Agenda Class Description Advice to students What is communication? History of our field Class Description Assignments Getting the grade Learning by Doing No big assignments Instructor’s Advice to Students Make your work a matter of pride Take ownership of your field Become involved in your field’s professional organizations Be willing to keep an open mind and willing to change it when data demand it Improve your writing Advice from Students 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Keep up with the readings Get help early Let Reinard help you Take uppers Give Reinard downers Agenda Class Description Advice to students What is communication? History of our field What is Communication Not the idea you wanted to get across The process by which people exchange and assign meaning to messages Why are we a distinct field? The New Orleans Conference of 1968 “research in speech-communication focuses on the ways in which messages link participants during interactions” Agenda Class Description Advice to students What is communication? History of our field Your Intellectual Birthdays 3000 BCE Auctor ad Kagemni 2675 BCE Ptah Hotep Precepts 500 BCE Corax Rhetoric Techne Early Teachers Called Sophists Travelled Around Charged Tuition Early Sophists Corax (470 BCE) Rhetorike Techne The argument from probability Protagoras: The father of debate and others . . . . Plato’s attacks on Communication Not an art No subject matter of its own No concern for the truth Not confer power Not prevent suffering to innocent If it could prevent suffering of innocent, it could be used to help the guilty avoid justice Plato in Favor of Rhetoric? must know the truth must know order and arrangement must define terms must know the soul must know style writing respected as means of instruction must have high moral purpose Aristotle Faculty of discovering in the particular case what are the available means of persuasion a branch of ethics the counterpart of dialectic Canons of Rhetoric Invention ethos pathos logos Arrangement Style Delivery Memory The Roman Tradition World’s first newspaper, Acta Diurna Cicero Quintilian Cicero’s Teachings in Communication Cicero’s exciting life (106-43 BCE) Communicators must develop vast knowledge Types of style Plain Middle Grand Artful Diffidence Quintilian First public school teacher: the Institute of Oratory (70-73) Vir bonus concern for stock issues and organization very great end of the classical period Rise of Christianity Many different Christian sects: Marcions Docetists Thedotians Patripassions Martynus Gnostics Valentinians Manichaeians Constantine and the Rise of the Dark Ages 313 Constantine and Licinius issue the Edict of Milan The Church outlaws and “pagan” writings The “Dark Ages” begin Rise of Christianity in Europe and Augustine’s “Christianization” of Communication Content and Invention: Gospels Style: Letters of Apostles Speech and Hearing Science Starts as Charity in Middle Ages Slide 1.10 The Church Starts Universities The Church adopts the philosophy of scholasticism Students study matters of church doctrine on all subjects In 1210 and 1215 the Church confronts teachings of Aristotle, Cicero and the classics Communication as a Core Subject among the Liberal Arts Trivium: Logic Grammar Rhetoric Quadrivium: Arithmetic Geometry Astronomy Music Communication as a Core Study in the Early Universities Tradition of Tassel Color Silver The Development of Cheap Paper and the Renaissance A Use for the printing press Publications in local languages Replacement of disputation with the term paper Bacon and the Rise of Faculty Psychology in Communication reason ---imagination will -- Ramus and the Emasculation of Communication Studies Peter Ramus (1550 + ) Invention and Arrangement go to Logic Style and Delivery go to Communication Elocutionists and Speech and Hearing Science Elocutionists: Richard Sherry (1550) John Bulwer’s Chirologia . . . and Chironomia (1644) Speech and Hearing Science Thomas Braidwood founds institute (1760) de l’Epee founds sign language school Colonial Influences Campbell (1776): Philosophy of Rhetoric – purposes: enlighten understanding, please imagination, move passions, influence will – perspicuity Blair (1783): Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres Whately (1828): Elements of Rhetoric argumentation, presumptions Speech and Hearing Science Gets Linked to Medicine Dr. James Rush publishes The Philosophy of the Human Voice (1827) Academic Debate Pushes Emergence of thge Field Harvard’s ”Spy Club” founded before the American Revolution First intercollegiate debate: November 29, 1872 between Northwestern University and Chicago University First debate tournament in Winfield, Kansas, on March 14-16, 1923 Rise of Communication Departments First Master’s thesis completed by H. S. Buffum at the University of Iowa (1902) First Ph.d. awared to Sara Stinchfield-Hawke at University of Wisconsin (1922) Speech and Hearing Science Clinics Hospitals Public schools Government agencies Private foundations Private practice General Communication Education Law Ministry Business Training and development Sales Community relations Management See you next Thursday!