UNIT I:
Early Civilizations and Empires
Section 2.1
Civilization begins in Mesopotamia
1. Name three advances in Science and technology of early humans.
2. In what year in Confucius born?
3. What year does the Roman empire fall?
What are the major factors in the development of early
civilizations?

city-state:
cities and the
countryside around
them, which were the
basic units of Sumerian
civilization
What are the major factors in the
development of early civilizations?

theocracy- a government
by divine authority

empire-a large political
unit or state, usually under
a single leader that
controls many people or
territories
What are the major factors in the
development of early civilizations?

patriarchal- a form of
society dominated by
men

polytheistic- a belief in
many gods
What are the major factors in the
development of early civilizations?

cuneiform- “wedged-shaped”; the Sumerian system
of writing
What are the major factors in the
development of early civilizations?
IMPACT of GEOGRAPHY

 The
valley between the Tigris and the
Euphrates is called Mesopotamia; means
“between two rivers”; It is located in the
eastern end of the Fertile Crescent. Early
civilization began there because it had
land with rich soil; the river overflowed.
The Sumerians were the first to create a
lasting society there.
What are the major factors in the
development of early civilizations?
City-States of Ancient
Mesopotamia

By 3000BC the Sumerians has 3
city states-Eridu, Ur, and Uruk.
The most important building was
the temple because Sumerians
believed kings got their powers
from gods. Most people were
farmers but there were also
artisans. The Sumerians created
the wheel. They also had three
major social groups: nobles
commoners and slaves.
Empires in Ancient Mesopotamia
City-states began to fight with each
other for power. Around 2340
BC the Akkadians overran the
Sumerian city-states. They set up
an empire. By 1792 BC, a new
empire controlled Mesopotamia.
The king was the very powerful
Hammurabi.
What are the major factors in the
development of early civilizations?

Hammurabi’s code: a
collection of laws;
penalties were severe
and different for each
class of people. The
main focus was ‘an eye
for an eye’. It
reflected a patriarchal
society.
What are the major factors in the
development of early civilizations?

IMPORTANCE of RELIGION
*
Mesopotamians believed in over 3,000 gods and
goddesses; polytheistic
 *They believed this because of the harsh climate
changes
What are the major factors in the
development of early civilizations?

The CREATIVITY of the SUMERIANS
 *Their
greatest invention is cuneiform (wedge shaped);
the first form of writing
 *writing allowed for people to pass information on
through generations
 *Epic of Gilgamesh; surviving poem about a king
named Gilgamesh
 *created the wagon wheel (transportation and trade),
sundial (time), potter’s wheel (crafts, pottery), the arch
(architecture), and bronze (tools)
What are the major factors in the
development of early civilizations?

Take ten minutes to read and complete the
“Eyewitness to History” Activity on page 44 of the
text. Be ready to share responses with the class.
Section 2.2
Egyptian Civilization: The Gift of the Nile
What were the major accomplishments of Ancient
Egypt?


dynasty- a family of
rulers whose right to
rule is passed on
within the family
pharaoh- “great
house” or “palace” the
most common title of
Egyptian monarchs
What were the major accomplishments of Ancient
Egypt?

bureaucracy- an
administrative
organization with
officials and regular
procedures

visier- “steward of the
whole land” the
official in charge of
the government
bureaucracy
What were the major accomplishments of Ancient
Egypt?


Mummification- a
process of slowly
drying a dead body
to prevent it from
rotting
Hieroglyphics- the
Greek name for the
earliest Egyptian
writing
What were the major accomplishments of Ancient
Egypt?

hieratic script- a simplified version of hieroglyphics
that was used for business transactions, record
keeping, and the general needs of daily life in
Egypt
What were the major accomplishments of Ancient Egypt?

IMPACT of GEOGRAPHY
 The
Nile River is the longest in the world
(4,000 miles); Egypt’s important cities
developed along the Nile.. Unlike
Mesopotamia, Egypt had natural barriers
that protected it from invasion.
What were the major accomplishments of
Ancient Egypt?

IMPORTANCE of RELIGION
 Were
polytheistic
 Two main groups:
 Sun
gods and land gods:
 Sun gods were sources of life example (Re)
human body and head of a falcon
 Land gods –gods that dealt with the river
example (Osiris and Isis, resurrection)
What were the major accomplishments of Ancient
Egypt?

Ancient Egyptian History is divided into three time
frames:
 The
Old Kingdom: 2700-2200BC
 The Middle Kingdom: 2050-1652
 The New Kingdom 1567-1085BC
What were the major accomplishments of Ancient
Egypt?


The Old Kingdom (2700-2200BC)
It was an age of prosperity and splendor; at the
top was the pharaoh who had absolute power but
was assisted by the bureaucracy. The pyramids
were built during this kingdom. They were built for
the pharaohs and their families; used mummification
to preserve the bodies.
What were the major accomplishments of Ancient
Egypt?

The Middle Kingdom 2050-1652 BC
 Very
stable time, They expanded south Pharaoh’s role
was less of a god-king and more of a shepherd
providing for his people.
What were the major accomplishments of Ancient
Egypt?

The New Kingdom 1567-1085 BC
 Middle
Kingdom ended with the invasion of the Hyksos;
used horse drawn chariots to invade. Hatshepsut was
the first women to become a pharaoh.
What were the major accomplishments of
Ancient Egypt?
The Great Sphinx was built more than 4,500 years ago. It is crumbling with
humidity and wind.
What were the major accomplishments of Ancient
Egypt?
They were built to protect kings as well as to honor them. Smaller pyramids were
constructed for the family members as well.
What were the major accomplishments of Ancient
Egypt?
Hyksos invaded Egypt during the Middle Kingdome on chariots pulled by horses.
Later the Egyptians would use that technology to defeat them.
What were the major accomplishments of Ancient
Egypt?
A sculpture of the first female pharaoh, Hatshepsut. Contrary to popular belief, it was
not Cleopatra- though she tried to unify Egypt with the help of Rome.
What were the major accomplishments of Ancient
Egypt?
Social Structure of Ancient Egypt. The bureaucracy included the visier, nobles, and
priests.
What were the major accomplishments of Ancient
Egypt?

SOCIETY in ANCIENT EGYPT
 Used
hieroglyphics; a combination of pictures and
abstract forms.
 Achievements in art and science included, pyramids,
temples, math (to calculate area and volume),
developed the 365 day calendar, and medical
knowledge
Section 4.1
The Greek City- States
How did Greek society influence other
early civilizations?

polis- the Greek word
for city-state

acropolis- fortified
area at the top of a
hill in a Greek citystate
How did Greek society influence other
early civilizations?


democracy- rule of
many
oligarchy- rule by a
few
How did Greek society influence other
early civilizations?

direct democracy- a democratic system in which
people participate directly in government decision
making through mass meetings
How did Greek society influence other
early civilizations?

tragedy- a serious play or drama
How did Greek society influence other
early civilizations?

Socratic method- a teaching method used by
Socrates in which a question and answer format
leads pupils to see things for themselves by using
their own reason
How did Greek society influence other
early civilizations?

The Polis:
 Made
up of people with a common goal
3
main groups: 1. citizens with political rights (adult males)
2. citizens with no political rights (women and children) 3.
noncitizens (slaves and people from another lands)
 There
were many different city states; the downfall of
Greece was a result of feuding city-states
How did Greek society influence other
early civilizations?
Tyranny in City States

Between 750 and 550
BC Greece expands its
empire; trade and
industry lead to many
wealthy people who
wanted power and
became tyrants
Democracy v. Oligarchy

Tyrants fell out of favor.
Aristocrats were no
longer in power and
common people were
able to have more of a
say in politics. Some city
states even used direct
democracy
How did Greek society influence other
early civilizations?

Greek Religion
 Believed
12 main gods lived on Mt. Olympus; chief was
Zeus
 Performed rituals to appease the gods
 Also had festivals where athletic events took place
 First Olympics took place 776BC
How did Greek society influence other
early civilizations?

Greek Drama
 Created
drama as we know it today;
tragedies were presented at outdoor
festivals in a trilogy; (ex: Oedipus Rex)
Comedy developed later on and focused
on politicians and aimed to entertain or
get a reaction
How did Greek society influence other
early civilizations?

Philosophy
 Is
an organized system of thought; many Greek
philosophers tried to explain the universe with
underlying principles.
 Socrates
was a teacher who we know about because of
his students (most famous: Plato; wrote The Republic);
he used a question answer format to teach his students
so they would have reasoning behind their answers
Section 5-1
Ancient Rome
What are the similarities and differences
between Rome and Greece?

republic- a form of
government in which
the leader is not a
monarch and certain
citizens have the right
to vote

patrician- one of
Rome’s wealthy
landowners, who
became Rome’s ruling
class
What are the similarities and differences
between Rome and Greece?

plebian- a member of
second and larger group of
Roman citizens, who were
less wealthy landowners,
craftspeople, merchants,
and small farmers

triumvirate- a
government of three
people with equal
power
What are the similarities and differences
between Rome and Greece?

dictator- an absolute
ruler

procurator- a Roman
official who directed
the affairs of a
province
What are the similarities and differences
between Rome and Greece?

plague- an epidemic
disease

inflation- a rapid
increase in prices
What are the similarities and differences
between Rome and Greece?

LAND and PEOPLE of ROME
 Romans
were heavily influenced by the Greeks
 Rome had a republic form of government
 First Code of law was the 12 Tables
 Had a legislative branch which included a Senate
 Rome was divided into two groups:
 Patricians,
the ruling class
 Plebians, the craftspeople merchants, small farmers
What are the similarities and differences
between Rome and Greece?


There were many civil wars which led to the
collapse of the First Republic
First Triumvirate came to power, Crassus (in Spain),
Pompey (in Syria), and Julius Caesar (in Gaul)
What are the similarities and differences
between Rome and Greece?



The EARLY EMPIRE 14-180 AD
During this time 5 good emperors ruled: Nerva,
Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus
Aurelius.
They created Pax Romana (Roman Peace) a time of
peace and prosperity
What are the similarities and differences
between Rome and Greece?

RELIGION in ANCIENT ROME

The official state religion of ancient Rome was the worship
of several gods

During the Early Empire, Jesus of Nazareth began his
teachings and gained many followers

During the reign of Nero Christians were persecuted

Eventually, Christianity triumphs as a major religion
What are the similarities and differences
between Rome and Greece?
Decline of Rome

Marcus Aurelius and a
series of civil wars follow;
because of the invasion
plagues spread rapidly;
the economy crashed.
There are less people
because of the plagues
There were struggles for
power leading to inflation.
Fall of Rome

After the emperor
Constantine, the Roman
empire was divided into east
and west. Capital of west
was Rome; capital of east was
Constantinople. Rome
constantly conquered while
Constantinople became
Byzantine empire and
flourishes.
Section 6-1
The Rise of Islam
How did the Islamic world begin and expand
between 600 and 1300?

sheikh- the ruler of an
Arab tribe

Quran- the holy
scriptures of Islam
How did the Islamic world begin and expand
between 600 and 1300?

Islam- “peace through
submission through will
of Allah”

jihad- the Arabic
custom of raiding one’s
enemies
How did the Islamic world begin and expand
between 600 and 1300?

Shiite- Muslims who
accept only
descendants of Ali as
caliphs

caliph- a successor to
Muhammad, or ruler
of Islam
How did the Islamic world begin and expand
between 600 and 1300?

Sunni- Muslims who
accept only
descendants of
Umayyads as true
caliphs

mosque- a Muslim
temple or house of
worship
How did the Islamic world begin and expand
between 600 and 1300?

bazaar- a covered
market

dowry- in Islamic
society, a gift of
money or property
given to a bride by
her husband
How did the Islamic world begin and expand
between 600 and 1300?






MUHAMMAD (Founder of Islam)
570- born
610- first vision
622- Muhammad and followers journey
to Madinah
630-Muhammad returns to Makkah with
his army and the city surrenders and
become ruler
632- Muhammad dies
How did the Islamic world begin and expand
between 600 and 1300?

Islam Religion: Scripture is called Quran; the word Islam means
“peace through the submission of Allah”; Followers of Islam are
called Muslims

Teachings of Muhammad: Muslims are monotheistic; also
believe in afterlife; Islam stresses the need to obey Allah through the
5 pillars 1.) belief in Allah and in Muhammad as his prophet 2.)
standard prayer 5 times a day and public prayer on Fridays
3.)giving alms, such as food and money, to the poor 4.) observance
of the holy month of Ramadan, including fasting from dawn to sunset
5.) making the pilgrimage to Makkah at least once
How did the Islamic world begin and expand
between 600 and 1300?

Creation of Arab Empire
 After
Muhammad dies, Abu Makr is leader or caliph.
 Raided enemies to grow, called jihad, (struggle in the
way of god)
 Arabs conquered parts of Europe, including Spain in
725
 During the Umayyad dynasty, Muslims who were not
Arab, felt they were being treated unfairly and they
split into two groups the Shiite and the Sunni
How did the Islamic world begin and expand
between 600 and 1300?

The MUSLIM WORLD
 Trade
was important; had bazaars, covered markets,
that had goods from all over the world
 Women
were not considered equal; men could have
more than one wife, but no more than 4
 Most
only had one because they had to pay s dowry
7-1
Development of Civilizations in Africa
What are the characteristics of early
African societies before 1800?


plateau- a relatively
high, flat land area
savannah- a broad
grassland dotted with
small trees and shrubs
What are the characteristics of early African
societies before 1800?

Bantu- a family of
languages spoken by
peoples who migrated
from the Niger River
region to East Africa
and the Congo River
Basin

Swahili- a mixed
African-Arabian
culture along the
coastal area of East
Africa
What are the characteristics of early African
societies before 1800?

stateless society- a
group of independent
villages organized by
clans and led by a
local ruler or clan
head

lineage group- a
community whose
members trace their
lineage from a
common ancestor
What are the characteristics of early African
societies before 1800?


matrilineal- a society
in which the decent is
traced through the
mother
patrilineal- a society in
which decent is traced
through the father
What are the characteristics of early African
societies before 1800?

diviner- a person who
believes that he or she
has the power to
foretell events, usually
by working with
supernatural forces

griot- a storyteller in
African society
What are the characteristics of early African
societies before 1800?
LAND of AFRICA

Africa is the largest
continent; contains the
largest desert, the
Sahara; contains
plateaus and
savannahs, it is very
diverse
CLIMATE of AFRICA

Has 4 climate zones; this
helps to understand the
lifestyles of people who
live there; mild (for
crops); deserts;
rainforest; savannahs
(herding animals)
What are the characteristics of early African
societies before 1800?

SOCIETIES in AFRICA

Kingdom of Ghana: 500-1100 located along the upper
Niger River Valley; ruled by kings; most people were
farmers; became prosperous because of iron ore and gold

Kingdom of Mali: 1240-1359 located along the Atlantic
coast to Timbuktu; known for gold and salt; lived in villages
with local rulers and a king overall. Most famous ruler was
Mansa Musa he was a Muslim and doubled the size of the
kingdom.
What are the characteristics of early African
societies before 1800?

SOCIETIES in AFRICA (contd)
 Bantu-
built communities based on subsistence farming
(growing just enough crops for personal use), gradually
began trading with other regions; a mixed AfricanArabian emerged along the coast because of the trade
with Arabian Peninsula this culture became known as
Swahili.
What are the characteristics of early African
societies before 1800?

ASPECTS of AFRICAN SOCIETY
 Most
towns were walled villages; kings were held in
high esteem but not isolated from common people;
traced lineage from their mother’s side (matrilineal).
Women were subordinate to men but still very well
respected; slavery was practiced in Africa, included
people captured in war, debtors, and criminals.
What are the characteristics of early African
societies before 1800?
Religion in Africa

Most groups were
monotheistic; used many
rituals to please god,
Islam spread rapidly
across the northern
coast; Christianity
prevailed in Ethiopia.
Culture in Africa

In early Africa, art was
a was to express
religion and
communicate with spirits;
storytelling was a major
part of African culture;
griots were also
historians
8-1
The Asian World
What were the contributions of early
Asian cultures?

Mandate of Heavena belief during the
Zhou dynasty that
kings received their
authority to command,
or mandate, from
heaven

Confucianism- a system
of ideas based on
Confucius
What were the contributions of early
Asian cultures?


Daoism- a system of
teachings based on
Loazi
Legalism- a philosophy
that stressed harsh
laws and punishments
What were the contributions of early
Asian cultures?

porcelain- a ceramic
made of fine clay
baked at very high
temperatures

Samurai- Japanese
warriors who
protected the security
and property of their
employers
What were the contributions of early
Asian cultures?

shogun- a powerful military leader, or general, who
had the real power in Japan
What were the contributions of early
Asian cultures?


The SILK ROAD
The Silk Road was about 4,000 miles long and
reached from China to Mesopotamia; it included
Rome and Greece. It was only used for luxury
goods. Rome really wanted China’s silk.
What were the contributions of early
Asian cultures?
CHINESE DYNASTIES
Shang Dynasty- 1750-1122BC farming society, kings
believed they communicated with gods directly





Zhou Dynasty- 1045-256BC believed in the Mandadte of
Heaven; king was choose to follow the dao
Qin Dynasty-221-206BC adopted Legalism; Great Wall
built to keep out Xiongnu (on horseback)
Han Dynasty- 202BC-220AD discarded Legalism, adopted
Confucianism, rulers were choosen on merit
What were the contributions of early
Asian cultures?

INDIA
 IN
1500BC a group of Indo-European nomads moved
from Central Asia to India called the Aryans; they
settled in northern India.
 They
develop the caste system
What were the contributions of early
Asian cultures?
Hinduism

Religion of a majority
of Indian people;
believe in
reincarnation and
kharma; developed
the practice of yoga
Buddhism

Founded by
Siddhartha Gautama
aka Buddha; believed
the goal was to
achieve nirvana
What were the contributions of early
Asian cultures?

JAPAN
 It
is a chain of many islands, powerful leader named
Minamoto created a centralized government with the
shogun, shogunate (name for overall government)
What were the contributions of early
Asian cultures?

KOREA About
the size of Minnesota, the longest reigning
dynasty was the Koryo and lasted 400 years; heavily
influenced by Japan and China
9-1
Byzantine Empire
What is the importance of the
Byzantine empire?

feudalism- a political
and social system in
which a powerful lord
offered protection to a
vassal in return for
military service

vassal- a man who
served a lord in a
military capacity
What is the importance of the
Byzantine empire?

fief- land given to a
vassal by a lord

chivalry- code of
ethics that knights were
supposed to uphold
What is the importance of the
Byzantine empire?

Magna Carta- a document of rights that limited the
king’s power signed by King John in 1215
What is the importance of the
Byzantine empire?

Crusades- military expeditions made by European
Christians to regain the Holy Land from the Muslims
What is the importance of the
Byzantine empire?

DEVELOPMENT of FEUDALISM in EUROPE
 Vikings
and other invaders were prevalent
 People
turned to aristocrats (lords) to offer protection;
in return, they would serve the lord
 This
social and political system is known as feudalism
What is the importance of the
Byzantine empire?



Vassals were people who served as a warrior to the
lord; In return, they were given fiefs
Loyalty was very valued in this society
These warriors became known as knights; chivalry
evolved
What is the importance of the
Byzantine empire?

ENGLAND in the HIGH MIDDLE AGES
 The
power of the king enlarged under Henry II (11541189); he started to put clergy members on trial;
extended the power of the royal court; (Thomas a
Becket)
 Nobles
started to resent this; during the reign of King
John II in 1215, they made him sign the Magna Carta;
showed relationship between king and vassal and later
served as the basis for limited government
CRAFTERNOON!

Locate a Government text and turn to Pages 802-3

Read the two documents (10 minutes)


Find 3 similarities and 3 differences between the
Magna Carta and the English Bill of Rights.
Write them and draw a picture that represents 3 of the
similarities of differences.
What is the importance of the
Byzantine empire?

HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE
 Tensions
between the German kings and the pope were
prevalent in the 1100’s; Frederick I considered Italy the
center of a ‘holy empire’ (area of present day
Germany and Italy)
 The
tense relationship weakened the empire; it never
developed into the strong empires of France and
England
What is the importance of the
Byzantine empire?

RUSSIA
 Slavic
people lived in present day Ukraine and Russia;
Swedish Vikings conquered the area; the native people
called the king Rus; hence the name;
 The
Mongols conquered Russia; Alexandar Nevsky was
one of many Russian princes, and he helped defeat the
Germans; this won favor with the Mongols and they
elevated him; he descendants became leaders of
Russia
What is the importance of the
Byzantine empire?

JUSTINIAN
 Became
emperor eastern Europe in 527; his wife
Theodora was very influential in his decisions; creates
the Body of Civil Law that became the basis for the
legal system in Europe

What is the importance of the
Byzantine empire?

BYZANTINE EMPIRE

Justinian died 565; huge debts remained; invasions and
conquests by other nations led to a smaller kingdom that
became known as the Byzantine Empire.

Consists of eastern Balkan and Asia Minor, Greek (instead
of Latin is the official language), Christians became known
as the Eastern Orthodox Church

The quality of life in Constantinople was good and
prosperous
What is the importance of the
Byzantine empire?

SCHISM
 Separation
between the Roman Catholic Church and the
Eastern Orthodox church
 Occurred
because Eastern orthodox refused to accept
the pope as the sole leader of the church
What is the importance of the
Byzantine empire?

The CRUSADES

1071 Seljuk Turks (Muslim) defeat Byzantine forces
(Christian); Christian called them infidels

Military expeditions started to regain the Holy Land

Saladin (leader of the Muslims) negotiated a treaty with
Richard Lionhearted to have access to Jersulam

What is the importance of the
Byzantine empire?
Positives of the Crusades

Established many
Italian cites as port
cites and places of
trade; breakdown of
feudal system which
gave way to strong
nation states
Negatives of Crusades

Many were
persecuted; first
widespread attacks on
the Jews started;
Section 11-1
The People of North America, MesoAmerica, and
South America
What are the accomplishments of
civilizations in the Americas?

Mesoamerica- the
name of Mexico and
Central America that
were civilized before
the Spaniards arrived

tribute- goods or
money paid by
conquered people to
their conquerors
What are the accomplishments of
civilizations in the Americas?
OLMEC 1220 BC-400 BC

Located in Mesoamerica
(Mexico and South
America); they were
farmers; had pyramids
for religious purposes;
had huge stone heads to
represents their gods;
polytheistic
MAYA 300-900 AD and TOLTEC
900-1200 AD

MAYA- very sophisticated.
Had pyramids; polytheistic;
practiced human sacrifice;
rulers claimed to be
descendants of gods, they
had a form of hieroglyphics;
developed calendar; TOLTECthey were warriors and
builders; extended rule into
Guatemala
What are the accomplishments of
civilizations in the Americas?


THE AZTEC
Civilization emerged in Mexico; built pyramids, temples,
and roads; outstanding warriors; although women were
not equal they were allowed to inherit property;
polytheistic. 1519Cortes Aztec believed the Spaniards
were gods and welcomed them; ; they eventually grew
to dislike them and revolted in 1520; although they
expelled the Spanish, they died from the diseases they
brought
What are the accomplishments of
civilizations in the Americas?

The INCA
 Civilization
began in Cuzco, Peru in late 1300’s; were
polytheistic; they were great builders; built roads;
didn’t’ have a system of writing but they did use a
knotted string system called quipu to record info. In
1531, Francisco Pizarro landed on the Pacific coast,
brought small pox; by 1535, set up a new capital in
Lima.
Descargar

Unit I: - Glynn County School District