ECED 2060
IDEA: mental retardation
Significantly
subaverage general
intellectual
functioning,
existing concurrently
with deficits in
adaptive behavior
and manifested
during the
developmental
period, that
adversely affects a
child’s educational
performance.
 Reasoning
 Planning
 Problem solving
 Thinking abstractly
 Comprehension
 Learning
 Memory
 Generalization
 Motivation
 Academic achievement
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-- a collection of conceptual,
social, and practical skills
that have been learned by
people in order to function
in their everyday lives, such
as reading, writing,
language, money concepts,
self-direction, interpersonal
skills, responsibility, selfesteem, gullibility, rules,
laws, victimization, eating,
mobility, toileting, dressing,
preparing meals, housekeeping, transportation,
medications, telephone use,
etc.
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1. Significant subaverage intellectual
functioning, as measured by standardized
testing. Classified by degree of severity: mild (50
– 55 to approximately 70; moderate (35 – 40 to
50 – 55; severe 20 – 25 to 35 to 40; profound
below 20 – 25.
2. Concurrent deficits in adaptive behavior
(personal independence; social responsibility)
3. Age of onset during the developmental period
(before 18th birthday)
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Individuals with mental retardation represent 1%
to 3% of the general population.
Mental retardation is 1.5 times more common in
boys than in girls.
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There are more than 250 biologic causes of
mental retardation, which fall neatly into these
categories:
 Genetic; chromosomal; metabolic
 Perinatal or prenatal
incident
 Acquired childhood
disorders; infections;
illnesses; malnutrition
 Environmental toxins
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However, only ~25% of
cases fall into those
biologic categories.
The other ~75% have
unknown causes
(~30%) or are traceable
to a non-biologic cause
(psychosocial and
sociocultural factors).
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30% -- cause UNKNOWN
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Chromosomal abnormalities
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Down Syndrome -- 5 to 6%
William Syndrome
Fragile X Syndrome
Angelman syndrome
Prader-Willi syndrome
Rett Syndrome
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Metabolism and nutritional factors
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Phenylketonuria
Galactosemia
Tay Sachs disease
Hunter syndrome
Hurler syndrome
Sanfillipo syndrome
Metachromatic leukodystrophy
Adrenoleukodystrophy
Lesch-Nyhan's syndrome
Reye's syndrome
Congenital hypothyroidism
high bilirubin levels in infants
hypoglycemia
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Infection and intoxication
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Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Maternal infections
congenital rubella
HIV
Toxoplasmosis
drug usage
Prematurity
Low Birth Weight
Rh incompatibility
Encephalitis
Radiation
Meningitis
Congenital cytomegalovirus
Listeriosis
Methylmercury poisoning
Lead poisoning
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Postnatal brain disease
 Neurofibromatosis
 Tuberous Sclerosis
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Traumas and physical accidents
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Asphyxiation
Anoxia
Seizures
Intracranial hemorrhage
head injury
poisoning
Unknown prenatal influences
 Anencephaly
 hydrocephalus
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Environmental
 Malnutrition
 Neglect
 abuse
A few possible
characteristics:
~Failure to meet
age-appropriate
expectations
(norms)
~Delayed
development or
lack of visual or
auditory response
~Delayed
development or
lack of language
development
~Motor delays
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Delayed gross and fine
motor coordination
However, often
ambulatory and capable of
independent mobility,
unless severe or profound
mental retardation
Delayed perceptual motor
skills exist (e.g., body
awareness, sense of touch,
eye-hand coordination)
Awkward or uncontrolled
movement
Delays or deviations in speech and language skills (mild
to moderate)
 (Severe) significant speech and language delays and
deviations (such as lack of expressive and receptive
language, articulation errors, and little, if any,
spontaneous interaction)
 (Profound) no spontaneous communication patterns, or
echolalic speech, speech out of context, and purposeless
speech
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“Special Olympics”
“Kids With Down
Syndrome Intro
Sequence”
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“I Have a Voice”
 (See packet)
 (see packet)
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Get into groups of THREE people.
Get a packet of straws and some tape.
One of you cannot use your preferred
hand.
Another cannot use your thumbs.
The other cannot talk.
Make a tower of straws as high as you
can.
It cannot be attached to anything – it
must be free-standing.
The group with the tallest tower
WINS!!
This is just for frustration and to get a
feeling of that frustration …
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Mental Retardation Traumatic Brain Injury