Biblical Archeology 101 • I finished the Masada virtual tour teaching a couple days ago but as I reviewed it, I thought some of the terminology and concepts might be a bit much without first understanding some basics in Biblical Archeology. Biblical Archeology 101 • So I wrote this teaching yesterday to give a bases for what we’ll be studying about Masada and other archeological sites in Israel. Biblical Archeology 101 • I hope it’ll make it easier to understand and it will also serve as the first teaching in our new Biblical Archeology 101 series which we’ll do after we finish the Talmud 201 series that we’re still working on. Biblical Archeology 101 • The 5 main things we’ll be covering tonight will be… 1. The differences between archeology, paleontology and anthropology. Biblical Archeology 101 2. Various kinds of archeology. 3. What are the “pit” and “tunnel” methods? 4. Who was Captain Charles Warren and what effect did he have on Biblical archeology? 5. What is Hezekiah's tunnel? Biblical Archeology 101 • I don’t want to burst any bubbles but the first thing we want to understand is one can never really fully understand archeology from a teaching or from a book. Biblical Archeology 101 • • It’s something that has to be experienced first hand. No one can ever explain the feeling one gets when one picks up their first shard or an ancient coin… Biblical Archeology 101 • It’s so exhilarating and you’re overcome with feelings of wonder, you wonder did one of the Disciples ever see this article or did someone from the First Church ever use this item etc. Biblical Archeology 101 • • • When you first feel an item as your digging you wonder if you’ve stumbled upon the next greatest find. Usually you haven’t, it’s usually just another ununique piece of pottery. But the possibility is there and it’s very exciting. Biblical Archeology 101 • • • Indiana Jones isn’t realistic archeology. You’re not running from giant boulders and there is no romance at the site. There are a lot of geeks and geekettes, but very little romance. Biblical Archeology 101 • • The other thing is either you love archeology or you don’t. If you enjoy sitting in the dirt with a wheelbarrow and a little brush then archeology is for you. Typical Archeology brush Biblical Archeology 101 • • But that being said, there’s a lot to learn in the classroom before you should ever set foot on a dig (archeological excavation) We use the word “dig” a lot instead of archeological excavation. Biblical Archeology 101 • • From the classroom we learn what to look for and how to dig (technique). We’ll talk more about the how part when we discuss the pit method. Biblical Archeology 101 • • Also there’s a lot of big words, big archeological terms but I’ll try and break them down so they’re easily understood. Before we get to that… Stratigraphy Byzantine Hexateuch Mousterian The differences between archeology, paleontology and anthropology. • • • There’s some confusion with many people concerning what archeology actually is. Often times people think archeology, anthropology and paleontology are the same thing. They do have many, many similarities but there’s also a lot of differences. The differences between archeology, paleontology and anthropology. • • Archaeologists primarily work with human artifacts and objects that have been made by humans as well as working with human remains. Anthropologists work with humans, their cultures, societies, languages, and ways of life, in addition to bones and artifacts. The differences between archeology, paleontology and anthropology. • • Technically, an anthropologist studies all aspects of humanity physical, cultural, and archaeological. The archaeologist has a narrower field, and studies the past by recovering and analyzing artifacts and evidence of a culture. The differences between archeology, paleontology and anthropology. • • • There is a great deal of overlap between those two disciplines. Often times when you’re digging in Israel, you have to play the anthropologist. Sometimes you can’t figure what’s going on at the site unless you do. The differences between archeology, paleontology and anthropology. • • Although some paleontologists study the fossil record of humans paleontology as a whole encompasses all life, from bacteria to whales. Paleontology does not usually deal with artifacts made by humans or human remains. The differences between archeology, paleontology and anthropology. • Simply and generally put… Archaeology does not deal with fossils Paleontology does not deal with human artifacts or remains and anthropology is the study of people’s culture. Various kinds of archeology • Just as there are different kinds of anthropology and paleontology there are also different kinds of archeology. Various kinds of archeology • • • Classical archaeology concerns what Western culture considers the classic civilizations of western Asia, Egypt, and Europe. It’s more centered around philology then some other types of archeology. Philology is the study of ancient texts. Various kinds of archeology • • There’s also prehistoric archeology and historic archeology. historic archaeology is the study of cultures who have written history whereas prehistoric archeology doesn’t study a written history. Various kinds of archeology • Sometimes it is difficult to distinguish the boundary between history and prehistory there’s a lot of overlapping. Various kinds of archeology • There’s also underwater archaeology is another specialization that requires a whole additional body of knowledge… and not just about diving. Various kinds of archeology • It employs specific techniques and methods adapted to the underwater environment, complex machinery and recording systems, various technologies, and also general knowledge of boats and ships even if you are not excavating shipwrecks. Various kinds of archeology • • There’s also archaeozoology, the study of animal remains from archaeological sites. Then of course there’s pseudoarchaeology… a term given to non-scientific accounts based on real or imagined evidence. Various kinds of archeology • • • • The search for Atlantis for example. It could be real but maybe not. Pseudoarchaeologists would also include frauds like Vendal Jones. We’ll be talking about him in the next teaching. Various kinds of archeology • • There’s many other types of archeology but what I’m familiar with is called “Near Eastern Archeology”. Near Eastern Archeology refers generally to the excavation and study of artifacts and material culture of the Near East from antiquity to the recent past. Various kinds of archeology • • Near Eastern archeology includes Biblical archeology and SyroPalestinian archaeology Biblical archeology is any archeology that is connected to the Bible. Various kinds of archeology • Syro-Palestinian archaeology is archeology connected to Israel and the surrounding area. How to start • • Again, there is a lot of overlapping. So how do we do it? How do we know where to dig and how do we start a dig as a Near Eastern Archeologist? How to start • • • There’s many different ways. One is by putting on the hat of the philologist (study of ancient writings). Masada is a perfect example of that. How to start • Yigal Yadin, a famous Israeli archeologist, read about the story of Masada from Josephus and then went there and started digging. Yigal Yadin Born March 1917, died 28 June 1984) How to start • • He took his clues from the text and used it as a road map which led to other discoveries in the area. There’s other digs that used information from writings such as the Bible and found various sites like Jericho. Find some of his books at www.israelexplorationsociety.huji.ac.il How to start • The Dead Sea Scrolls has given Near Eastern archeologists a wealth of information concerning the location of various sites. How to start • • Philology isn’t the only way to find a site. Many sites in Israel can be selected simply by looking at them Megiddo How to start • • Remember we talked about tels. A tel is a site where city after city has been built on top of the previous city. Valley of Megido How to start • • So just by looking at a tel, we know there’s a potential find there. Why aren’t all the tels excavated? How to start • • Costs and red tape. www.antiquities.org.il The Department of Antiquities is already overwhelmed with all the sites already being worked and there are some places in the West Bank where they can’t dig at all because of the Palestinian issue and politics. How to start • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • This is a list of just some of them… Akko - The Maritime Capital of the Crusader Kingdom Apollonia-Arsuf - A Crusader City and Fortress on the Mediterreanean Coast Arad - Canaanite city and Israelite citadel in the Negev Avdat - A Nabatean City in the Negev Banyas - Cult Center of the God Pan Beer Shema - The Church of St. Stephen Be'er Sheva - Prehistoric Dwelling Sites Be'er Sheva - Border of the Kingdom of Judah Beit Alpha - An Ancient Synagogue with a splendid Mosaic Floor Beit She'an - A Biblical City and Scythopolis- A Roman-Byzantine City Beit She'arim - The Jewish necropolis of the Roman Period Beit Shemesh - Biblical city on the border between Judah and Philistia Belvoir - A Crusader Fortress Overlooking the Jordan Valley Bethsaida - Ancient Fishing Village on shore of the Sea of Galilee Byzantine Churches in the Negev Caesarea - from Roman City to Crusader Fortress How to start • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Capernaum - City of Jesus and its Jewish Synagogue The Carmel Caves - Dwellings of Prehistoric Man Cave of the Ereasure - A Hoard of Metal Objects from the Chalcolithic Period The Church of the Seat of Mary (Kathisma) Dan - Biblical City The Eilat Region - Southern Gateway Ein Gedi - An Ancient Oasis Settlement Ein Hatzeva - Fortress on the Border with Edom Ekron - a Philistine City Gamala - Jewish City on the Golan Gezer - A Canaanite City and Royal Solomonic City Golan - A Unique Chalcolithic culture Hamat Gader - Baths of Medicinal Hot Springs Hatzor - "The Head of all those Kingdoms" Herodium - King Herod's Palace-Fortress How to start • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Jericho - The Winter Palace of King Herod Jerusalem - Binyane Ha'uma: A Ceramics Workshop of the Tenth Roman Legion Jerusalem - Burial Sites Jerusalem - The Citadel Jerusalem - City of David Jerusalem - Church of the Holy Sepulcher Jerusalem - Herodian Street Jerusalem - Elaborate buildings of the Mamluk Period Jerusalem - Nea Church and Cardo Jerusalem - Northern Gate of Aelia Capitolina Jerusalem - Silver Plaques Jerusalem - Pomegranate from Solomonic Temple Jerusalem - Umayyad Center and Palaces Jerusalem - The Upper City during the Second Temple Period Jerusalem - Water Systems of Biblical Times Jerusalem - Western Wall and its Tunnels How to start • • • • • • • • • • • • Katzrin - A Village in the Golan Kiryat Sefer - A Synagogue in a Jewish Village of the Second Temple Period Kursi - Christian Monastery Lachish - Royal City of the Kingdom of Judah Masada - Desert Fortress Overlooking the Dead Sea Megiddo - The Solomonic "Chariot City" The Monastery of Martyrius Nahal Refa'im - Canaanite Bronze Age villages near Jerusalem Nebi Samwil - Site of a Biblical Town and a Crusader Fortress The Nimrod Fortress - Muslim Stronghold on Golan Qumran - Center of a Jewish Sect of the Second Temple period and the Dead Sea Scrolls found in Caves nearby Ramat Rahel - A Royal Citadel and a Palace of the Last Kings of Judah Ramla - Arab Capital of the Province of Palestine How to start • • • • • • • • Rogem Hiri The Roman Boat from the Sea of Galilee Sha'ar Hagolan - Neolithic Village Tabgha - Church of the Multiplication of the Loaves and the Fishes Tel Qasile - A Philistine Settlement with a Temple Tiberias - Anchor Church Timna - Valley of the Ancient Copper Mines Yodefat - A Town in Galilee Zippori - Galilee How to start • • • So you can see they have their hands full. Should they still be doing more? Yes, but it’s a government organization so they’re doing pretty good considering. How to start • • So after a site is located, then what? Then the archeologist who is leading the dig has to get all the paperwork filled out and submitted to the Dept of Antiquities and wait for approval. How to start • • Sometimes they get approved, sometimes they don’t again depending on the variables. So now that we understand a little about what archeology is, let’s look at how an actual dig is conducted. Pit Method vs Tunnel Method • • Today we use what is called the pit method. It can be a little pit like this… Pit Method vs Tunnel Method • Or a big pit like this… Pit Method vs Tunnel Method • Or really big like this… Pit Method vs Tunnel Method • Speaking of big…(FYI) Contrary to what one might think, Biblical archeologists generally measure in feet and inches as opposed to using the metric system even though the metric system is the international standard of measurement. Pit Method vs Tunnel Method • • • So we now use this pit method when we dig. It wasn’t always that way. Years ago they use to use the tunnel method. Capt. Charles Warren • • The grandfather of Biblical archeology Capt. Charles Warren used this method in Jerusalem in 1867. Let’s talk about Capt. Charles Warren for a moment. Capt. Charles Warren • • In 1865, British Baroness Angela Coutts went on a pilgrimage to the holy land. It was then she decided to start an organization called the Palestine Exploration Fund Capt. Charles Warren • • When she returned to England, Coutts donated 500 pounds sterling to help establish the organization. She convinced her friend and neighbor “Vicky” to be a sponsor of the new organization. (Vicky, by the way, was none other than Queen Victoria.) Capt. Charles Warren • The goal of the P.E.F. (Palestine Exploration Fund) was to promote research into the archaeology and history, manners and customs, culture, topography, geology and natural sciences of Biblical Palestine and the Near East. Capt. Charles Warren • Two years later, the P.E.F. (Palestine Exploration Fund) sent 27-year-old Lieutenant (later Captain) Charles Warren of the British Royal Engineering Corps to Jerusalem. Capt. Charles Warren • His instructions were to investigate the site of the Temple, the City of David, and the authenticity of the traditional Church of the Holy Sepulcher. Capt. Charles Warren • Warren had previously made a name for himself by scaling and charting the Rock of Gibraltar. Capt. Charles Warren • In February 1867, Warren, and a few others with him took 8 mule-loads of equipment including crowbars, ropes, jacks, handspikes, blocks and wheels, to Jerusalem. Capt. Charles Warren • • At the time, the Ottoman Turks ruled the holy land and holy city. As the firman (permit) to dig had not yet arrived from Constantinople, Warren insisted that the British consul arrange a meeting for him with the pasha (the Turkish ruler of Jerusalem). Capt. Charles Warren • • To the consul’s surprise, Warren convinced the pasha to approve digging around (but not inside) the Haram el-Sharif, (Temple Mount). A Moslem ruler would not allow a non muslim to excavate inside the Haram, containing the Dome of the Rock and the Al Aqsa Mosque. Capt. Charles Warren • • Warren, however, was not deterred. He hired local diggers and at a distance from the outer walls of the Temple Mount, he dug a number of shafts and then began to tunnel towards the Temple area. Capt. Charles Warren • The people of Jerusalem noted he was always underground and nicknamed him “The Mole.” Capt. Charles Warren • At one point, the curious pasha wanted to see what was going on underground, and demanded to be let down the shaft. Capt. Charles Warren • The pasha was slowly lowered on a board attached to two ropes and just before he reached the tunnel leading towards the Temple Mount, expedition members holding the ropes began to yank them. Capt. Charles Warren • The frightened pasha shrieked and begged to be pulled up above ground. Wiping the sweat off his forehead, the pasha congratulated Warren “on his bravery”. Capt. Charles Warren • When the firman finally arrived from Constantinople, Warren was startled to read that the expedition was permitted to dig everywhere, except for Christian and Moslem religious sites. Capt. Charles Warren • • Well, that was exactly where he intended to excavate. Warren decided to wave the firman around and say “I got it,” but be sure to show it to no one. Capt. Charles Warren • For the next few months, he and his team sank shafts around the Temple Mount, digging down through more than 130 feet of rubble to reach bedrock. Capt. Charles Warren • • The task was difficult and dangerous, as the mountain of debris above their heads tended to shift. They had a procession of “lucky escapes,” when falling stones nearly crushed them to death. Capt. Charles Warren • One nineteenth century British historian wrote, “It was Warren who stripped the rubbish from the rocks and showed the glorious temple standing within its walls 1,000 feet long and 200 feet high, of mighty masonry. Capt. Charles Warren • • It was he who laid open the valleys now covered up and hidden; he who opened the secret passages, the ancient aqueducts, the bridge connecting the temple and the town.” However, Warren, in fact, found not the walls of the temple, but the outer retaining walls of the temple platform. Capt. Charles Warren • Warren’s greatest contribution was his suggestion that Jerusalem D.C. (David’s Capital) lay outside the walls of the Old City. Capt. Charles Warren • At that time, everyone believed that the “Old City” was the old city, meaning fortifications from the days of David were located somewhere below the present city walls. Capt. Charles Warren • However, at the bottom of one of Warren’s shafts outside the south-eastern corner of the Temple Mount, Warren found the remains of a massive city wall that was leading southwards, away from the walls of the Old City. “Warren’s Shaft” Capt. Charles Warren • As Warren tunneled alongside this wall for some 700 feet, he noted that it went way beyond the limits of the city. Capt. Charles Warren • The wall itself later proved to be fifth century AD, but the possibility, never before considered, arose that the earlier city could have been located south of the Temple Mount and the city walls, close to the city’s source of water… the Gihon Spring. Capt. Charles Warren • At the end of October 1867, Warren and his team explored a manmade tunnel (not an archeological tunnel), leading away from the Gihon Spring. Capt. Charles Warren • Warren recorded in his journal that in the beginning it was easy walking until they reached 600 feet into the tunnel. Then they began crawling on all fours. Capt. Charles Warren • • • As they saw bits of cabbagestalks floating by, they realized that the waters had started to rise. Warren described himself with a pencil, compass and field book in his hands, and the candle for the most part in his mouth. He and an associate with him had just 4 inches breathing space. Capt. Charles Warren • • At 900 feet into the tunnel, they discovered false turns and began to go in a zigzag direction. When they came out shivering, it was dark. They had been nearly four hours in the water. Capt. Charles Warren • • Since then this tunnel has been cleared out and thousands of tourists go through it every year. It is called Hezekiah's tunnel. It is 1,750 feet long and built in 701 BC Hezekiah's tunnel • • We read about it in 2 Kings 20 20And the rest of the acts of Hezekiah, and all his might, and how he made a pool, and a conduit (tunnel), and brought water into the city, are they not written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah? Hezekiah's tunnel • • We take all of our tours through the tunnel, it’s a lot of fun. Here’s what some people have written about it…. Hezekiah's tunnel • “An adventure that you will never forget! The historical significance, the unbelievable engineering as well as the fact that this tunnel still has water flowing through it after 2700 years makes this an amazing place. A must see if you are in Jerusalem.” Marty Hezekiah's tunnel • • • The most uplifting experience you'll go on in your life time! Moshe Even kids like it this was written by a 13 year old.… Amazing! Went with a group...We had so much fun!! We sang all the way. It was so cool to be in a place that was so old. You should not go if you are claustrophobic in the slightest bit!! It is very small in some areas and the water is a little chilly! I WOULD DEFINITLY RECOMMEND IT! Here’s some pics and diagrams of Hezekiah’s tunnel… Hezekiah's tunnel Hezekiah's tunnel Gihon spring Hezekiah's tunnel Pool of Siloam Hezekiah's tunnel Hezekiah's Tunnel Hezekiah's tunnel Hezekiah's Tunnel Hezekiah's tunnel When you get about half way through the tunnel there is a copy of an ancient inscription that is found there. It says… “When the tunnel was driven through. And this was the way in which it was cut through: With axe, each man toward his fellow, and while there were still three cubits to be cut through, there was heard the voice of a man calling to his fellows, for there was an overlap in the rock on the right and on the left. And when the tunnel was driven through, the quarrymen hewed the rock, each man toward his fellow, axe against axe; and the water flowed from the spring toward the reservoir for 1200 cubits, and the height of the rock above the heads of the quarrymen was 100 cubits.” Hezekiah's tunnel Let’s watch a clip on Hezekiah's Tunnel. Hezekiah's tunnel • • Again, there’s a lot of tunnels below Jerusalem. Let’s look at a quick clip of one of these tunnels that was found in 2007. Hezekiah's tunnel • • Why do we need to know about all these tunnels? Because if you don’t know where these tunnels are you may start a dig and then fall through! Hezekiah's tunnel 1. So now you know some of the differences between archeology, paleontology and anthropology. Hezekiah's tunnel 2. You know there’s various kinds of archeology. 3. You know the difference between the “pit” and “tunnel” methods. 4. You know who was Captain Charles Warren and what effect he had on Biblical Archeology. 5. You know what Hezekiah's tunnel is.