailendia Kingdom in the 9th
– 7 wonders of the ancient world in the artificial cosmic-mountain known
as Borodudor.
• Borobudor
– Bass relief carvings, symbolically represent the cosmos
» The low levels represent hell and eternal punishment. The
images are very grotesque.
» The next five layers represent humanity’s adventures
» Sculptures show body proportions, and movement of figures.
Buddha Enthroned
•A giant Buddhist monument constructed in the 9th century AD
•Located in Indonesia
•There is a Buddha in each of the wells at Borobudur that is guarded
by bells
Review Question # 2
Describe Borobudur in Java. Why did the
Shailendras cover the lower levels of this stupa
with dirt ramparts?
- Borobudor
– Bass relief carvings, symbolically represent the cosmos
» The low levels represent hell and eternal punishment. The
images are very grotesque. That’s why they covered
» The next five layers represent humanity’s adventures
» Sculptures show body proportions, and movement of figures.
Vietnam, Laos, Malaysia
– Vietnam became independent from China, then the Chinese influence carried
over to Laos which resulted in Buddhist architecture.
– Thail and Lao traditions:
• Wat Xieng Thong is an example of culture blends.
– In 9th and 15th centuries Islam spread in Malaysia and Indonesia
• Mosques were produces
– Bronze weaponry, bronze utensils and royal objects.
– Musicans played the gamelon: drums, wooden instruments and
gongs all made with geometric abstract patterns.
– Portuguese, Dutch and British settlers arrived in Southeast Asia in 16th century.
• Incorporated western ideas into art and architecture.
– British and Dutch funded support for local sultans
 As a result, they devoted much time reviving traditional art.
Wat Xieng Thong
• Location: Prabang, Laos
• Name means Temple of the
Golden City
• Build c. 1560 by King Setthathirat
Review Question # 5
What is an Indonesian batik? How is it made?
Artists produced bronze weaponry and printed fabrics. These fabrics are
called batik and made from wax stencil dyeing processes.
Review Question # 6
Describe the instruments found in an
Indonesian gamelon.
Instruments found in Indonesia are: An orchestra of drums, wooden
wind instruments and sets of bronze gongs. All highly ornamented
with geometric and curvilinear abstract patterns.

Chapter 4 Section 5