Praise Chapel Puget Sound
A Walk Through the Bible
Lesson 11
The Major Prophets
With Bro. Bill Parker Sr.
The “Major” Prophets
• Isaiah
– The Messianic Prophet
• Jeremiah
– The Divine Judgment Upon the Nation(s)
• Ezekiel
– The Coming Restoration
• Daniel
– The Times of the Gentiles
The Southern Kingdom
2nd Kings & 2 Chronicles
Jehoram
8
Ahaziah
1
Athaliah
6
Joash
40
Amaziah
29
Uzziah
52
2nd Kings
Jehoram
Jehu
Major
Prophets
Isaiah
Jeremiah
Ezekiel
Daniel
Jotham
Ahaz
Hezekiah
Manasseh
Amon
Josiah
Jehoahaz
Jehoiakim
Jehoiakin
Zedekiah
16
Isaiah
16
29
55
2
31
Jeremiah
(3 mos)
11
(3 mos)
11
Babylonian Captivity
The Northern Kingdom
Daniel
Ezekiel
Jehoahaz
Jehoash
Jeroboam II
Zechariah
Shallum
Menahem
Pekahiah
Pekah
Hoshea
12
28
17
16
41
½
(1 mo)
10
2
20
9
Elisha
The Prophet Isaiah
The Messianic Prophet
• Quoted in the NT more than any other
prophet
• Style loftier than Shakespeare, Milton, or
Homer
• One of the greatest discoveries of the
Dead Sea Scrolls was a complete copy
of the Book of Isaiah.
The Shadow of Assyria
• For 150 years, Assyria on the rise
– Isaiah witnessed
• deportation of Northern Kingdom
• ruin of entire nation, except for Jerusalem
• 701 BC: Assyrians stopped at the walls of
Jerusalem by an angel of God
• Sennacherib, King of Assyria, (even 20 years
later) never again came against Jerusalem
Overview
Principal Messages
• Judgment for lack of loyalty, sin
• Coming Restoration (Nevertheless)
• Coming Messiah through House of David
Stylistic Peculiarities
– Telescoping Perspectives
• Dynamic “focal lengths”: near & distant
• Double References
– Incidental insights en route
Highlights
• Messianic Prophecies
– (exceeded only by Psalms)
• Vision of the Throne of God
• The Incarnation
• The Doom of Babylon
•
•
•
•
•
•
The Fall of Lucifer
Letter to Cyrus
The Messiah and His Atonement
The Second Coming
The Millennium
Addendum: Two Isaiahs?
6
7, 9
13, 14
14
45
53
63
65, 66
A Plot against the Throne
• Rezin, King of Syria, and Pekah, King of
Israel, mounted an expedition to depose
Ahaz and place a “Son of Tabeal” on the
throne of Judah.
• This was an attempt to make a full end
of the House of David
• It would not “come to pass.” Isaiah 7:7
A Sign to the House of David
Ask thee a sign of the LORD thy God; ask it
either in the depth, or in the height above.
But Ahaz said, I will not ask, neither will I tempt
the LORD.
And he said, Hear ye now, O house of David; Is
it a small thing for you to weary men, but will
ye weary my God also?
Therefore the Lord himself shall give you a sign;
Behold, [the] virgin shall conceive, and bear a
son, and shall call his name Immanuel.
Isaiah 7:11-14
The Supernatural King
For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given:
and the government shall be upon his shoulder:
and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor,
The mighty God, The everlasting Father,
The Prince of Peace.
Of the increase of his government and peace there
shall be no end, upon the throne of David,
and upon his kingdom, to order it, and to establish it
with judgment and with justice from henceforth even
for ever. The zeal of the LORD of hosts will perform
this.
Isaiah 9:6, 7
Isaiah 53
13 Behold, my servant shall deal prudently, he shall be exalted
and extolled, and be very high.
14 As many were astonished at thee; his visage was so marred
more than any man, and his form more than the sons of men:
15 So shall he sprinkle many nations; the kings shall shut their
mouths at him: for that which had not been told them shall
they see; and that which they had not heard shall they
consider.
Isaiah 52:13-15
1 Who hath believed our report? and to whom is the arm of the
LORD revealed?
2 For he shall grow up before him as a tender plant, and as a
root out of a dry ground: he hath no form nor comeliness; and
when we shall see him, there is no beauty that we should
desire him.
Isaiah 53:1
Isaiah 53
3 He is despised and rejected of men; a man of sorrows, and
acquainted with grief: and we hid as it were our faces from
him; he was despised, and we esteemed him not.
4 Surely he hath borne our griefs, and carried our sorrows: yet
we did esteem him stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted.
5 But he was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised
for our iniquities: the chastisement of our peace was upon
him; and with his stripes we are healed.
6 All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned every
one to his own way; and the LORD hath laid on him the
iniquity of us all.
Isaiah 53
3 He is despised and rejected of men; a man of sorrows, and
acquainted with grief: and we hid as it were our faces from
him; he was despised, and we esteemed him not.
4 Surely he hath borne our griefs, and carried our sorrows: yet
we did esteem him stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted.
5 But he was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised
for our iniquities: the chastisement of our peace was upon
him; and with his stripes we are healed.
6 All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned every
one to his own way; and the LORD hath laid on him the
iniquity of us all.
Isaiah 53
7 He was oppressed, and he was afflicted, yet he opened not
his mouth: he is brought as a lamb to the slaughter, and as a
sheep before her shearers is dumb, so he openeth not his
mouth.
8 He was taken from prison and from judgment: and who shall
declare his generation? for he was cut off out of the land of
the living: for the transgression of my people was he stricken.
9 And he made his grave with the wicked, and with the rich in
his death; because he had done no violence, neither was any
deceit in his mouth.
Isaiah 53
10 Yet it pleased the LORD to bruise him; he hath put him to
grief: when thou shalt make his soul an offering for sin, he
shall see his seed, he shall prolong his days, and the
pleasure of the LORD shall prosper in his hand.
11 He shall see of the travail of his soul, and shall be satisfied:
by his knowledge shall my righteous servant justify many; for
he shall bear their iniquities.
12 Therefore will I divide him a portion with the great, and he
shall divide the spoil with the strong; because he hath poured
out his soul unto death: and he was numbered with the
transgressors; and he bare the sin of many, and made
intercession for the transgressors.
12 Key Points
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Comes in absolute lowliness: “a root out of a dry ground”
He was “Despised and rejected of men”
Suffered for sins, and in the place of, others: ourselves!
God Himself caused the suffering to be vicarious
Absolute resignation: “He opened not his mouth.”
Died as a felon, “from prison and judgment”
Cut off prematurely, “out of the land of the living”
Personally guiltless; “no violence nor deceit in his mouth”
He was to live on after his sufferings: “prolong his days”
YHWH’s “pleasure would prosper in his hand”
Mighty triumph after his suffering: “Divide spoil…”
By all this God “would justify many”
Isaiah 53
Yeshua is my name
ymv [wvy
His Signature
wmytxm
Messiah
xyvm
Nazarene
ryzn
Galilee
lylg
Shiloh
hlyv
Pharisee
vwrp
Levites
~ywl
Caiaphas
hpyk
Annas
!n[
Passover
xsp
The man Herod
drwh vya
Wicked Caesar perish dka lm[ rsyq
The Evil Roman City
ymwr ry[ [r
Let Him be crucified
blcy
Moriah
mryh
Cross
klc
Pierce
rqd
From the Atonement Lamb alj rpkm
Bread
~xlh
Wine
!yy
Obed
db[
Jesse
yvy
Seed
[rz
Water
~ym
Jonah
hnwy
Isaiah 53
The Disciples mourn
Peter
Matthew
John
Andrew
Philip
Thomas
James
James
!na ~ydml
hpk
yttm
!nxwy
yrdna
@lyp
amwt
bq[y
bq[y
Simon
Thaddaeus
Matthias
Mary
Mary
Mary
Salome
Joseph
!w[mv
ydt
hytm
~yrm
~yrm
~yrm
tymlv
pswy
Ministry Mandate
The Spirit of the Lord GOD is upon me;
because the LORD hath anointed me
to preach good tidings unto the meek;
He hath sent me to bind up the brokenhearted,
to proclaim liberty to the captives, and the
opening of the prison to them that are
bound;
To proclaim the acceptable year of the LORD.
Isaiah 61:1,2
Ministry Mandate
The Spirit of the Lord GOD is upon me;
because the LORD hath anointed me
to preach good tidings unto the meek;
He hath sent me to bind up the brokenhearted,
to proclaim liberty to the captives, and the
opening of the prison to them that are
bound;
To proclaim the acceptable year of the LORD,
and the Day of Vengeance of our God…
Isaiah 61:1,2
Two Isaiahs?
“Isaiah I”?
Chapters 1 – 39
– Day of YHWH
•
•
•
•
Judah
Israel
Nations
Jerusalem
– Historical Addendum
“Isaiah II”?
– The Suffering Servant
– The Consummation
Chapter 40 – 66
53
Deutero-Isaiah Fallacy
• Argued from stylistic distinctives
• Refuted by
– Style, images, vocabulary, constructions
– Comprehension of the overall design
– LXX ascriptions
– Old Testament Pre-exile quotations
– New Testament quotations
Quotes in the Gospel of John
That the saying of Isaiah the prophet might be fulfilled,
which he spake, Lord, who hath believed our report?
and to whom hath the arm of the Lord been revealed?
John 12:38 (Isaiah 53:1)
Therefore they could not believe, because
that Isaiah said again,
John 12:39
He hath blinded their eyes, and hardened their heart;
that they should not see with their eyes, nor understand
with their heart, and be converted, and I should heal them.
These things said Isaiah, when he saw his glory,
and spake of him.
John 12:40, 41 (Isaiah 6:9, 10)
The Panorama of History
Babylonian Captivity
Monarchy
2000
1000
The Nation Israel
Post-Exile
Major Prophets
Minor Prophets
BC/AD
Judah
Israel
The Southern Kingdom
The Northern Kingdom
Rehoboam
Abijam
Asa
17
3
41
Jehoshaphat
25
1st Kings
1st Kings
2nd Kings
2nd Kings
Jehoram
Ahaziah
Athaliah
Joash
Amaziah
Azariah (Uzziah)
iah
nasseh
mon
JosiahJotham
Ahaz
Jehoahaz
Hezekiah
Manasseh
Jehoiakim
Amon
Josiah
Jehoiakin
Jehoahaz
Jehoiakim
Zedekiah
8
1
6
40
29
52
Joel
29
Amos
55
2
3116
Zephaniah
Isaiah
(316
mos)Micah
29
11552
Jeremiah
(331mos)Zephaniah
Habakkuk
(3 mos)
Jeremiah
1111
Obadiah
Habakkuk
Jehoiakin
(3 mos)
Obadiah
Babylonian
Captivity
Daniel
Zedekiah
11
Daniel
Babylonian Captivity
EzekielEzekie
Jeroboam
Nadab
Baasha
Elah
Zimri
Omri
Ahab 22
Ahaziah
Jehoram
Jehu
22
2
24
2
(1 wk)
12
Jehoahaz
Jehoash
Jeroboam II
Zechariah
Shallum
Menahem
Pekahiah
Pekah
Hoshea
17
16
41
½
(1 mo)
10
2
20
9
2
12
28
Ellijah
Elisha
Hosea
Jonah
Assyrian Captivity
Nahum
Judah
Israel
The Southern Kingdom
The Northern Kingdom
Rehoboam
Abijam
Asa
17
3
41
Jehoshaphat
25
1st Kings
1st Kings
2nd Kings
2nd Kings
Jehoram
Ahaziah
Athaliah
Joash
Amaziah
Azariah (Uzziah)
iah
nasseh
mon
JosiahJotham
Ahaz
Jehoahaz
Hezekiah
Manasseh
Jehoiakim
Amon
Josiah
Jehoiakin
Jehoahaz
Jehoiakim
Zedekiah
8
1
6
40
29
52
Joel
29
Amos
55
2
3116
Zephaniah
Isaiah
(316
mos)Micah
29
11552
Jeremiah
(331mos)Zephaniah
Habakkuk
(3 mos)
Jeremiah
1111
Obadiah
Habakkuk
Jehoiakin
(3 mos)
Obadiah
Babylonian
Captivity
Daniel
Zedekiah
11
Daniel
Babylonian Captivity
EzekielEzekie
Jeroboam
Nadab
Baasha
Elah
Zimri
Omri
Ahab 22
Ahaziah
Jehoram
Jehu
22
2
24
2
(1 wk)
12
Jehoahaz
Jehoash
Jeroboam II
Zechariah
Shallum
Menahem
Pekahiah
Pekah
Hoshea
17
16
41
½
(1 mo)
10
2
20
9
2
12
28
Ellijah
Elisha
Hosea
Jonah
Assyrian Captivity
Nahum
Jeremiah
The Weeping Prophet
• Commissioned
• Prophecies Before the Fall of Jerusalem
General and Undated
Specific and Dated (Last 4 of Judah’s kings)
• Prophecies After Fall of Jerusalem
1
2 - 20
21 - 39
40 - 44
Carried to Egypt
• Prophecies Upon Gentile Nations
Egypt, Philistines, Moab, Ammon, Edom, Damascus, Elam
Doom of Babylon
• Jerusalem Overthrown
45 - 59
50 - 51
52
“The Weeping Prophet”
• One of the bravest, tenderest, most pathetic figures
in history; a patriot as well as a prophet
• Ministered over 40 years, (80 years after Isaiah)
– 2 Kings: Most tragic national record ever written
– In 40 years, never had a grateful response
– Paralleled in our own nation?
“Oh that my head were waters, and mine eyes a fountain of
tears, that I might weep day and night for the slain of the
daughter of my people!”
Jeremiah 9:1
Another Weeping Prophet
The Purpose of All History:
O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets, and
stonest them which are sent unto thee, how often would I
have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth
her chickens under her wings …
The Tragedy of All History:
… but ye would not!
Behold, your house is left unto you desolate.
The Triumph of All History:
For I say unto you, Ye shall not see me henceforth, until ye
shall say, Blessed is He that cometh in the name of the Lord.
Matthew 23:37-39
Highlights
• Key Theme
The Process of Divine Judgment in National Life
God has not abandoned His Throne
– Jerusalem: “I will punish; I will restore”
• Specifies precisely the 70 year captivity
25
– Blood Curse on Jeconiah
Thus saith the LORD, Write ye this man childless, a man
that shall not prosper in his days: for no man of his seed
shall prosper, sitting upon the throne of David, and ruling
any more in Judah.
22:30
• The New Covenant
• The Doom of Babylon
31:31
50, 51
The Doom of Babylon
• Destruction of Babylon
Isaiah 13, 14; Jeremiah 50, 51
– “Never to be inhabited”
– “Building materials never reused”
– “Like Sodom and Gomorrah”
• Fall of Babylon
539 BC
– Without a battle
– Became Alexander’s capital
– Atrophied over the centuries
– Presently being rebuilt
• “Mystery Babylon?”
Revelation 17-18
Judah
Israel
The Southern Kingdom
The Northern Kingdom
Rehoboam
Abijam
Asa
17
3
41
Jehoshaphat
25
1st Kings
1st Kings
2nd Kings
2nd Kings
Jehoram
Ahaziah
Athaliah
Joash
Amaziah
Azariah (Uzziah)
8
1
6
40
29
52
Joel
Amos
2
ah
31
Zeph
hoahaz
(3 16
mos)
Jotham
Isaiah
Ahaz
16
Jehoiakim
11
MicahJeremiah
Hezekiah
29
Manasseh (3 55
Jehoiakin
mos)
Habakkuk
Amon
2
Zephaniah
Zedekiah
11 31
Obadiah
Josiah
Jehoahaz
(3 mos)
Jeremiah
Babylonian
Daniel
Jehoiakim Captivity
11
Habakkuk
Jehoiakin
(3 mos)
Ezekiel
Obadiah
Zedekiah
11
Babylonian Captivity
Daniel
Ezekiel
Jeroboam
Nadab
Baasha
Elah
Zimri
Omri
Ahab 22
Ahaziah
Jehoram
Jehu
22
2
24
2
(1 wk)
12
Jehoahaz
Jehoash
Jeroboam II
Zechariah
Shallum
Menahem
Pekahiah
Pekah
Hoshea
17
16
41
½
(1 mo)
10
2
20
9
2
12
28
Ellijah
Elisha
Hosea
Jonah
Assyrian Captivity
Nahum
Judah
Israel
The Southern Kingdom
The Northern Kingdom
Rehoboam
Abijam
Asa
17
3
41
Jehoshaphat
25
1st Kings
1st Kings
2nd Kings
2nd Kings
Jehoram
Ahaziah
Athaliah
Joash
Amaziah
Azariah (Uzziah)
8
1
6
40
29
52
Joel
Amos
2
ah
31
Zeph
hoahaz
(3 16
mos)
Jotham
Isaiah
Ahaz
16
Jehoiakim
11
MicahJeremiah
Hezekiah
29
Manasseh (3 55
Jehoiakin
mos)
Habakkuk
Amon
2
Zephaniah
Zedekiah
11 31
Obadiah
Josiah
Jehoahaz
(3 mos)
Jeremiah
Babylonian
Daniel
Jehoiakim Captivity
11
Habakkuk
Jehoiakin
(3 mos)
Ezekiel
Obadiah
Zedekiah
11
Babylonian Captivity
Daniel
Ezekiel
Jeroboam
Nadab
Baasha
Elah
Zimri
Omri
Ahab 22
Ahaziah
Jehoram
Jehu
22
2
24
2
(1 wk)
12
Jehoahaz
Jehoash
Jeroboam II
Zechariah
Shallum
Menahem
Pekahiah
Pekah
Hoshea
17
16
41
½
(1 mo)
10
2
20
9
2
12
28
Ellijah
Elisha
Hosea
Jonah
Assyrian Captivity
Nahum
Ezekiel
• A priest/prophet, like Jeremiah
• One of 10,000 captives taken in the 2nd
siege of Nebuchadnezzar, 11 years
before the final overthrow of Jerusalem
The Book of Ezekiel
• Present Judgments on Jerusalem
– Similes and visions
– 430 “Days”?
4
• The Future Destinies of the Nations
– Origin & Destiny of Satan
28
• Restoration of the Nation Israel
– The Valley of Dry Bones
– Gog and Magog
• The Millennium
36, 37
38, 39
40-48
Strange Similes
•
•
•
•
He shuts himself up in his home.
He binds himself.
He is struck dumb.
He was to lie on his right and his left sides for
a total of 430 days.
• He ate bread that was prepared in an unclean
manner.
• He shaved his head and beard, which was
considered a shame in his particular calling.
Vision of the Throne of God
Ezekiel 1 & 10 (Cf. Isaiah 6, Revelation 4)
Cherubim
Lion
Ox
Man
Eagle
Camps
Judah
Ephraim
Reuben
Dan
Gospels
Matthew
Mark
Luke
John
430 Years?
430 (years) of judgment
Ezekiel 4:1-8
430 – 70 [Babylon] = 360 unaccounted for
“And if ye will not yet for all this hearken unto me,
then I will punish you seven times more for your
sins.”
Leviticus 26: 18, 21, 24, 28
360 x 7 = 2520 years?
Calendar Reconciliation
2520360 = 2483365 + 9 mos + 21 days :
Julian year = 11m 10.46 sec > mean solar year
Gregorian Reform: 11 days removed
Leap Years: 2483/4 = 621
(3 excess ea. 4 centuries: 18 excess)
621 - (18-11)
=
614 days
2483 x 365
=
905,295
9 months
21 days
2520360
=
=
270
21
=
907,200 days
Decree of
Cyrus
Babylon
1st Siege
2nd Siege
Decree of
Artaxerxes
3rd Siege
Triggers the 70 Weeks of Daniel
2520 years?
“Servitude of the Nation”
2520 years
“Desolations of Jerusalem”
Restoration of Nation
May 14, 1948
Restoration of Jerusalem
June 7,1967
“Servitude of the Nation”
• 70 years360 = 25,200 days = 69 years360
(less 2 days)
• 606 BC + 69 years = 537 BC
• If July 23, 537 BC was their release:
-537y 7m 23d
+1
(no “year 0”)
2483y 9m 21d
1948 5 14
• On May 14, 1948, the nation of Israel was restored.
“Desolations of Jerusalem”
• 70 years360 = 25,200 days = 69 years360
(less 2 days)
• 587 BC + 69 years = 518 BC
• If August 16, 518 BC was the completion of the walls:
-518y 8m 16d
+1
(no “year 0”)
2483y 9m 21d
1967 6
7
• On June 7, 1967, the Biblical city of Jerusalem was
restored to the nation.
The Origin of Satan
• Isaiah 14
– The 5 “I Wills”
• Ezekiel 28
– “The Anointed Cherub that Covereth”
• Revelation 12
– Summary of Satan’s attempts to thwart the
Plan of Redemption
The Ambition of Satan
How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the
morning! how art thou cut down to the ground, which
didst weaken the nations!
For thou hast said in thine heart,
I will ascend into heaven,
I will exalt my throne above the stars of God:
I will sit also upon the mount of the congregation, in
the sides of the north:
I will ascend above the heights of the clouds;
I will be like the most High.
Isaiah 14:12-14
The Destiny of Satan
Yet thou shalt be brought down to hell, to the sides of
the pit.
They that see thee shall narrowly look upon thee, and
consider thee, saying, Is this the man that made the
earth to tremble, that did shake kingdoms;
That made the world as a wilderness, and destroyed
the cities thereof; that opened not the house of his
prisoners?
Isaiah 14:15-17
Satan’s Origin
Thus saith the Lord GOD; Thou sealest up the sum, full of
wisdom, and perfect in beauty.
Thou hast been in Eden the garden of God; every precious stone
was thy covering, the sardius, topaz, and the diamond, the
beryl, the onyx, and the jasper, the sapphire, the emerald, and
the carbuncle, and gold: the workmanship of thy tabrets and of
thy pipes was prepared in thee in the day thou wast created.
Thou art the anointed cherub that covereth; and I have set thee
so: thou wast upon the holy mountain of God; thou hast walked
up and down in the midst of the stones of fire.
Thou wast perfect in thy ways from the day that thou wast created,
till iniquity was found in thee. Ezekiel 28 12-15
Satan’s Destiny
…Thou hast sinned: therefore I will cast thee as profane out of the
mountain of God: and I will destroy thee, O covering cherub,
from the midst of the stones of fire.
Thine heart was lifted up because of thy beauty, thou hast
corrupted thy wisdom by reason of thy brightness: I will cast
thee to the ground, I will lay thee before kings, that they may
behold thee.
Thou hast defiled thy sanctuaries by the multitude of thine
iniquities, by the iniquity of thy traffic; therefore will I bring forth
a fire from the midst of thee, it shall devour thee, and I will bring
thee to ashes upon the earth in the sight of all them that behold
thee.
All they that know thee among the people shall be astonished at
thee: thou shalt be a terror, and never shalt thou be any more.
Ezekiel 28: 16-19
The Valley of Dry Bones
Ezekiel 37
• A Vision of the Restoration of Israel
– Brought back to life in the flesh
– Later, breathed with the Spirit
• “The Lord shall set his hand again the
second time to recover the remnant of
his people…”
Isaiah 11:11
• Fulfilled in the 1st half of 20th century
Why is Israel to be restored?
Therefore say unto the house of Israel, Thus saith the
Lord GOD; I do not this for your sakes, O house of
Israel, but for mine holy name's sake, which ye have
profaned among the heathen, whither ye went.
And I will sanctify my great name, which was profaned
among the heathen, which ye have profaned in the
midst of them; and the heathen shall know that I am
the LORD, saith the Lord GOD, when I shall be
sanctified in you before their eyes.
For I will take you from among the heathen, and
gather you out of all countries, and will bring you into
your own land.
Ezekiel 36:22-24
The Millennial Temple
Ezekiel 40 - 48
• Description of Millennial Temple
– Highly detailed (not simply symbolic?)
– All nations to worship there
– Offerings and sacrifices resumed
– (Open only on the Sabbath Day and New
Moons)
• There is an event that occurs after the
restoration and before the Millennium:
The Book of Ezekiel
• Present Judgments on Jerusalem
– Similes and visions
– 430 “Days”?
4
• The Future Destinies of the Nations
– Origin & Destiny of Satan
28
• Restoration of the Nation Israel
– The Valley of Dry Bones
– Gog and Magog
• The Millennium
36, 37
38, 39
40-48
The Magog Invasion
Ezekiel 38 & 39
• The occasion in which God Himself
intervenes to quell the ill-fated invasion
of Israel by Magog and its allies
– Persia, Cush, Phut, Libya, Gomer,
Togarmah, Meshech, Tubal
• The passage appears to anticipate the
use of nuclear weapons.
The Magog Identity
• Hesiod, Greek Didactic Poet, 8th century BC
– Magogians = Scythians
• Herodotus, “Father of History,” 5th century BC
– Scythians (10th - 3rd century BC)
• Philo, Josephus, et al
– The Great Wall of China: “Ramparts of Gog & Magog”
• Soviet Archaeologists’ discoveries
• From the “Uttermost parts of the north”
“From the North parts…”
Nuclear Weapons?
• Left-over weapons provide all the energy for
the nation Israel for 7 years
• Professionals hired to clear the battlefield
– They wait 7 months; then clear for 7 months
– Bury the dead east of the Dead Sea (downwind)
• If a traveler finds something the professionals
have missed, he doesn’t touch it: he marks
the location and lets the professionals deal
with it.
The Disturbing Hint?
And I will send a fire on Magog, and among
them that dwell carelessly in the isles: and
they shall know that I am the LORD.
Ezekiel 39:6
The more you know about the details of the text
in Ezekiel 38 and 39, and
The more you know about the current
geopolitical horizon,
The more it seems that it this is getting into
position to happen soon…
Subsequent Sessions
• Lesson 12
– The 12 Minor Prophets
• Lesson 13
– The Messianic Thread
– How Sure Can We Be?
The Panorama of History
The Monarchy
6,000 Years?
The Nation Israel
The Diaspora
1000
Genesis
Nation
Israel
Rest of OT
NT
400 yrs
The Southern Kingdom
The Northern Kingdom
2nd Kings & 2 Chronicles
Jehoram
Ahaziah
Athaliah
Joash
Amaziah
Azariah (Uzziah)
8
1
6
40
29
52
2nd Kings
Joel
Major
Prophets
Jotham
Ahaz
Hezekiah
Manasseh
Amon
Josiah
Jehoahaz
Jehoiakim
Jehoiakin
Zedekiah
16
16
29
55
2
31
(3 mos)
11
(3 mos)
11
Isaiah
Micah
Isaiah
Jeremiah
Ezekiel
Daniel
Jeremiah
Habakkuk
Nehemiah
Jehoahaz
Jehoash
Jeroboam II
Zechariah
Shallum
Menahem
Pekahiah
Pekah
Hoshea
17
16
41
½
Elisha
Hosea
Amos
(1 mo)
10
2
20
9
Assyrian Captivity
Assyria falls to Babylon
Obadiah
Daniel
Ezekiel
Zerubabel
12
28
Zephaniah
Babylonian Captivity
Ezra
Jehoram
Jehu
Haggai
Zechariah
Malachi
Esther
(400 “Silent Years” . . .)
Post-Exile
Judah
Israel
The Southern Kingdom
The Northern Kingdom
Rehoboam
Abijam
Asa
17
3
41
Jehoshaphat
25
1st Kings
1st Kings
2nd Kings
2nd Kings
Jehoram
Ahaziah
Athaliah
Joash
Amaziah
Azariah (Uzziah)
Uzzziah
Jotham
Ahaz
Hezekiah
Jotham
Manasseh
Ahaz
Amon Hezekiah
Manasseh
Josiah Amon
Josiah
Jehoahaz
Jehoahaz
Jehoiakim
ehoiakim
Jehoiakin
Zedekiah
oiakin
8
1
6
40
29
52
Joel
52
Amos
16
16
Isaiah
29
Micah
5516
Isaiah
16
Micah
229
55
31 2
Zepha
Zephaniah
31
(3 (3mos)
mos)
Jeremiah
11
11(3 mos) HabakkukJe
Obadiah
(3 11
mos)
Babylonian Captivity
11
Jeroboam
Nadab
Baasha
Elah
Zimri
Omri
Ahab 22
Ahaziah
Jehoram
Jehu
22
2
24
2
(1 wk)
12
Jehoahaz
Jehoash
Jeroboam II
Zechariah
Shallum
Menahem
Pekahiah
Pekah
Hoshea
17
16
41
½
(1 mo)
10
2
20
9
2
12
28
Ellijah
Elisha
Hosea
Jonah
Assyrian Captivity
Nahum
Judah
Israel
The Southern Kingdom
The Northern Kingdom
Rehoboam
Abijam
Asa
17
3
41
Jehoshaphat
25
1st Kings
1st Kings
2nd Kings
2nd Kings
Jehoram
Ahaziah
Athaliah
Joash
Amaziah
Azariah (Uzziah)
Uzzziah
Jotham
Ahaz
Hezekiah
Jotham
Manasseh
Ahaz
Amon Hezekiah
Manasseh
Josiah Amon
Josiah
Jehoahaz
Jehoahaz
Jehoiakim
ehoiakim
Jehoiakin
Zedekiah
oiakin
8
1
6
40
29
52
Joel
52
Amos
16
16
Isaiah
29
Micah
5516
Isaiah
16
Micah
229
55
31 2
Zepha
Zephaniah
31
(3 (3mos)
mos)
Jeremiah
11
11(3 mos) HabakkukJe
Obadiah
(3 11
mos)
Babylonian Captivity
11
Jeroboam
Nadab
Baasha
Elah
Zimri
Omri
Ahab 22
Ahaziah
Jehoram
Jehu
22
2
24
2
(1 wk)
12
Jehoahaz
Jehoash
Jeroboam II
Zechariah
Shallum
Menahem
Pekahiah
Pekah
Hoshea
17
16
41
½
(1 mo)
10
2
20
9
2
12
28
Ellijah
Elisha
Hosea
Jonah
Assyrian Captivity
Nahum
Old Testament (Tenach) Texts
• Original Hebrew (“Vorlage”)
– In the days of Ezra and Nehemiah
• Septuagint Translation (LXX)
– 285-270 BC, 72 scholars at Alexandria
– Primary quoted text in the New Testament
• Masoretic Text (MT)
– Derived from the Council of Jamnia
The Hebrew Language
• Vividness, conciseness, and simplicity
also make it difficult to translate fully.
• It takes typically twice as many English
words to translate Hebrew.
Root Structure
• Verbs are formed from 3-letter roots, with
forms developed by change of vowels or by
adding suffixes or prefixes.
• The root consonants give Hebrew a semantic
backbone and stability not characteristic of
Western languages.
• Verb usage is not characterized by precise
definition of tenses; very context dependent.
It seems designed for puns and word play.
Greek Language
• Beautiful, rich, and harmonious; a fitting
tool both for vigorous thought and
religious devotion.
• Characterized by strength and vigor; the
language of argument, with a vocabulary
and style that could penetrate and clarify
phenomena rather than simply describe.
• The most precise form of expression of
any language in existence.
Greek Verbs
• Five aspects:
– tense, mood, voice, person, and number
• Will convey far more than a lexigraphical definition:
–
–
–
–
–
who is performing the action?;
whether just one or more than one is doing it;
when it is done;
whether it is a single event or process;
whether it is an actual happening, a command, or
something wished for;
– whether the subject of the verb is an active or passive
participant (or both!).
• A single Greek word may thus require a phrase or
even a sentence or more in another language.
Greek Language
• Classic (Attic) Greek: subtle in syntax and
expressive use of participles (often
untranslatable) characterized the culture at its
zenith.
• After his conquests, Alexander the Great
encouraged the spread of the Greek culture
and language; regional dialects were replaced
by the Hellenistic or common (koine) Greek.
• Simpler, less elegant, nevertheless retaining
much of its strength, beauty, clarity and
logical rhetorical power.
Septuagint Manuscripts
• Papyri Uncials (Capital Letters)
– Hundreds of various sizes, importance;
(2nd century BC – 650 AD)
– Chester Beatty collection: parts of 11 codices,
(2nd – 4th century)
– Pre-Christian Qumran parchment fragments also
significant
• Vellum Uncials (4th – 10th centuries)
– Codex Vaticanius,4th century (almost complete)
– Codex Siniaticus, 4th century (less complete)
– Codex Alexandrinus, 5th century (almost complete)
Septuagint Manuscripts
• Miniscule Codices (Cursive Script): appear in
the 9th century; over 1500 recorded, 11th –
16th century
– Complutensian Polyglot, 1514-17
– Aldine Venice Version, 1518
– “Standard Version,”Pope Sixtus V, 1587
– Coptic Versions, 3rd & 4th century
– Armenian Versions, mid-5th century
– Georgian Versions, 5th century
– Ethiopian Versions, 13th century
– Gothic Versions, fragments, 4th century
Council of Jamnia
• 90 AD: Rejected the LXX, and the
Hebrew version on which it was based
(Vorlage), since it had become the “Bible
of the Christians.”
• Produced a unified text of the Tenach
and ensured that divergent texts were
destroyed.
• Led to the traditional Masoretic Text.
Masoretes
• A body of Medieval scribes of Tiberias
charged with Old Testament text
preservation, 500 AD – 950 AD.
• Devised a “pointing” system for implied
vowels.
• Oldest dated manuscript is Codex
Cairernsis, 895 AD. (Only the Nevi’im;
Torah and Ketuvim are missing.)
Hebrew Text of Today
• Codex Leningradensis, presently stored in the
Leningrad Public Library, is used as the
textual base for the popular Hebrew texts of
today:
– Biblia Hebraica, ed. By R. Kittel, and its revision
– Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia, ed. By K. Ellinger
and W. Rudolf.
• Was copied in 1008 AD from texts written by
Aaron ben Moses ben Asher.
Dead Sea Scrolls
• 11 caves in the Wadi Qumran
– 600 manuscripts; 200 Biblical
– 60,000 fragments
• 85% leather; 15% papyrus
• Cave 4 (4Q)
– 40,000 fragments of 400 manuscripts (100
Biblical)
– Every book (except Esther) represented
History of the English Bible
BC - AD
Hebrew:
Greek:
Vorlage
LXX
Latin:
English
Cr
History of the English Bible
BC - AD
Hebrew:
Greek:
Vorlage
LXX
Latin:
English
Cr
The Central Theme
• The OT is an account of a Nation.
• The NT is the account of a Man.
• The Creator became a Man. His
appearance is the Central Event of all
history.
• He died to purchase us and is alive now.
• The most exalted privilege is to know
Him. That’s what the Bible is all about.
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