Agenda
 Class
Description
 Advice to students
 What is communication?
 History of our field
Class Description
 Assignments
 Getting
the grade
 Learning by Doing
 No big assignments
Instructor’s Advice to Students





Make your work a matter of
pride
Take ownership of your field
Become involved in your field’s
professional organizations
Be willing to keep an open
mind and willing to change it
when data demand it
Improve your writing
Advice from Students
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Keep up with the readings
Get help early
Let Reinard help you
Take uppers
Give Reinard downers
Agenda
 Class
Description
 Advice to students
 What is communication?
 History of our field
What is Communication
 Not
the idea you wanted to get
across
 The process by which people
exchange and assign meaning to
messages
Why are we a
distinct field?
 The
New Orleans Conference of
1968
 “research in speech-communication
focuses on the ways in which
messages link participants during
interactions”
Agenda
 Class
Description
 Advice to students
 What is communication?
 History of our field
Your Intellectual Birthdays
3000
BCE
Auctor ad Kagemni
2675 BCE
Ptah Hotep Precepts
500 BCE
Corax Rhetoric Techne
Early Teachers Called
Sophists
 Travelled
Around
 Charged Tuition
Early Sophists
Corax
(470 BCE)
Rhetorike Techne
The argument from probability
Protagoras: The father of
debate
and others . . . .
Plato’s attacks on
Communication






Not an art
No subject matter of its
own
No concern for the truth
Not confer power
Not prevent suffering to
innocent
If it could prevent
suffering of innocent, it
could be used to help the
guilty avoid justice
Plato in Favor of Rhetoric?







must know the truth
must know order and
arrangement
must define terms
must know the soul
must know style
writing respected as
means of instruction
must have high
moral purpose
Aristotle
Faculty of discovering
in the particular case
what are the
available means of
persuasion
a branch of ethics
the counterpart of
dialectic
Canons of Rhetoric
 Invention
ethos
pathos
logos
 Arrangement
 Style
 Delivery
 Memory
The Roman Tradition
World’s
first newspaper,
Acta Diurna
Cicero
Quintilian
Cicero’s Teachings in
Communication
 Cicero’s
exciting life (106-43 BCE)
 Communicators must develop vast
knowledge
 Types of style
Plain
Middle
Grand
 Artful Diffidence
Quintilian
 First
public school teacher: the
Institute of Oratory (70-73)
 Vir bonus
 concern for stock issues and
organization very great
 end of the classical period
Rise of Christianity

Many different Christian sects:
Marcions
Docetists
Thedotians
Patripassions
Martynus
Gnostics
Valentinians
Manichaeians
Constantine and the Rise of the
Dark Ages
 313
Constantine and
Licinius issue the Edict of
Milan
 The Church outlaws and
“pagan” writings
 The “Dark Ages” begin
Rise of Christianity in Europe and
Augustine’s “Christianization” of
Communication
Content and Invention: Gospels
 Style: Letters of Apostles

Speech and Hearing Science Starts
as Charity in Middle Ages
Slide 1.10
The Church Starts Universities



The Church adopts the philosophy of
scholasticism
Students study matters of church doctrine on all
subjects
In 1210 and 1215 the Church confronts teachings
of Aristotle, Cicero and the classics
Communication as a Core
Subject among the Liberal Arts


Trivium:
Logic
Grammar
Rhetoric
Quadrivium:
Arithmetic
Geometry
Astronomy
Music
Communication as a Core
Study in the Early
Universities

Tradition of Tassel Color
Silver
The Development of Cheap Paper
and the Renaissance
A
Use for the printing press
 Publications in local languages
 Replacement of disputation with
the term paper
Bacon and the Rise of Faculty
Psychology in Communication
reason ---imagination
will --
Ramus and the Emasculation of
Communication Studies
 Peter
Ramus
(1550 + )
 Invention and
Arrangement go
to Logic
 Style and
Delivery go to
Communication
Elocutionists and Speech
and Hearing Science
 Elocutionists:
Richard Sherry
(1550)
John Bulwer’s Chirologia . . . and
Chironomia (1644)
 Speech and Hearing Science
Thomas Braidwood founds
institute (1760)
de l’Epee founds sign language
school
Colonial Influences
 Campbell
(1776): Philosophy of Rhetoric
– purposes: enlighten understanding, please imagination,
move passions, influence will
– perspicuity
 Blair
(1783): Lectures on Rhetoric and
Belles Lettres
 Whately (1828): Elements of Rhetoric
argumentation, presumptions
Speech and Hearing Science
Gets Linked to Medicine
Dr. James Rush publishes
The Philosophy of the Human
Voice (1827)
Academic Debate Pushes
Emergence of thge Field
 Harvard’s
”Spy Club” founded
before the American Revolution
 First intercollegiate debate:
November 29, 1872 between
Northwestern University and
Chicago University
 First debate tournament in Winfield,
Kansas, on March 14-16, 1923
Rise of Communication
Departments
 First
Master’s thesis completed
by H. S. Buffum at the
University of Iowa (1902)
 First Ph.d. awared to Sara
Stinchfield-Hawke at
University of Wisconsin (1922)
Speech and Hearing Science
 Clinics
 Hospitals
 Public
schools
 Government agencies
 Private foundations
 Private practice
General Communication
 Education
 Law
 Ministry
 Business
 Training
and
development
 Sales
 Community relations
 Management
See you next
Thursday!
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