X Curso de Gestión Internacional de Crisis
GESTIÓN DE CRISIS EN LA
OTAN
INSTITUTO UNIVERSITARIO
GENERAL GUTIÉRREZ MELLADO
Luis Caamaño
X Curso de Gestión Internacional de Crisis
“ la OTAN, que empezó siendo una organización de
defensa, que en 1991 se transformó en una
organización de defensa y seguridad, que tras la
cumbre de Lisboa de 2010 se convirtió en una
organización de seguridad y defensa, de seguir este
camino terminará siendo una organización clásica de
seguridad”
Luis Caamaño
X Curso de Gestión Internacional de Crisis
GUIÓN
 Evolución doctrinal de la OTAN.
 Procedimiento de gestión de crisis.
 Operaciones.
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Article 5
… armed attack against one or
more ....shall be considered an
attack against them all… and
each of them… will
assist the party or
parties… by taking ...,
individually and
in concert with
the other parties,
such action as it
deems necessary,
including the
use of armed force
Luis Caamaño
X Curso de Gestión Internacional de Crisis
Artículo 4
…las partes se consultarán cuando a
juicio de cualquiera de ellas, la
integridad territorial, la independencia
política o la seguridad de cualquiera
de las partes fuese amenazada.
Luis Caamaño
X Curso de Gestión Internacional de Crisis
CONCEPTO ESTRATÉGICO 2010
”…NATO has a unique and robust set of political
and military capabilities to address the full
spectrum of crisis – before, during and after
conflict. NATO will actively employ an
appropiate mix of those political and military
tools….”.
Luis Caamaño
X Curso de Gestión Internacional de Crisis
TIPOS DE CRISIS Y OPERACIONES DE RESPUESTA
 Artículo 5: Defensa colectiva.
 No Artículo 5: Operaciones de gestión de crisis.
 Intervenciones humanitarias o en desastres
naturales o tecnológicos.
Luis Caamaño
X Curso de Gestión Internacional de Crisis
CONTRIBUCIÓN A LA GESTION DE CRISIS
• EAPC
• PfP
• NUC
• NGC
• Mediterranean Dialogue
• Istanbul Cooperation
Initiative
Luis Caamaño
EUROPEAN UNION
Strategic Partnership
Framework for NATO - EU dialogue
Implementation of Berlin Plus
Mutually reinforcing military capabilities
Cooperation in ‘joint’ theatres
Cooperation in fight against terrorism
Luis Caamaño
X Curso de Gestión Internacional de Crisis
NATO- RUSSIA COUNCIL
• NRC
RUS
“We spend too much energy on what divides us.
We should instead focus on what unites us. ”
Luis Caamaño
IX Curso de Gestión Internacional de Crisis
MEDITERRANEAN DIALOGUE
ALGERIA
ISRAEL
EGYPT
JORDAN
MOROCCO
TUNISIA
MAURITANIA
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ISTANBUL COOPERATION INITIATIVE
BAHRAIN
QATAR
KUWAIT
UNITED ARAB
EMIRATES
Luis Caamaño
INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS
Luis Caamaño
NATO HEADQUARTERS
X Curso de Gestión Internacional de Crisis
DEFINICIÓN
”…es el conjunto de medidas militares y
no militares que son necesarias
adoptar para responder a una
situación de crisis que amenace la
seguridad nacional o internacional”.
Luis Caamaño
North Atlantic Council
 Decisions by
 NAC highest authority
consensus Only
NORTH ATLANTIC
COUNCIL
CMC
 Perm Reps represent all
elements of government
SG
SoC
 Political control of the
military at all times
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KEY CM COMMITTEES
 Policy Coordination Group (PCG): handles pol/mil
guidance & crisis management measures; acts as ‘lead
committee’ in advising NAC…
 Military Committee (MC): advises the Council on the
conduct of military affairs,
 but it is NOT part of the NATO C2 structure
 Political Committee (PC): handles political developments
& options, public affairs
 Senior Civil Emergency Planning Committee (SCEPC):
handles civil preparedness and support to the military
Luis Caamaño
X Curso de Gestión Internacional de Crisis
CRISIS MANAGEMENT TASK FORCE
 Multi-disciplinary, internationally staffed coordination task
force(s) established early in the crisis by the SG
 Provides advice to Secretary General, and coordinates
recommendations to NAC throughout the lifecycle of a
crisis
 Representation from: IS operations, political, defence
planning & public diplomacy staffs, IMS (ops/intel) &
SCs, plus expertise (legal) as required
 Exercise CMTFs established for high-level exercises
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X Curso de Gestión Internacional de Crisis
CM OBJECTIVES
• Contribute to effective
conflict prevention
• Manage crises effectively
to prevent them becoming
conflicts
• Ensure timely civil and
military preparedness
• If hostilities, control,
prevent escalation and
persuade aggressor to
cease attack & withdraw
• When escalation and
hostilities stopped, deescalate
Luis Caamaño
X Curso de Gestión Internacional de Crisis
NATO CRISIS MANAGEMENT PROCESS
PHASE
1
Indications
&
Warning
PHASE
2
PHASE
3
Assessment
Response
Options
Development
POLITICAL-MILITARY
ESTIMATE PROCESS
PHASE
PHASE
PHASE
4
5
4
PHASE
6
5
Planning
Execution
Planning
Return
And
To
Execution
Stability
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Crisis Management at NATO
Through consultation
Assess the situation
Consider options
Take decision
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NATO Crisis Response System (NCRS)
 Integrated
 Preventive Options and
 Crisis Response Measures
 Pol/Mil + CEP
 NATO Intelligence & Warning System
 NATO’s Operational Planning System
 CEP Crisis Management Arrangements
 Comprehensive
 Art 5 & non-Art 5 operations
 Defence against terrorism & Counter proliferation
 Flexible
 Adaptable to varied crises situations
 Calibrated responses
 Preventive/Precautionary
 Preventive Options to prevent crisis escalation & conflict
 Crisis Response Measures to enhance Alliance preparedness
Luis Caamaño
IX Curso de Gestión Internacional de Crisis
NATO CRISIS RESPONSE SYSTEM (NCRS)
What Is It - really?
• NATO works by consensus, respecting national sovereignty
– But, decision-making is complicated and can be time
consuming
• NCRS aims to aid decision-making
– But, its use must take account of political, as well as
military and civil perspectives
• NCRS provides a means to get nations to take appropriate
preparatory action, even before a decision on any major
action has been made
– It’s all about saving time in decision-making.
Luis Caamaño
NATO CRISIS RESPONSE PLANNING
HQ NATO
NATO Crisis Response Planning
Phase 1
Indicators and Warnings
SHAPE
Information Request for
Advice
Sharing
1 - Situation Awareness/
Knowledge development
Information
JFC
Sharing
1 – Situation
Awareness/Knowledge
Development
Phase 2
Assessment of
the Crisis
SACEUR’s
Strategic
Assessment
Phase 3
Development
of Response
Options
NAC
Decision
Sheet
Request for
Options
2 Strategic
Assessment
Warning
Order
SACEUR’s
Response NAC ID
Options
3 Response
Options
Operational
Advice
2 – Operational
Appreciation
and assessment
of Options
Phase 5
Execution
Phase 4 Planning
SACEUR’s
CONOPS
4 - Strategic CONOPS
Development
Strategic
Planning
Directive
3 – Operational
Orientation
Operational
Concept
4 – Operational
Concept
Development
Force Activation
Directive
SACEUR’s
OPlan
Execution
Directive
5 - Strategic OPlan
Development
(Force Generation)
SACEUR’s
OPlan
NAC Request
for Principal Military
Requirements
Phase 6
Return to Stability
SACEUR’s
Mission
Progress
Report
6 - Execution
Campaign Assessment/
OPlan Review
Joint
OPlan
5 – Operational
OPlan Development
ACTORD
Disengagement
Planning
7 - Transition
Assessment
6- Operational Direction
Campaign Assessment
OPlan Review
NAC ID
Disengagement
Planning
7 Transition
Luis Caamaño
NATO HQ
CENTRAL AGENCY
Crisis Management
Information
NATO COMMUNICATIONS
Operates
Provides
CM
FACILITIES
Acts As
Monitors
NATO
Situation
Centre
Maintains
CRISIS
INFORMATION
Ensures
INT & INFO
flow
Provides
GIS
CAPITALS
STRATEGIC
COMMANDERS
POLITICAL
MILITARY
ECONOMIC
MATTERS
Supports
briefings
SUPPORT
PRESENTATIONS
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ADAPTACIÓN AL NUEVO ENTONO ESTRATEGICO Y
ECONOMICO
• Cumbre de Chicago 2012:
• Smart defense
• Connected forces
• Cumbre de Gales 2014
• Readiness Action Plan
• Refuerzo de NRF
Luis Caamaño
X Curso de Gestión Internacional de Crisis
OPERACIONES OTAN DE GESTIÓN DE CRISIS
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
A disposición OSCE y NNUU 1992
SFOR / IFOR 1995
Kosovo 1999
Active endeavour 2001
Macedonia 2002
Darfur/ Iraq
ISAF
Luis Caamaño
X Curso de Gestión Internacional de Crisis
CARACTERÍSTICAS DE LAS OPERACIONES OTAN
 MISIONES ROBUSTAS
 CONJUNCIÓN TRANSATLÁNTICA
 PARTICIPACIÓN DE TERCEROS PAISES
Luis Caamaño
X Curso de Gestión Internacional de Crisis
OPERACIONES EN MARCHA ACTUALMENTE
Afganistán
Kosovo
Controlando el Mar Mediterráneo
Contrapiratería en el Cuerno de África
Apoyo a la Unión Africana
Luis Caamaño
X Curso de Gestión Internacional de Crisis
OPERACIONES YA FINALIZADAS
La OTAN en Bosnia Herzegovina
La OTAN en Macedonia
Operaciones contraterroristas
La segunda guerra del Golfo
Protección de grandes acontecimientos públicos
La OTAN en Iraq
El huracán Katrina
Asistencia humanitaria en el terremoto en Pakistán
Asistencia a la Unión Africana en Darfur, Sudan
Contrapiratería en el Golfo de Adén y el Cuerno de África
La OTAN en Libia
Luis Caamaño
X Curso de Gestión Internacional de Crisis
OPERACIONES DESDE 1949 HASTA LOS
PRIMEROS AÑOS 90
Guerra Fría
Después de la Guerra Fría
Operación Anchor Guard (Agosto 1990 –
Marzo 1991
Operación Ace Guard (Enero 1991 –
Marzo 1991
Operación Allied Goodwill I & II (Febrero
1992 – Marzo 1992
Operación Agile Genie (Mayo 1992
Luis Caamaño
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NATO CRISIS MANAGEMENT