Chapter 4 Section 5
Southeast Asia
Amanda York & Nina Humphrey
Southeast Asia is….
• A place where different cultures have coexisted since the days of the
Roman Empire.
• Dominant influences: India and China and adapted art from these
influences
• Coastal areas were Indianized in the first century.
• Hindu and Buddhist rulers developed a government called “cult of the godking.”
• The king thought himself to be much like a Hindu god.
• The king was the main model for society.
• Climate is thick with forest, mountains and tropical heat.
• Home to widely diverse people.
• People speak over 250 dialects and languages.
Countries and Art
Review Question # 3
•
List seven countries in Southeast Asia and a
type of art created in each area.
–
Cambodia- Khmer Art
–
Laos- Religious Buddhist architecture.
–
Thailand- Thai potters created cealadon glazes.
–
Vietnam- Bronze weaponry, bronze utensils and royal objects
–
Malaysia- Produced distinctive mosques
–
Indonesia- Cosmic Mountain, Borobudur
–
Java- Buddhist architecture
Dominating religion: Buddhism
– Intermixed with Hindu traditions.
– All images had a strictly Cambodian facial features.
– Ex. (fig. 4-54) Buddha Enthrone, 10th century.
Khmer. Bronze. Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth,
Texas.
• Here Buddha is placed with a creature in which
devours and reproduces time
•
Buddhist Influence affects mostly area of Burma,
Thailand.
•
Declined in Java with the fall of the Shailendras in 856.
•
Dominated the cultures of Burma, Sri Lanka,
Cambodia, Thailand and Vietnam.
•
Chedis is a Buddhist Stupa
Thailand…
-Buddha is one of the most popular icons
– 12th century-art and architecture was a high point.
– The first Thai Kingdom originated in the late 1200’s at Sukothai.
– Architecture and sculpture ideas came from the Khmers and the Dvaravati
kingdom.
– Large artwork of Buddha formed with clay, brick, and stucco and then
covered with gold leaf.
– Thai potters created cealadon glaes.
– The covered box, (4-56) is an example of the designs and taste of the
traditions of the Thais.
– Bangkok was Thai capital in 1782.
• Architecture blended Asian and European influences from western
nations.
• The Royal Palace is a European influence.
Thailand Timeline
•
•
C.550 AD-700 AD…Dvaravati Period
C.700 AD-100 AD…Hindu-Javanese Style
•
•
1022 AD-1250 AD…Cambodian
1250 AD-1378 AD…Dominance, Sukhotia Period
•
1378 AD-1767 AD…Ayuthia Period
Thailand stoneware
• Background: covered box.
Sawankhaloke kilns, Thailand,
14-15 centuries
• Bottom Corner: Thailand
stoneware, 15-16 centuries
Review Question # 4
•
How does the Royal Palace in Bangkok combine the
architecture of Thailand and the West?
•
Ideas about architecture and sculpture came from the Khmers and
remnants of the Dvaravati Kingdom.
•
The Palace shows a European influence in the base, arches, columns
and windows. The roof is distinctively Thai.
Cambodia
– Khmer empire was during the 800’s.
– The greatest empire was during 12 & 13th century in now what is called
Cambodia.
– Each Khmer ruler made his own national temple called a wat.
– Wats portray divine images of the ruler and then later served their
mausoleums (tomb).
– Wats reflect Hindu influence in tall stone towers mounted with sculptures
of local religious heroes.
– Examples of god-king temples
• Angkor Wat (fig. 4-52): built in 1150- Dedicated to Vishnu
• Tower Of Bayon, Angkor Thom, 12-13th centuries, Cambodia
•
Features the head of King Jayavarman VII (fig. 4-53)’
Angkor Wat Cambodia
• Located in northeast Cambodia
• capital of the Khmer (Cambodian) empire from the 9th to
the 15th century AD in the period of the classic ear of
Cambodia history
Cambodia Timeline
• C. 550 BC-150 BC Bronze age
• C. 150 BC-600 AD Dong Son Culture Funan (Bronze)
• 600 AD -802 AD Early Khmer Style Chen-la
• 802 AD-897 AD Koulen
• 877 AD-1002 AD First Angkor Period
• 1002 AD-1201 AD Second Angkor Period
• 1201 AD-1437 AD Siamese Dominance Sack of Angkor
Tower of Bayon Temple
• Built in the late 12th century to early 13th
• Built of sandstone
• Detraction possible due to rain, plants, and
settlements
Review Question #1
•
In what modern country was the Khmer empire
located? Why did each Khmer ruler construct a wat?
•
-Cambodia
•
-Each Khmer ruler constructed a wat to perpetuate themselves and
their power and also served as a tomb for when they die.
Indonesia
– Made up of five main islands
– Buddhism reached political height with the Shailendia Kingdom in the 9th
century.
– 7 wonders of the ancient world in the artificial cosmic-mountain known
as Borodudor.
• Borobudor
– Bass relief carvings, symbolically represent the cosmos
» The low levels represent hell and eternal punishment. The
images are very grotesque.
» The next five layers represent humanity’s adventures
» Sculptures show body proportions, and movement of figures.
Buddha Enthroned
Borobudur
•A giant Buddhist monument constructed in the 9th century AD
•Located in Indonesia
•There is a Buddha in each of the wells at Borobudur that is guarded
by bells
Review Question # 2
•
Describe Borobudur in Java. Why did the
Shailendras cover the lower levels of this stupa
with dirt ramparts?
•
- Borobudor
– Bass relief carvings, symbolically represent the cosmos
» The low levels represent hell and eternal punishment. The
images are very grotesque. That’s why they covered
them.
» The next five layers represent humanity’s adventures
» Sculptures show body proportions, and movement of figures.
Vietnam, Laos, Malaysia
– Vietnam became independent from China, then the Chinese influence carried
over to Laos which resulted in Buddhist architecture.
– Thail and Lao traditions:
• Wat Xieng Thong is an example of culture blends.
– In 9th and 15th centuries Islam spread in Malaysia and Indonesia
• Mosques were produces
– Bronze weaponry, bronze utensils and royal objects.
– Musicans played the gamelon: drums, wooden instruments and
gongs all made with geometric abstract patterns.
– Portuguese, Dutch and British settlers arrived in Southeast Asia in 16th century.
• Incorporated western ideas into art and architecture.
– British and Dutch funded support for local sultans
 As a result, they devoted much time reviving traditional art.
Wat Xieng Thong
• Location: Prabang, Laos
• Name means Temple of the
Golden City
• Build c. 1560 by King Setthathirat
Review Question # 5
•
What is an Indonesian batik? How is it made?
•
Artists produced bronze weaponry and printed fabrics. These fabrics are
called batik and made from wax stencil dyeing processes.
Review Question # 6
•
Describe the instruments found in an
Indonesian gamelon.
•
Instruments found in Indonesia are: An orchestra of drums, wooden
wind instruments and sets of bronze gongs. All highly ornamented
with geometric and curvilinear abstract patterns.
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Chapter 4 Section 5