British cede Kashmir including
Ladakh to the Hindu Dogras in 1846
Hindu rule in Kashmir continued until Independence in 1947
Ladakh part of India until today
1840-1: Kashmir vs. Tibet War
Dogra invasion of Tibet repulsed;
Tibetans defeated in Ladakh, territory
remains with raja of Kashmir
Maharaja of Kashmir, 1900
British in the Himalayas:
Sahibs Hunt
British Develop Himalayas
Hill stations for monsoon and heat seasons
Western Himalayas:
Shimla, Mussoorie,
Darjeeling, Ooty,
Jammu, Kashmir.
Eastern Himalayas
Darjeeling, Gangtok,
Kurseong, Mirik,
Shillong, Imphal
British Military Recruitment:
Employment of “Hill Men” of India and Nepalese “Gurkhas”
Modern Nepal:
Pan-regional conquests and Final formation after British conflicts
Mughal Influences
Rana Rule: 1846-1950
Autocratic Era: Country closed to outsiders.
No national treasury, only Rana family
holdings. Few efforts to develop
infrastructure, including public schools,
roads, etc.
Aggressive Hindu nationalism, including
Hindu law imposed. Non-Nepali languages
and cultures repressed.
Over 100 Rana Palaces built,
importing Italian architects,
Younghusband Expedition to Lhasa
Massacres, surrender, forced pact to open
roads, telegraph, mail service, Resident in Lhasa
Expedition to Gyantse, and Lhasa,
negotiations with Dalai Lama
In 1642
Persecution of the Nyingmapa sect
in Tibet lead to their leaders
fleeing the country and taking
refuge in Sikkim and Bhutan.
Phuntsog Namgyal, the grandson
of Khye Bumsa is consecrated
as the first Chogyal
Darjeeling separate from Chogyal
as part of British India;
becomes “hill station”, tea
growing area.
Indian Annexation
Darjeeling as Hill Station
in 1616, the Shabdrung Lama
repelled numerous Tibetan
invasions, unified the many
warring regional feudal overlords,
and brought all of Bhutan under
the influence of the Drukpa
Kagyud School.
In 1907, Ugyen Wangchuk was
unanimously elected by all
Regional Governors and the
Central Monastic Body, at the
Punakha Dzong and crowned
"Druk Gyalpo" (literally, precious
ruler of the dragon people). The
present king, the fourth hereditary
monarch, is Druk Gyalpo Jigme
Singye Wangchuk,
Dzong-s as centers of society
Domestic Culture
Recent Issue:
National Development based on “Gross National Happiness”
and the problem of Ethnic/Cultural Nationalism
Responding to new laws requiring proof of
citizenship, national dress [gyo] and
language [dzong-kha], Nepali-speaking
residents fled Bhutan around 1990. Most of
the 100,000 were stripped of land and
denied claims to citizenship and expelled.
As of 2008, most remain in refugee camps in
Nepal, the only country that would grant
Useful recent Bhutanese Movies
NE Himalayas:
Assam and Arunachal Pradesh
Great national Hindu
temple of Kamakhya,
Himalayan Frontier as Region of Uprisings:
Hill people vs. Plains elites
NE Himalayas
Darjeeling and Assam
Gorkhaland State
Secession from India Movement
Media and its opening new vistas
Extreme Poverty and the Challenge
of Community Uplift
Buddhism beyond
ethic and national

PowerPoint Slides - College of the Holy Cross