Lecture 10
Creating and Maintaining
Geographic Databases
Longley et al., Ch. 10, through section
10.4
Outline
Definitions
Characteristics of DBMS
Types of databases
Relational model
SQL
Queries as a gateway to spatial analysis
cell towers
+/- 500 m
Google db of
tower locations
Wi-Fi
+/- 30 m
iPhone GPS
+/- 10 m
iPhone uses
reference network
Graphic courtesy of Wired, Feb. 2009
Skyhook
servers and db
Definitions
Database – an integrated set of data
(attributes) on a particular subject
Geographic (=geospatial) database database containing geographic data of
a particular subject for a particular area
Database Management System (DBMS)
– software to create, maintain and
access databases
A GIS can answer the question:
What is where?
WHAT: Characteristics of
features (= attributes).
WHERE: In geographic space.
A GIS links attribute and spatial data
Attribute Data
• Flat File or DBMS
• Relationships
• Topology Table
Map Data
• Point File
• Line File
• Area File
• Topology Type
Flat File or DBMS
Attribute
Attribute
Attribute
Record
Value
Value
Value
Record
Value
Value
Value
Record
Value
Value
Value
Ancient DBMS
From Clarke, Getting Started with GIS
Types of DBMS Models
Hierarchical
Network
Relational - RDBMS
Object-oriented - OODBMS
Object-relational - ORDBMS
Historically, databases were
structured hierarchically in flat
files...
Relational Databases rule now
Characteristics of DBMS (1)
Support for multiple data types
e.g MS Access: Text, Memo, Number,
Date/Time, Currency, AutoNumber, Yes/No,
OLE Object, Hyperlink, Lookup Wizard
Load data from files, databases and
other applications
Index for rapid retrieval
Characteristics of DBMS (2)
Query language – e.g., SQL
Security – controlled access to data
Multi-level groups
Controlled update using a transaction
manager
Backup and recovery
Characteristics of DBMS (3)
Applications
Forms builder
Reportwriter
Internet Application Server
CASE tools
Programmable API
Role of DBMS
System
Task
Geographic
Information
System
•
•
•
•
•
Data loading
Editing
Visualization
Mapping
Analysis
Database
Management
System
•
•
•
•
Storage
Indexing
Security
Query
Data
Relational DBMS (1)
Data stored as tuples (tup-el),
conceptualized as tables
Table – data about a class of objects
Two-dimensional list (array)
Rows = objects
Columns = object states (properties,
attributes)
Table
Row = object
Vector feature
Column = attribute
Relational DBMS (2)
Most popular type of DBMS
Over 95% of data in DBMS is in RDBMS
Commercial systems
IBM DB2
Informix
Microsoft Access
Microsoft SQL Server
Oracle
Sybase
Relational Join
Fundamental query operation
Occurs because
Data created/maintained by different users, but
integration needed for queries
Table joins use common keys (column values)
Table (attribute) join concept has been
extended to geographic case
Relational Databases
SQL
Structured (Standard) Query Language –
(pronounced SEQUEL)
Developed by IBM in 1970s
Now de facto and de jure standard for
accessing relational databases
Three types of usage
Stand alone queries
High level programming
Embedded in other applications
Types of SQL Statements
Data Definition Language (DDL)
Create, alter and delete data
CREATE TABLE, CREATE INDEX
Data Manipulation Language (DML)
Retrieve and manipulate data
SELECT, UPDATE, DELETE, INSERT
Data Control Languages (DCL)
Control security of data
GRANT, CREATE USER, DROP USER
Spatial Search:
Gateway to Spatial Analysis
Overlay is a spatial retrieval operation
that is equivalent to an attribute join.
Buffering is a spatial retrieval around
points, lines, or areas based on
distance.
Overlay
Image courtesy of K. Foote/M. Lynch, UT-Austin
Overlay
0
1
Overlay like an attribute join
Types of overlay operations
Union
Intersect
Identity
Max
Min
Etc.
Union
computes the geometric intersection of two
polygon coverages. All polygons from both
coverages will be split at their intersections
and preserved in the output coverage.
Union
within 25 miles of
a city OR within
25 miles of a
major river.
Intersect
computes the geometric intersection of two
coverages. Only those features in the area common
to both coverages will be preserved in the output
coverage.
Intersect
within 25 miles of
a city AND within
25 miles of a
major river.
Identity
computes the geometric intersection of two coverages. All
features of the input coverage, as well as those features of the
identity coverage that overlap the input coverage, are preserved
in the output coverage.
Identity
Portion of the major city buffer WITHIN the major river buffer
within 25 miles of a city OR within 25 miles of a major river.
within 25 miles of a city AND within 25 miles of a major river.
Intersect
Identity
Buffer
Complex Retrieval: Map Algebra
Combinations of spatial and attribute queries
can build some complex and powerful GIS
operations, such as weighting.
Weighted overlay analysis really just complex
retrieval.
Map Algebra
Map Algebra
Compared
with
RAINFALL 1990
RAINFALL 1991
MAX RAINFALL 1990-’91
Recode
OR
A-B = AGRICULTURAL
C-E = NON-AGRICULTURAL
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Lecture 10 Creating and Maintaining Geographic …