The registry-registrar-registrant
relationships in the ccTLDs
Giovanni Seppia
CENTR General Manager
[email protected]
ccTLD workshop
Nairobi, 14 September 2005
Introducing CENTR
What is CENTR?


Council of European National Top Level Domain
Registries
Forum for TLD managers
–
Primarily ccTLDs

–
Mainly European



Also includes gTLDs
Membership from 5 continents
Developed and emerging TLD markets, like .AF, .IR
Open to all Top Level Domain Registries in the world
ccTLD workshop
Nairobi, 14 September 2005
CENTR’s Membership

3 Members categories
–
–
–

Full Members
Associate Members
Observers
Members vote on admission of new members
ccTLD workshop
Nairobi, 14 September 2005
CENTR’s Membership

























AFGNIC Afghanistan (.af)
STA Andorra (.ad)
ISOC.AM Armenia (.am)
NIC.AC Ascension Is. (.ac), Diego Garcia (.io), St
Helena (.sh)
NIC.AT Austria (.at)
DNS Belgium Belgium (.be)
Digital Systems Bulgaria (.bg)
CIRA Canada (.ca)
CARNet Croatia (.hr)
UCY-DNS Cyprus (.cy)
CZ.NIC Czech Republic (.cz)
DENIC Germany (.de)
Dansk Internet Forum (.dk)
FICORA Finland (.fi)
AFNIC France (.fr), Mayotte (.yt), Reunion (.re), St.
Pierre & Miquelon (.pm), Wallis & Futuna Is. (.wf )
GibNet Gibraltar (.gi)
GR-Hostmaster Greece (.gr)
Island Networks Guernsey (.gg), Jersey (.je)
CHIP Hungary (.hu)
IEDR Ireland (.ie)
IPM Iran (.ir)
ISNIC Iceland (.is)
ISOC-IL Israel (.il)
IT-NIC Italy (.it)
JPRS Japan (.jp)
•LITNET NOC Lithuania (.lt)
•RESTENA DNS-LU Luxembourg (.lu)
•NIC Malta Malta (.mt)
•NIC-Mexico Mexico (.mx)
•MoldData Moldova (.md)
•SIDN Netherlands (.nl)
•ISOCNZ New Zealand (.nz)
•NORID Norway (.no), Bouvet Is. (.bv), Svalbard & Jan Mayen
Is. (.sj)
•Palestinian Registry Palestine (.ps)
•NASK Poland (.pl)
•FCCN Portugal (.pt)
•RNC Romania (.ro)
•Ros-NIIROS Russia (.ru)
•RED.ES Spain (.es)
•ARNES Slovenia (.si)
•IIS Sweden (.se)
•SWITCH Switzerland (.ch), Lichtenstein (.li)
•SITA (.aero)
•Vatican – Holy See (.va)
•Nominet UK United Kingdom (.uk)
•NeuStar United States of America (.us)
•VeriSign (.com, .net)
•Afilias (.info)
•Public Interest Registry (.org)
ccTLD workshop
Nairobi, 14 September 2005
CENTR’s structure

Executive Committee
–
–
–

5 members, inclusive of Chairman and Treasurer
2 year appointments
It steers the organisation in accordance with CENTR members’
wishes
Secretariat
–
–
–
–
General Manager
Communication Officer
Technical Officer
Administrative Officer
ccTLD workshop
Nairobi, 14 September 2005
CENTR’s output

Newsletter, “Domain Wire”, 2 issues a year

Surveys
–
–
–
A-level survey, covering the registries management main aspects
B-survey, covering legal issues related to registries
Other surveys upon request of our members

Comments and positions on several topics that may have an
impact on our members

Outreach programme, providing registries of developing
countries with financial and technical support
ccTLD workshop
Nairobi, 14 September 2005
CENTR’s in the international arena





The European Commission participates in
CENTR as an observer
Regular contacts with ICANN-IANA staff
Associate member of the European Internet
Foundation
Participation within the WGIG-WSIS process
Regular attendance of all the international
Internet fora and meetings
ccTLD workshop
Nairobi, 14 September 2005
Benefits of diverse participation


CENTR values participation from many different registries
– Western and Eastern Europe, Americas, Asia, Oceania
– Different regulatory regimes, Internet community expectations,
use of domain names etc.
– Different challenges in ensuring stable DNS/Internet
Provides added value
– Brings different perspectives to discussion
– Helps to define guidelines and best practices that benefit
everyone
– Comes to agreed opinions on certain aspects of the international
arena
ccTLD workshop
Nairobi, 14 September 2005
CENTR’s long term vision

Expanding the dialogue among registries,
governments and international bodies

Developing best practice by encouraging exchange
amongst registries

Improving the reliability and stability of Internet
through improved DNS practices

Working closely with other Internet organisations
ccTLD workshop
Nairobi, 14 September 2005
Some basic concepts
Registry
“The wholesaler”



Database of
– who owns what name
– pointing names to the
servers responsible for
them
Responsible for policy and
procedures
– who is entitled to
names, etc.
A registry is like the “bank
vault” of the domain names
registered under that top
level domain
ccTLD workshop
Nairobi, 14 September 2005
Registrar and registrant

Registrar (the retailer)
–
Agent of customers in dealing
with registry

–

Like a retailer which then
contacts a wholesale supplier
Usually an ISP that is providing
others services to customer
Registrant (the customer)
–
The entity, organisation or
individual that uses the domain
name
ccTLD workshop
Nairobi, 14 September 2005
Registries: policies and figures
Registry status*


Registry set up depends on various reasons, even though
almost every registry was historically part of an academic
network – today TLDs are highly competitive and there is a
very dynamic market.
The legal status can be classified as:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Private company
Part of academic network
Foundation
Association
Government agency
Telecom operator
Miscellaneous
*CENTR surveys data
ccTLD workshop
Nairobi, 14 September 2005
Categorising the policies of the ccTLDs*

Two central aspects shapes
the domain name policy:
– Requirements for the
applicant
 Provide
documentation that
he has a right to the
name
 Have a local
presence in the area
of the ccTLD
 Be an organization
– Number of domain names
allowed per applicant
 Limited/Unlimited
*courtesy of UNINETT Norid
ccTLD workshop
Nairobi, 14 September 2005
A mapping of the policies of some ccTLDs*
*courtesy of UNINETT Norid
ccTLD workshop
Nairobi, 14 September 2005
A summary of the mapping*
• Few of the respondents are currently in the strictly regulated
category. This reflects the general move towards more
liberalized domain name policies that has taken place
• Most respondents prefer a domain name policy with no limits
on the number of names an applicant may hold
• While the majority of the respondents allows an unlimited
number of domains per applicant, the degree of requirements
for the applicant varies.
• Some requires the applicant to document rights to the
domain name (bureaucracy category)
• Majority in the unregulated category – does not require any
documentation of rights. Some require either a local
presence, or that the applicant is an organization (or both),
hence the spreading within the category.
*courtesy of UNINETT Norid
ccTLD workshop
Nairobi, 14 September 2005
Number of employees within the registries*
Most Registries have
just technical staff as a
Registry is a technical
function/service.
Up to 10
11 to 50
Over 50
Essential to adjust to a
dynamic market quickly
and to satisfy customer
needs efficiently.
*CENTR surveys data
ccTLD workshop
Nairobi, 14 September 2005
Registry-registrar relationship
Registry-registrar relationship:
the accreditation
Usually, the relationship between a registry and a registrar is
based on a contract.
Some registries require those company that like to become a
registrar to follow an accreditation procedure.
Criteria to be accredited:
– Technical stability
– Corporate status
– Financial stability
– Organisational stability
– Other
Less than 25% of registries reviews these criteria regularly
ccTLD workshop
Nairobi, 14 September 2005
Number of registrars*
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
Under 300
301-1000
Over 1000
*CENTR surveys data
ccTLD workshop
Nairobi, 14 September 2005
Registry-registrar relationship:
some contractual aspects
When the relationship between the registry and the
registrars is based on a contract, the registry should take
into account some aspects:
– Contract transfer and related domain names transfer
– Rescue procedures for those registrants (and domain
names) whose registrars “disappeared” or went
bankrupted
– Penalties in case the registrar is not up-to-date with
the payments to the registry
ccTLD workshop
Nairobi, 14 September 2005
Registry-registrar relationship:
the code of conduct
Code of conduct:



In order to ensure that the domain name holder can
count on reliable information and a quality service, some
registries have proposed a code of conduct to registrars
Eg. DNS.BE
Most code of conducts are based on voluntary principles,
but help the users to trust the all process
ccTLD workshop
Nairobi, 14 September 2005
Registry-registrar relationship:
the code of conduct




The new “eu” domain registrar are invited to participate in building a
code of practice.
Those registrars who sign up to the code will be able to display the
code of conduct logo and the list of accredited registrars published
on EURid's web site will indicate which registrars have the code of
conduct label.
EURid will facilitate elections from amongst the participating
registrars to select a panel to assess complaints against
participating registrars for alleged breaches in the code of conduct.
The panel will be empowered to remove the code of conduct
label from a registrar for a fixed period or a permanent basis if
they are found to be operating in contradiction with the code.
ccTLD workshop
Nairobi, 14 September 2005
Registry-registrar relationship:
training activities
Training activities:



Most of the registries offer their registrars training activities on:
– Technical aspects
– Administrative issues
– Legal matters
Usually these activities are free of charges
Moreover, certain regional organisations, like CENTR, provide
training activities and workshops for registries on many topics such
as IDNs, registry-registrars relationship,…
ccTLD workshop
Nairobi, 14 September 2005
Registry-registrar relationship:
communication methods
Communication tools:





E-mail lists
Regular meetings
Help-desks
Newsletter
Dedicated web interfaces
ccTLD workshop
Nairobi, 14 September 2005
Registry-registrar relationship:
the help-desk
Help-desk significant aspects:






Working hours
Languages
Time for processing requests
Appropriate archiving procedures
Customer satisfaction follow-up
Different expertise of the operators
ccTLD workshop
Nairobi, 14 September 2005
Registry-registrar relationship:
the web interfaces
Web interfaces:

Wide accessibility highly desirable
– EU communication on web accessibility standards

Usually, divided in two sections:
– Public information
– Restricted information for registrars or ISP
ccTLD workshop
Nairobi, 14 September 2005
Registry-registrar relationship:
shared secondary servers




Most large registries informally offer free secondarying
services for smaller registries
Similar, some "well known hosts", RIPE etc, offer free
secondaries also
Some - usually equally sized registries - do secondary
swapping arrangements, where each will host each
others servers. This principle relies on registries having
similar requirements and having similar facilities to share
CENTR examines opportunities to locate secondaries
via different agreements (at IXs, via Anycast networks)
and presents these opportunities to its members
ccTLD workshop
Nairobi, 14 September 2005
Registry-registrar relationship:
information sharing

Taking advantage of other registries experiences (the
grass is greener…) via:
– Discussion lists
– Regional organisations
– International meetings
– Best practices doc
ccTLD workshop
Nairobi, 14 September 2005
Registry-registrar relationship:
key complaints*

Price

Would like to have more influence on policy/contractual
terms

Bureaucracy (in case of paper based models)

Liberalisation of policies
*CENTR surveys data
ccTLD workshop
Nairobi, 14 September 2005
Registry-registrar-registrant relationship
Registry-registrar-registrant relationship:
some aspects
Some issues in this relationship should be considered
from the beginning and carefully planned:
– Privacy aspects (WHOIS)
– Services among parties
– Interaction with the Local Internet Community
– Prices of domain names and of the operations on
them
– Level of bureaucracy
ccTLD workshop
Nairobi, 14 September 2005
Registry-registrar-registrant relationship:
the main problems in dealing directly with customers*

Lack of knowledge (more support needed)

Make mistakes, then blame the registry

Inaccurate information in the application forms

Delayed payments

Web browsers not compatible with registry system
*CENTR surveys data
ccTLD workshop
Nairobi, 14 September 2005
Questions?
Thanks for your attention
Giovanni Seppia
[email protected]
www.centr.org
ccTLD workshop
Nairobi, 14 September 2005
Descargar

Presentazione di PowerPoint